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Is there any hope for those who despair at the state of the world and the powerlessness of governments to find a way forward? Global Governance and the Emergence of Global Institutions for the 21st Century provides ambitious but reasonable proposals to give our globalized world the institutions of international governance necessary to address effectively the catastrophic risks facing humanity that are beyond national control. The solution, the authors suggest, is to extend to the international level the same principles of sensible governance that exist in well-governed national systems: rule of law, legislation in the common interest, an executive branch to implement such legislation, and courts to enforce it. The best protection is unified collective action, based on shared values and respect for diversity, to implement widely accepted international principles to advance universal human prosperity and well-being. This title is also available as Open Access.
In Spain, apprenticeship was regulated locally. In Madrid, the local guilds played a crucial role in the organisation of apprenticeship, but alternatives were also available. This chapter examines artisan apprenticeship in Madrid during the early modern age. The main body of research comprises a sample of 4,570 indenture contracts elicited from the Historical Notarial Archive of Madrid. They correspond to over a hundred trades and cover the period 1540–1830, with the central focus on the eighteenth century. In addition, apprenticeship channels alternative to the traditional guild-like model are also explored, which impinged overall on women. A relatively small percentage of apprentices paid their master for the training. Remuneration of the apprentice’s work happened mostly in kind, as room and board, but increasingly also in cash. The majority of Madrid’s apprentices did not follow in their parents’ trade, but rather opted for a different trade. Most apprentices in Madrid completed their training, but relatively few managed to become masters. The masters’ ranks were mostly filled by immigrant journeymen. During the second half of the eighteenth century, state policies pried open the grip of the guilds on the apprenticeship system, allowing more women to acquire craft skills.
The present work has been carried out in order to investigate the sliding wear performance of a Ni-Cr based alloy, containing boron, carbon, silicon and iron, deposited onto a SAE 1045 steel substrate. The coatings were thermally sprayed by means of a High Velocity Oxy-Fuel system and post heat-treated for one hour at 760°C in an argon atmosphere. The relative sliding performance was evaluated under unlubricated dry conditions at different applied normal loads and sliding velocities, in order to analyze the influence of these parameters on the wear response. Test results are discussed and interpreted on the basis of both microstructural evaluations and mechanical properties measurements. The surface morphology and topography of the wear scars have been studied through of a Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) techniques. The results have shown an improved wear resistance of the coated steel samples as compared to the uncoated ones.
An alternative method for the standardless quantitative x-ray diffraction analysis of mixtures of inorganic crystalline phases proposed in the literature several years ago is presented. Our method requires only previously calculated μ*i values from tabulated data for all phases present in the mixtures. It does not require either the determination of calibration constants or the use of external standards, but it does require that the number of analyzed mixtures is larger than or equal to the number of phases present in them, and that the chemical composition of the mixtures are significantly different from each other. The integrated intensities of the chemically pure phases are estimated by a least-squares procedure from XRD data obtained from the mixtures. The method was tested against data published in the literature, with good results. Finally, a general expression for the “Normalized Height Law” proposed on an empirical basis by other researchers, has been theoretically derived.
Positive symptoms are a useful predictor of aggression in schizophrenia. Although a similar pattern of abnormal brain structures related to both positive symptoms and aggression has been reported, this observation has not yet been confirmed in a single sample.
To study the association between positive symptoms and aggression in schizophrenia on a neurobiological level, a prospective meta-analytic approach was employed to analyze harmonized structural neuroimaging data from 10 research centers worldwide. We analyzed brain MRI scans from 902 individuals with a primary diagnosis of schizophrenia and 952 healthy controls.
The result identified a widespread cortical thickness reduction in schizophrenia compared to their controls. Two separate meta-regression analyses revealed that a common pattern of reduced cortical gray matter thickness within the left lateral temporal lobe and right midcingulate cortex was significantly associated with both positive symptoms and aggression.
These findings suggested that positive symptoms such as formal thought disorder and auditory misperception, combined with cognitive impairments reflecting difficulties in deploying an adaptive control toward perceived threats, could escalate the likelihood of aggression in schizophrenia.
Despite the importance of understanding the narrative abilities of bilingual children, minimal research has focused on Spanish–English bilingual preschoolers. Therefore, this study examined the cross-language macrostructure and within-language microstructure relations in the English and Spanish narratives of bilingual preschoolers and examined whether language dominance impacted these relations. Narratives were elicited from 200 preschool-aged children of Latino heritage. Microstructure measures included the number of different words, the mean length of utterance in words, and the subordination index. The narrative scoring scheme measured macrostructure (Heilmann, Miller, Nockerts, & Dunaway, 2010). Using standardized language testing of expressive vocabulary and sentence comprehension, the children were classified into two groups: balanced dominance and Spanish dominant. Results revealed that English macrostructure and Spanish macrostructure were not related after controlling for microstructure measures within languages. Children’s microstructure abilities in each language were strongly related to their macrostructure abilities within that language. Dominance did not moderate these relations. Consistent with previous research on school-age children, vocabulary was a unique predictor of macrostructure production. This study highlights the additional importance of utterance length within both languages to macrostructure during the preschool years. The absence of unique cross-language macrostructure relations and the absence of dominance group moderation may have been due to the immaturity of the children’s narratives.
Even though AA 7075 is an aluminum alloy with high mechanical properties, it is not often applied in manufacturing. This is so, because it is considered as very difficult to produce defect free welded joints. This is so, because this alloy has a tendency to hot cracking. The metallurgical problems that appear during welding of AA 7075 have not been fully solved but they have been reduced by applying alloys such as: 4043 and 5356 as filler metals. However, in literature there is little information about the metallurgical effects of these types of filler metals applied in arc welded joints of AA7075. This is especially true for Tungsten Inert gas welding. Therefore, this work is focused in comparing the microstructure and Vickers microhardness in weldments of AA 7075 with ER4043, ER5356 and AA7075 as filler metals. Besides, a set of welded joints with the three different filler metals were quenched after welding in order to modify the final microstructure. The results were evaluated by microstructural analysis focused on the Heat Affected Zone and Vickers microhardness and they were compared among them.
Cognitive behavioural models of hypochondriasis assume that dysfunctional illness-related beliefs are involved in the genesis and maintenance of the disorder. The role that other more general dysfunctional beliefs about thoughts play in this disorder has also been highlighted. Internal triggers such as illness-related intrusive thoughts could activate these beliefs.
The present paper examines whether general dysfunctional beliefs about distressing thoughts, such as intolerance of uncertainty, over-estimation of threat, and thought-action fusion-likelihood, mediate between illness-related intrusive thoughts and health anxiety symptoms.
A group of participants composed of individuals with hypochondriasis (n = 31; 51.5% women; mean age = 32.74 years, SD = 9.96) and community individuals (n = 219; 54.3% women; mean age = 39.56 years, SD = 15.20) completed a series of questionnaires to assess illness-related intrusive thoughts (INPIE), dysfunctional beliefs about thoughts (OBSI-R), and health anxiety symptoms (SHAI).
Results from a multiple parallel mediation analysis indicate that over-estimation of threat partially mediated the relationship between illness-related intrusive thoughts and health anxiety symptoms.
The results support the importance of the tendency to over-estimate the threat in the relationship between intrusive thoughts related to illness contents and health anxiety. Conceptual and clinical implications of these results are discussed.
An old procedure used to carry out a graphical derivation of curves, which is based on the optical properties of plane mirrors, has been adapted for the measurement of the contact angle (θ) formed between a liquid drop and a flat solid substrate in wettability experiments carried out by the so-called “sessile drop” method. The method was tested for mercury on soda-lime glass at room temperature in air as well as for Cusil (Ag-28wt.%Cu) and Incusil-ABA (Ag-27wt.%Cu-12wt.%In-2wt.%Ti) brazing alloys on pressureless-sintered silicon carbide (PLS-SiC) at 850 °C, under a vacuum of 10-4/10-5 Torr. The proposed method is fast, simple and accurate enough from high (∼140°) to relatively low (∼10°) contact angles. Although the proposed method has been tested for metal-ceramic systems, it is of general application, so that it would be useful for any liquid-solid system. The method is applicable for any temperature, pressure and atmospheric experimental conditions employed, as well as for any chemical composition of liquid and solid. It is also useful for both low and high contact angles, as well as for reactive and non-reactive systems, as long as a photograph of a liquid drop resting on a flat solid surface is available for the studied system.
AISI 316L stainless steel substrates were coated with hydroxyapatite [HAp, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2]-seeded 58S bioglass, and then their in vitro bioactivity was evaluated by soaking in a simulated body fluid (SBF). The bioglass was prepared via the sol-gel technique and nanometric HAp single crystals were obtained by hydrothermal synthesis. The coatings had bioglass/HAp weight ratios of 100/0, 90/10 or 80/20. The in vitro bioactivity tests were carried out under static conditions at 37 °C and pH = 7.25, for time periods ranging from 1 to 21 days. The results showed that the HAp-seeding significantly accelerates the formation of a HAp layer at the bioglass-coated steel surface during the bioactivity tests.
This article develops an integrative mixed methods framework grounded in stancetaking as the originary act through which qualitative interview and quantitative survey data are generated. The article examines how the basics of ‘everyday’ social stance—evaluation, positioning, and alignment within a sociocultural field—are strategically manipulated by social scientists in the twinned conditions of the interview and the survey. Relative to interview data, we demonstrate how participants link their stancetaking to wider sociocultural frames via the discursive devices of indexicality, accounting practices, and appeal to norms. Relative to survey data, we show how participants construct a ‘public’ via their engagement in the survey task, and how their stancetaking on survey items is virtually equivalent to ‘votes’ that are later aggregated to create second-order group-level stances. Mixed methods researchers then transform both qualitative and quantitative first-order stances into second-order stances that serve to describe and model social life. (Mixed methods, discourse devices, indexicality, normativity, interview, survey)
Based on wettability and reaction interfaces previously reported, as well as on thermodynamic considerations, a likely mechanism has been proposed for the chemical interaction taking place at the metal/ceramic interface during wettability experiments carried out by the so-called “sessile drop” method. The experiments involved three Ag-Cu-based brazing alloys [Cusil (Ag-28wt.%Cu), Cusil-ABA (Ag-34.6wt.%Cu-1.58wt.%Ti) and Incusil-ABA (Ag-26.6wt.%Cu-12.4wt.%In-0.89wt.%Ti)] and as polished and pre-oxidized pressure-less sintered silicon carbide (PLS-SiC), with a total holding time of 90 minutes at 850 °C, under a Zr sponge-gettered vacuum of 10-4/10-5 Torr.
The Egyptian Vulture Neophron percnopterus was once an abundant species in the Cabo Verde Islands. Since the 1960s though, and especially during the 1980–1990s, it consistently declined to near extinction. Evidence collected indicates a remnant population of about a dozen pairs or less, scattered through the desert rangelands of only three islands. Extensive enquiry work revealed that this likely resulted from the concomitant effects of the rise in unnatural mortality due to the formerly widespread and long-lasting use of dangerous pesticides and the (still on-going) poisoning of stray dogs and other nuisance animals, and a decrease in food resources associated with factors linked with development, such as urbanisation, rural abandonment and better sanitation. Avoiding imminent extinction calls for emergency action against current threats to the remaining vultures, such as poisoning and electrocution, but also potential causes of impaired fecundity such as hazardous pesticides and shortage of food resources.
The relationship between epilepsy and the presence of visceral larva migrans caused by Toxocara canis in Mexican children remains uncertain; however, this relationship needs to be elucidated because these parasite larvae can invade the human central nervous system. Accordingly, this study aimed to determine the frequency and specificity of anti-T. canis antibodies in the sera of children with epilepsy to determine the relationship between this parasite and epilepsy. The sera samples of 214 children were examined: 111 children diagnosed with epilepsy and 103 clinically healthy children without neurological disorders. In the sera of each group, the presence and specificity of anti-T. canis and anti-Ascaris lumbricoides antibodies, as well as the cross-reactivity between them, were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blotting analysis. Among the children with epilepsy, 25.2% exhibited seropositivity to T. canis. Cross-reactivity against the A. lumbricoides antigen was present in 46.8% of the children with epilepsy, whereas 11.7% of the children with epilepsy and anti-T. canis antibodies did not exhibit cross-reactivity against this antigen. The Western blotting analysis of the sera from the children with epilepsy demonstrated the presence of T. canis proteins, with molecular weights of 24, 35, 55, 70, 120 and 210 kDa, and A lumbricoides proteins with molecular weights of 70, 80 and 110 kDa. Our results revealed the presence of anti-T. canis antibodies in the children with epilepsy; furthermore, cross-reactivity tests with A. lumbricoides showed the importance of the presence of anti-T. canis antibodies in revealing the relationship between this parasite and epilepsy in children.
German palaeontologist Johannes Weigelt (1890–1948) was the first proponent of taphonomy – the study of the decay, burial and fossilization of plants, animals and other organisms across geological time. Thousands of his fossil specimens, many recovered from coal fields in central Germany, are stored within the Geiseltalmuseum – a palaeontological collection at the Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, founded by Weigelt in 1934. A significant portion of Weigelt's papers and extensive photographic production related to his taphonomic research are also within the museum's holdings. Amidst these documents, museum curator Dr Meinholf Hellmund and I discovered over forty photo-collages attributable to Weigelt. This visual essay exposes the through-lines between Weigelt's unpublished collages and his academic activities on taphonomy, suggesting the museum archive as a site of ideological fault lines crossing concomitant artistic and scientific production.