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To provide cross-national data for selected countries of the Americas on service utilization for psychiatric and substance use disorders, the distribution of these services among treatment sectors, treatment adequacy and factors associated with mental health treatment and adequacy of treatment.
Data come from data collected from 6710 adults with 12 month mental disorder surveys across seven surveys in six countries in North (USA), Central (Mexico) and South (Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Peru) America who were interviewed 2001–2015 as part of the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys. DSM-IV diagnoses were made with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Interviews also assessed service utilization by the treatment sector, adequacy of treatment received and socio-demographic correlates of treatment.
Little over one in four of respondents with any 12 month DSM-IV/CIDI disorder received any treatment. Although the vast majority (87.1%) of this treatment was minimally adequate, only 35.3% of cases received treatment that met acceptable quality guidelines. Indicators of social-advantage (high education and income) were associated with higher rates of service use and adequacy, but a number of other correlates varied across survey sites.
These results shed light on an enormous public health problem involving under-treatment of common mental disorders, although the problem is most extreme among people with social disadvantage. Promoting services that are more accessible, especially for those with few resources, is urgently needed.
Gluten is only partially digested by intestinal enzymes and can generate peptides that can alter intestinal permeability, facilitating bacterial translocation, thus affecting the immune system. Few studies addressed the role of diet with gluten in the development of colitis. Therefore, we investigate the effects of wheat gluten-containing diet on the evolution of sodium dextran sulphate (DSS)-induced colitis. Mice were fed a standard diet without (colitis group) or with 4·5 % wheat gluten (colitis + gluten) for 15 d and received DSS solution (1·5 %, w/v) instead of water during the last 7 d. Compared with the colitis group, colitis + gluten mice presented a worse clinical score, a larger extension of colonic injury area, and increased mucosal inflammation. Both intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation were increased, propitiating bacteria migration for peripheral organs. The mechanism by which diet with gluten exacerbates colitis appears to be related to changes in protein production and organisation in adhesion junctions and desmosomes. The protein α-E-catenin was especially reduced in mice fed gluten, which compromised the localisation of E-cadherin and β-catenin proteins, weakening the structure of desmosomes. The epithelial damage caused by gluten included shortening of microvilli, a high number of digestive vacuoles, and changes in the endosome/lysosome system. In conclusion, our results show that wheat gluten-containing diet exacerbates the mucosal damage caused by colitis, reducing intestinal barrier function and increasing bacterial translocation. These effects are related to the induction of weakness and disorganisation of adhesion junctions and desmosomes as well as shortening of microvilli and modification of the endocytic vesicle route.
No review has used a meta-analytic approach to estimate common odds ratios (ORs) for the effect of acute use of alcohol (AUA) on suicide attempts. We aim to report the results of the first meta-analysis of controlled epidemiological studies on AUA and suicide attempt.
The English-language literature on Medline, PsycINFO and Google Scholar was searched for original articles and critical review on AUA and suicide attempt (period 1996–2015). Studies had to report an OR estimate for this association. Common ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from random effects in meta-analyses for any AUA and two levels of alcohol use on suicide attempt were calculated.
In all, seven studies provided OR estimates for the likelihood of suicide attempt by AUA, compared with those who did not drink alcohol. Studies used case–control (n 3) and case–crossover designs (n 4). Meta-analysis revealed a common OR of 6.97 (95% CI 4.77–10.17) for any AUA. Using four studies, ‘low levels of acute drinking’ resulted in an OR of 2.71 (95% CI 1.56–4.71) and ‘high levels’ had an OR of 37.18 (95% CI 17.38–79.53).
AUA is associated with increased likelihood of a suicide attempt, particularly at high doses. Such data should be incorporated into estimates of the burden of disease associated with alcohol use, which are currently limited by a consideration of only alcohol's chronic effects. Future research should focus on the mechanisms through which AUA confers risk for attempt.
Strongyloides venezuelensis is a parasitic nematode of rodents that is frequently used to obtain heterologous antigens for immunological diagnosis of human strongyloidiasis. The aim of this study was to identify antigens from filariform larvae of S. venezuelensis for immunodiagnosis of human strongyloidiasis. Soluble and membrane fractions from filariform larvae of S. venezuelensis were obtained in phosphate saline (SS and SM) and in Tris–HCl buffer (TS and TM), and were analysed by Western blotting. Different antigenic components were recognized by IgG antibodies from the sera of strongyloidiasis patients. Highest recognition was observed for a 30–40 kDa mass range present in all antigenic fractions. The band encompassing this mass range was then excised and subjected to mass spectrometry for protein identification. Immunoreactive proteins identified in the soluble fractions corresponded to metabolic enzymes, whereas cytoskeletal proteins and galectins were more abundant in the membrane fractions. These results represent the first approach towards identification of S. venezuelensis antigens for use in immunodiagnostic assays for human strongyloidiasis.
We describe microbiological, clinical and epidemiological aspects of a diphtheria outbreak that occurred in Maranhão, Brazil. The majority of the 27 confirmed cases occurred in partially (n = 16) or completely (n = 10) immunized children (n = 26). Clinical signs and characteristic symptoms of diphtheria such as cervical lymphadenopathy and pseudomembrane formation were absent in 48% and 7% of the cases, respectively. Complications such as paralysis of lower limbs were observed. Three cases resulted in death, two of them in completely immunized children. Microbiological analysis identified the isolates as Corynebacterium diphtheriae biovar intermedius with a predominant PFGE type. Most of them were toxigenic and some showed a decrease in penicillin G susceptibility. In conclusion, diphtheria remains endemic in Brazil. Health professionals need to be aware of the possibility of atypical cases of C. diphtheriae infection, including pharyngitis without pseudomembrane formation.
The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary-induced insulin enhancement during the late luteal phase on subsequent fertility of gilts. Fifty-two littermate cyclic gilts were subjected to dietary treatments where two energy sources were tested: corn starch (T1) and soybean oil (T2). The experimental diets were supposed to provide similar amounts of dietary energy, but from different sources. Gilts were fed ad libitum, starting day 8 of the estrous cycle, until the next standing heat. Blood sampling was performed in a subgroup of 20 gilts on days 14 and 21 of the cycle for analyses of glucose and insulin, and after ovulation detection until 18 h after ovulation for progesterone. All gilts were slaughtered on day 28 of pregnancy and the reproductive tracts recovered for further analysis. T1 gilts showed higher postprandial insulin peak on days 14 and 21 and lower glucose levels 4 h after feeding on day 14 (P<0.05), however, there were no treatment effects on plasma progesterone concentrations. Dietary energy sources did not affect average daily feed intake, body weight and backfat on day 28 of pregnancy. Estrous cycle length, estrus duration and time of ovulation were not affected by previous nutritional treatments either. T1 gilts showed higher ovulation rates, number of embryos, embryo weight and placental weight (P<0.05). There were no treatment effects on pregnancy rate, embryo survival rate and volume of amniotic fluid. A positive correlation between progesterone concentration 18 h after ovulation and ovulation rate was observed (r=0.75; P<0.01). These results suggest that it is possible to manipulate dietary insulin response in cyclic gilts and, thus, improve reproductive efficiency when feeding starch as the main energy source during the late luteal and follicular phases of the cycle.
To examine barriers to initiation and continuation of mental health treatment among individuals with common mental disorders.
Data were from the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health (WMH) surveys. Representative household samples were interviewed face to face in 24 countries. Reasons to initiate and continue treatment were examined in a subsample (n = 636 78) and analyzed at different levels of clinical severity.
Among those with a DSM-IV disorder in the past 12 months, low perceived need was the most common reason for not initiating treatment and more common among moderate and mild than severe cases. Women and younger people with disorders were more likely to recognize a need for treatment. A desire to handle the problem on one's own was the most common barrier among respondents with a disorder who perceived a need for treatment (63.8%). Attitudinal barriers were much more important than structural barriers to both initiating and continuing treatment. However, attitudinal barriers dominated for mild-moderate cases and structural barriers for severe cases. Perceived ineffectiveness of treatment was the most commonly reported reason for treatment drop-out (39.3%), followed by negative experiences with treatment providers (26.9% of respondents with severe disorders).
Low perceived need and attitudinal barriers are the major barriers to seeking and staying in treatment among individuals with common mental disorders worldwide. Apart from targeting structural barriers, mainly in countries with poor resources, increasing population mental health literacy is an important endeavor worldwide.
The Parkes pulsar data archive currently provides access to 144044 data files obtained from observations carried out at the Parkes observatory since the year 1991. Around 105 files are from surveys of the sky, the remainder are observations of 775 individual pulsars and their corresponding calibration signals. Survey observations are included from the Parkes 70 cm and the Swinburne Intermediate Latitude surveys. Individual pulsar observations are included from young pulsar timing projects, the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array and from the PULSE@Parkes outreach program. The data files and access methods are compatible with Virtual Observatory protocols. This paper describes the data currently stored in the archive and presents ways in which these data can be searched and downloaded.
Multipulse strategies for two disk rotation velocities of the same phase change optical disk, were analyzed using simulations, at red and blue wavelengths. Results showed that at either wavelength, lower pulse duty cycles are needed at lower velocities to reduce recrystallization and higher duty cycles are needed at higher velocities. Optimal erase powers and cooling width for minimal overwrite jitter were also found.
Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is used to characterize the growth of NiO over Ni electrodes. We find a limited increase of thickness and a significant increase of porosity of the oxide as a function of time and anodization potential. Conductance measurements performed on Ni/NiO/Co junctions of 30 nm diameters indicate the presence of a Coulomb blockade at low temperatures and small bias. Tunneling is observed at higher bias. Small magnetoresistance ratios (1%) are found.
Electrochemical deposition of FeCo alloys with 1:1 atomic ratio has proved difficult due to cracking from high stress. By using a sulfamate electrolyte and optimizing other deposition parameters, we successfully electrodeposited high quality FeCo films of 20-25 mm in thickness and 7 mm in diameter. Using a suspension of hard oxide nanoparticles (25 nm TiO2) in the electrolyte, we produced oxide-dispersion-strengthened FeCo/TiO2 nanocomposite films with large grains. Enhanced strength was observed from these nanocomposites relative to pure FeCo alloys as determined from Knoop hardness measurements. In order to further improve the ductility of the alloys, vanadium has been codeposited with FeCo. Some preliminary results of FeCoV alloy deposition are reported.
The spin polarization of Sb overlayers on the semi-Heusler alloy NiMnSb is investigated in terms of the Landau-Ginzburg approach. The half-metallic semi-Heusler alloy NiMnSb acts as a ferromagnetic perturbation and induces a spin polarization in the semimetallic Sb overlayer. Using a Gaussian approximation, the propagation of the spin perturbation in the overlayer is calculated. The results are compared with spin-polarized inverse photoemission spectroscopy (SPIPES) results and with recent spin-dependent envelope-function approximation (SDEFA) predictions. The Landau-Ginzburg parameters are both band-structure and temperature dependent, and it is argued that thermal spin excitations lead to an injection depth decreasing as 1//T law at high temperatures.
Non-crystalline Co thin films have been prepared by pulsed laser ablation deposition. From the M-H hysteresis loops measurements, a soft magnetic behavior is observed. Néel type magnetic domain walls are observed in the as-deposited films. The spontaneous magnetization, Ms(T = 300 K), is ≍ 860 emu/cm3. After annealing at 500 oC, Ms(T = 300 K) is ≍ 1460 emu/cm3. The extrapolated to zero K resistance decreases almost two orders of magnitude from the as deposited samples to the crystallized heated at 500 °C ones. A trilayer Co/Cu/Co has shown a real part magnetic susceptibility of 120 at 100 MHz. In the 100 MHz to 1 GHz frequency range, a perpendicular bias magnetic field increased this value up to 270, remaining almost constant for all range.
Magnetization reversals in sputtered Co electrodes of a magnetic tunnel junction are studied using transport measurements, magneto-optic Kerr magnetometry and microscopy. Using the tunnel magneto-resistive effect as a probe for micromagnetic studies, we first evidence the existence of an unexpected domain structure in the soft Co layer. This domain structure originates from the duplication of the domain structure of the hard Co layer template into the soft layer via ferromagnetic inter-electrode coupling. A detailed analysis of the kerr microscopy images shows that all features appearing in the variation of tunnel resistance as a function of the applied field are associated to the domain phase evolution of each electrode. By tailoring the magnetic properties of the hard Co layer, we have demonstrated that the appearance of the domain duplication is driven by the magnetic anisotropy of the hard layer. Finally, a brief theoretical description of the domain duplication process allows us to extract the main parameters governing the effect.
In this study, we investigated the magnetic domains of a FeMnSiNiCr stainless steel sample using Magnetic Force Microscope (MFM). We compared the magnetic patterns obtained by scanning the sample with three coated probes with different magnetic properties: Medium magnetic moment (MM), low magnetic moment (LM), and low coercivity (LC). The probe-surface separation was varied between 25 to 300 nm in order to quantify the magnetic microstructure of the sample. A simple model for the probe-sample interaction was used to interpret the contrast change as a function of the probe-surface separation. The experiment showed that the average maximum frequency decreases with the probe-surface separation and the intensity of the frequency is the strongest for the MM probe. X ray diffraction experiments were used to identify the different phases present in the sample. The X-ray diffraction experiments together with the MFM showed that α-phase islands surrounded by a γ-phase matrix are responsible for the magnetic properties of the sample.
A comprehensive and systematic study has been made on Sm(CobalFevCuyZrx)zmagnets to completely understand the effects of composition and processing on their magnetic properties. The homogenized Sm(Co,Fe,Cu,Zr)z magnets have a featureless microstructure. A cellular/lamellar microstructure develops after 2-3 hours of aging at 800-850°C, but the coercivity increases only after a subsequent slow cooling to 400°C. During cooling, diffusion takes place and Cu is concentrated in the 1:5 cell boundaries and Fe in the 2:17R cells. This dilutes the magnetic properties of the 1:5 phase and causes domain wall pinning/nucleation at the cell boundaries. Higher ratio z leads to larger cells as expected due to the larger amount of the 2:17 phase. For a fixed Cu content, this translates to a larger amount of Cu in the 1:5 cell boundaries, and therefore, to a higher coercivity. Magnets without Cu but with Zr have a lamellar and a cellular like microstructure. In Zr free samples, however, a larger amount of Cu is needed to form the cellular microstructure. This cellular microstructure is unstable with prolonged isothermal aging. A uniform and stable cellular/lamellar microstructure is only observed in alloys containing both Cu and Zr. A higher aging temperature Tag leads to larger cells and higher coercivity as explained above. The results of all these studies clearly show that the amount of Cu in the 1:5 cell boundaries controls both the coercivity and its temperature dependence leading to positive and negative temperature coefficients of coercivity in low and high Cu content alloys, respectively.
The ferromagnetic bulk metallic glass (BMG) Nd60Fe30Al10system exhibits extremely large coercivities at low temperature and moderate coercivities near room temperature. The magnetic hardness, as best evidenced by the onset of magnetic irreversibility, was studied in bulk suction-cast and melt-spun alloys with the nominal composition Nd60Fe30Al10. Systematic x-ray diffraction studies of the degree of crystallinity performed as a function of position within the bulk suction-cast samples is found to correlate with the variation in the room-temperature magnetic hysteresis character. X-ray diffraction data clearly shows the presence of both crystallites and amorphous material on the samples' outmost surfaces; the amorphous phase content increases with distance into the cast sample. These results underscore the importance of solidification conditions and attendant nanophase selection, on the resultant magnetic properties of this class of alloys.
Recently, Ti-substituted Sm-Co permanent magnets have attracted renewed attention due to their interesting high-temperature coercivity. Our presentation deals with the effect of iron substitutions on the magnetic properties of the materials. X-ray diffraction shows that the investigated Sm(Co,Fe,Cu,Ti)z materials (z = 7.0 - 7.6) are two-phase magnets, consisting of 1:5 and 2:17 regions. The iron content affects both the coercivity and the magnetization. Depending on composition and heat treatment, some samples show a positive temperature coefficient of the coercivity in the temperature range from 22 °C to 550 °C. Moderate amounts of iron enhance the room-temperature coercivity. For example, the room-temperature coercivity of Sm(Co6.0Fe0.4Cu0.6Ti0.3) is 9.6 kOe, as compared to 7.6 kOe for Sm(Co6.4Cu0.6Ti0.3). At high temperatures, the addition of Fe has a deteriorating effect on the coercivity, which is as high as 10.0 kOe at 500 °C for Sm(Co6.4Cu0.6Ti0.3). The room-temperature magnetization increases on iron substitution, from 73 emu/g for Sm(Co6.4Cu0.6Ti0.3) to 78 emu/g for Sm(Co6.0Fe0.4Cu0.6Ti0.3). The observed temperature dependence is ascribed to the preferential dumbbell-site occupancy of the Fe atoms.