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Social anhedonia is well established as a transdiagnostic factor, but little is known about its development. This study examined whether temperament and parenting in early childhood predict social anhedonia in early adolescence. We also explored whether the relationships between early predictors and social anhedonia are moderated by a child's sex. A community sample of children participated in laboratory observations of temperament and parenting practices at age 3 (n = 275). The participants returned at age 12 and completed the Anticipatory and Consummatory Interpersonal Pleasure Scale–Child Version (ACIPS-C). Our results indicated that, at age 3, lower observed sociability predicted higher levels of social anhedonia at age 12. These associations were moderated by child sex, such that males with diminished sociability reported greater social anhedonia. These findings indicate that predictors of early adolescent social anhedonia are evident as early as 3 years of age. However, these effects were evident only for males, suggesting that the pathways to social anhedonia in early adolescence differ as a function of sex.
In the past decade, the links between core types of childhood maltreatment and suicidal acts have become an increasingly important area of investigation. However, no meta-analytic review has examined this relationship in prisoners. We undertook the first systematic meta-analytic review examining the link between childhood maltreatment and suicide attempts in prisoners to redress this important gap. We searched Medline, PsychINFO, Embase, Web of Science and CINAHL from inception until August 2019. Meta-analyses using random effect models were applied, and heterogeneity was quantified using the I2 statistic. Publication bias and risk of bias across studies were assessed. We identified 24 studies comprising 16 586 prisoners. The rates of different types of childhood maltreatment ranged between 29% and 68% [95% confidence interval (CI) 18–81%]. The rate of suicide attempts in prisoners was 23% (95% CI 18–27%). Main results demonstrated that sexual abuse [odds ratio (OR) 2.68, 95% CI 1.86–3.86], physical abuse (OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.60–2.91), emotional abuse (OR 2.70, 95% CI 1.92–3.79), emotional neglect (OR 2.29, 95% CI 1.69–3.10), physical neglect (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.27–1.94) and combined abuse (OR 3.09, 95% CI 2.14–4.45) were strongly associated with suicide attempts in prisoners. There was an indication of publication bias. Duval and Tweedie's trim-and-fill method was applied, which increased the odds for suicide attempts. Given the high rates of prison suicide deaths and suicide attempts, our findings suggest an urgent need for targeted suicide prevention priorities for prisoners, with a particular focus on ameliorating the effects of childhood traumatic experiences on suicidal prisoners.
Steps required for proper acquisition and processing of laser Doppler velocimetry data for turbomachinery research applications are addressed. Turbomachinery applications are difficult due to the small internal passages, high-frequency fluctuations, large turbulence intensities, and strong secondary flows resulting in low overall signal-to-noise ratios and narrowband noise sources that cannot be removed by simple band-pass filters. Special aspects that must be considered for successful and accurate laser Doppler velocimetry studies to be conducted in turbomachinery are discussed. Specifically, the design of the measurement volume size, reflection mitigation, engineering of seed particle size and injection schema, and alignment of the traverse mechanism are addressed in terms of their importance (from literature sources) and the solutions implemented by the authors. These techniques have been applied to successfully obtain three-component, unsteady velocity data in a high-speed centrifugal compressor for aeroengine application. Processing techniques are also presented including a novel mixture-model-based statistical method for narrowband noise isolation developed by the authors. The method, validation steps, and example results are presented, showing the successful rejection of noise with high accuracy, a low failure rate, and a significant reduction in required manual inspection. This newly developed method elucidated flow features that were not clear prior to the noise removal.
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a chronic disease that disproportionately affects Indigenous Australians. We have previously reported the localization of a novel T2D locus by linkage analysis to chromosome 2q24 in a large admixed Indigenous Australian pedigree (Busfield et al. (2002). American Journal of Human Genetics, 70, 349–357). Here we describe fine mapping of this region in this pedigree, with the identification of SNPs showing strong association with T2D: rs3845724 (diabetes p = 7 × 10−4), rs4668106 (diabetes p = 9 × 10−4) and rs529002 (plasma glucose p = 3 × 10−4). These associations were successfully replicated in an independent collection of Indigenous Australian T2D cases and controls. These SNPs all lie within the gene encoding ceramide synthase 6 (CERS6) and thus may regulate ceramide synthesis.
Sleep problems are a modifiable risk factor for suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Yet, sparse research has examined temporal relationships between sleep disturbance, suicidal ideation, and psychological factors implicated in suicide, such as entrapment. This is the first in-the-moment investigation of relationships between suicidal ideation, objective and subjective sleep parameters, and perceptions of entrapment.
Fifty-one participants with current suicidal ideation completed week-long ecological momentary assessments. An actigraph watch was worn for the duration of the study, which monitored total sleep time, sleep efficiency, and sleep latency. Daily sleep diaries captured subjective ratings of the same sleep parameters, with the addition of sleep quality. Suicidal ideation and entrapment were measured at six quasi-random time points each day. Multi-level random intercept models and moderation analyses were conducted to examine the links between sleep, entrapment, and suicidal ideation, adjusting for anxiety and depression severity.
Analyses revealed a unidirectional relationship whereby short sleep duration (both objective and subjective measures), and poor sleep quality, predicted the higher severity of next-day suicidal ideation. However, there was no significant association between daytime suicidal ideation and sleep the following night. Sleep quality moderated the relationship between pre-sleep entrapment and awakening levels of suicidal ideation.
This is the first study to report night-to-day relationships between sleep disturbance, suicidal ideation, and entrapment. Findings suggest that sleep quality may alter the strength of the relationship between pre-sleep entrapment and awakening suicidal ideation. Clinically, results underscore the importance of assessing and treating sleep disturbance when working with those experiencing suicidal ideation.
Flowering and successful pollination in wheat are key determinants of both quantity and quality of grain. Bread wheat line ‘Paragon’, introgressed with single or multiple daylength insensitivity alleles was used to dissect the effects on the timing and duration of flowering within a hierarchical plant architecture. Flowering of wheat plants was observed in a series of pot-based and field experiments. Ppd-D1a was the most potent known allele affecting the timing of flowering, requiring the least thermal time to flowering across all experiments. The duration of flowering for individual lines was dominated by the shift in the start of flowering in later tillers and the number of tillers per plant, rather than variation in flowering duration of individual spikes. There was a strong relationship between flowering duration and the start of flowering with the earliest lines flowering for the longest. The greatest flowering overlap between tillers was recorded for the Ppd-1b. Across all lines, a warmer environment significantly reduced the duration of flowering and the influence of Ppd-1a alleles on the start of flowering. These findings provide evidence of pleiotropic effects of the Ppd-1a alleles, and have direct implications for breeding for increased stress resilient wheat varieties.
Introduction: The National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program (NCCCP) and National Tobacco Control Program (NTCP) are both well-positioned to promote the use of population-based tobacco cessation interventions, such as state quitlines and Web-based interventions.
Aims: This paper outlines the methodology used to conduct a comparative effectiveness research (CER) study of traditional and Web-based tobacco cessation and quitline promotion approaches.
Methods: A mixed-methods study with three components was designed to address the effect of promotional activities on service usage and the comparative effectiveness of population-based smoking cessation activities across multiple states.
Results/Findings: The cessation intervention component followed 7,902 smokers (4,307 quitline users and 3,595 Web intervention users) to ascertain prevalence of 30-day abstinence rates seven months after registering for smoking cessation services. User characteristics and quit success was compared across the two modalities. In the promotions component, reach and use of traditional and innovative promotion strategies were assessed for 24 states, including online advertising, state Web sites, social media, mobile applications, and their effects on quitline call volume. The partnership intervention component studied the extent of collaboration among six selected NCCCPs and NTCPs.
Conclusions: This study will guide program staff and clinicians with evidence-based recommendations and best practices for implementation of tobacco cessation within their patient and community populations and establish an evidence base that can be used for decision making.
The effects of dietary carbohydrate and fat on feline health are not well understood. The effects of feeding diets moderately high in fat (HF; n 10; 30 % fat, 26 % carbohydrate as fed) or carbohydrate (HC; n 10; 11 % fat, 47 % carbohydrate), for 84 d, were investigated in healthy, adult cats (3·5 (sd 0·5) years). Data on indirect calorimetry, blood biomarkers, activity, play and cognition were collected at baseline, and at intervals throughout the study. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and on day 85. There were no significant main effects of diet on body weight and composition. When data were analysed over study day within diet, cats fed HF diets experienced a significant increase in body fat (P = 0·001) and body weight (P = 0·043) in contrast to cats consuming the HC diet that experienced no change in body fat or body weight (P = 0·762) throughout the study. Overall, energy expenditure was similar between diets (P = 0·356 (fasted), P = 0·086 (postprandial)) and respiratory quotient declined with exposure to the HF diet and increased with exposure to the HC diet (P < 0·001; fasted and postprandial). There was no difference in insulin sensitivity as an overall effect of diet (P = 0·266). Activity declined from baseline with exposure to both diets (HC: P = 0·002; HF: P = 0·01) but was not different between diets (P = 0·247). There was no effect of diet on play (P = 0·387) and cats consuming either the HF or HC diet did not successfully learn the cognitive test. Overall, cats adapt to dietary macronutrient content, and the implications of feeding HC and HF diets on risk for adiposity as driven by metabolic and behavioural mechanisms are discussed.
We investigate the settling speeds and root mean square (r.m.s.) velocities of inertial particles in isotropic turbulence with gravity using experiments with water droplets in air turbulence from 32 loudspeaker jets and direct numerical simulations (DNS). The dependence on particle inertia, gravity and the scales of both the smallest and largest turbulent eddies is investigated. We isolate the mechanisms of turbulence settling modification and find that the reduced settling speeds of large particles in experiments are due to nonlinear drag effects. We demonstrate using DNS that reduced settling speeds with linear drag (e.g. see Nielsen, J. Sedim. Petrol., vol. 63, 1993, pp. 835–838) only arise in artificial flows that, by design, eliminate preferential sweeping by the eddies. Gravity and inertia both reduce the particle r.m.s. velocities and falling particles are more responsive to vertical than to horizontal fluctuations. The model by Wang & Stock (J. Atmos. Sci., vol. 50, 1993, pp. 1897–1913) captures these trends.
Impairments of attention and executive functions are common sequelae of traumatic brain injury (TBI). The anterior cingulate is implicated in conflict-related task performance, such as the Stroop, and is susceptible to TBI-related injury due to its frontal location and proximity to the rough surface of the falx cerebri. We investigated the relationship between cingulate cortex volume and performance on tasks of selective attention and cognitive flexibility (single-trial Stroop and Auditory Consonant Trigrams [ACT]). Participants consisted of 12 adults with severe TBI and 18 controls. T1-weighted volumetric MRI data were analyzed using automated cortical reconstruction, segmentation, parcellation, and volume measurement. Cortical volume reductions were prominent bilaterally in frontal, temporal, and inferior parietal regions. Specific regional reduction of the cingulate cortex was observed only for cortical volume of right caudal anterior cingulate (cACC). The TBI group performed significantly worse than control participants on the Stroop and ACT tasks. Findings suggest that atrophy of the right cACC may contribute to reduced performance on executive function tasks, such as the Stroop and ACT, although this is likely but one node of an extensive brain network involved in these cognitive processes. (JINS, 2013, 19, 1–12)
This study sought to determine whether monthly revisions of U.S. Department of Agriculture current-year corn and soybean yield forecasts are correlated and whether this correlation is associated with crop size. An ex-ante measure of crop size based on percent deviation of the current estimate from out-of-sample trend is used in efficiency tests based on the Nordhaus framework for fixed-event forecasts. Results show that available information about crop size is generally efficiently incorporated in these forecasts. Thus, although this pattern may appear obvious to market analysts in hindsight, it is largely based on new information and hence difficult to anticipate.
Thought disorder has been proposed as an indicator of schizotypy, which is considered to be necessary but not sufficient for the development of schizophrenia. It is unclear whether thought disorder is an indicator of susceptibility (i.e. an endophenotype) for schizophrenia. The goal of the present study was to elucidate the role of thought disorder in relation to schizotypy by examining its presence in high-risk individuals during mid-childhood.
The sample consisted of 265 subjects drawn from the New York High-Risk Project. Individuals at high risk for schizophrenia (i.e. offspring of parents with schizophrenia) were compared with individuals at low risk for schizophrenia (i.e. offspring of parents with affective disorder or offspring of psychiatrically normal parents). Videotaped interviews were rated for thought disorder using the Scale for the Assessment of Thought, Language, and Communication (TLC). The same subjects were administered diagnostic interviews in late adolescence/early adulthood.
Although positive thought disorder was equally present in subjects with affective and non-affective psychoses, negative thought disorder (namely, poverty of speech and poverty of content of speech) was elevated only in subjects with schizophrenia-related psychosis. Logistic regression analyses revealed that negative thought disorder added to the prediction of schizophrenia-related psychosis outcomes over and above positive thought disorder.
These findings suggest that negative thought disorder may have a specific association with schizotypy, rather than a more general association with psychosis. The findings also support consideration of negative thought disorder as an endophenotypic indicator of a schizophrenia diathesis.
Background: This study applies the updated HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND) diagnostic algorithm.
Methods: Participants were 210 HIV-infected-adults, classified using proposed HAND criteria: HIV-Associated Dementia (HAD), Mild Neurocognitive Disorder (MND), Asymptomatic Neurocognitive Impairment (ANI).
Results: The algorithm yielded: normal = 32.8%, ANI = 21.4%, MND = 34.3%, and HAD = 11.4%. Normal participants performed superior to HAND-defined participants on cognition, and HAD participants performed more poorly on global cognition and executive functioning. Two distinct subgroups of interest emerged: (1) functional decline without cognitive impairment; (2) severe cognitive impairment and minimal functional compromise.
Conclusions: The algorithm discriminates between HIV-infected cognitively impaired individuals. Diagnosis yields two unique profiles requiring further investigation. Findings largely support the algorithm's utility for diagnosing HIV-cognitive-impairment, but suggest distinct subsets of individuals with discrepant cognitive/functional performances that may not be readily apparent by conventional application of HAND diagnosis.
The chromosome 8q24 region (specifically, 8q24.21.a) is known to harbor variants associated with risk of breast, colorectal, prostate, and bladder cancers. In 2008, variants rs10505477 and rs6983267 in this region were associated with increased risk of invasive ovarian cancer (p < 0.01); however, three subsequent ovarian cancer reports of 8q24 variants were null. Here, we used a multi-site case-control study of 940 ovarian cancer cases and 1,041 controls to evaluate associations between these and other single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in this 8q24 region, as well as in the 9p24 colorectal cancer associated-region (specifically, 9p24.1.b). A total of 35 SNPs from previous reports and additional tagging SNPs were assessed using an Illumina GoldenGate array and analyzed using logistic regression models, adjusting for population structure and other potential confounders. We observed no association between genotypes and risk of ovarian cancer considering all cases, invasive cases, or invasive serous cases. For example, at 8q24 SNPs rs10505477 and rs6983267, analyses yielded per-allele invasive cancer odds ratios of 0.95 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.82–1.09, p trend 0.46) and 0.97 (95% CI 0.84–1.12, p trend 0.69), respectively. Analyses using an approach identical to that of the first positive 8q24 report also yielded no association with risk of ovarian cancer. In the 9p24 region, no SNPs were associated with risk of ovarian cancer overall or with invasive or invasive serous disease (all p values > 0.10). These results indicate that the SNPs studied here are not related to risk of this gynecologic malignancy and that the site-specific nature of 8q24.21.a associations may not include ovarian cancer.