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This book covers the full range and diversity of Chilean literature from the times of the Spanish conquest to the present. By emphasizing transnational, hemispheric, and global approaches to Chilean literature, it reflects the relevance of themes such as neoliberalism, migration and exile, as well as subfields like ethnic studies, and gender and sexuality studies. It showcases the diversity of Chilean literature throughout all periods, regions, ethnocultural groups and social classes, all the while foregrounding its regional variations. Unlike previous literary histories, it maps a rich heterogeneity by including works by Chileans of indigenous, African, Jewish, Arab, Asian, and Croatian ancestries, as well as studies of literature by LGTBQ authors and Chilean Americans. Ambitious and authoritative, this book is essential reading for scholars of Chilean Literature, Latin American Literature, the Global South, and World Literature.
This chapter traces a path across the Mediterranean in locating the sites where Greek, Semitic (in particular Phoenician) and native populations interacted, the author’s premise being that ‘the literary and mythological entanglements, for the most part, followed the human entanglements’. Starting from the same Mount Hazzi or Jebel al-Aqra (here called Mount Saphon, by its Semitic name) and crossing first to Crete and from there to Iberia, López-Ruiz draws attention to Near Eastern Storm God narratives that are less well-known than the Song of Emergence but that similarly shaped Greek mythological and cultic conceptions of Zeus: these historically less successful narratives tend to furnish the Storm God with a fuller life cycle, including birth, journeys in maturity, and even death.
Este artículo analiza las trayectorias de modernización estructural para la industria de ocho países latinoamericanos (Bolivia, Brasil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, México, Perú, Uruguay) desde 1970 hasta la fecha. Desde una perspectiva teórica estructuralista que explora las interacciones dinámicas entre el cambio estructural y el escalamiento tecnológico, se construye un índice de modernización. Los hallazgos muestran que el establecimiento de modelos económicos neoliberales en Latinoamérica a partir de los años ochenta, significó un punto de ruptura en estas trayectorias. Mientras la racionalización de procesos productivos por parte de las empresas implicó un desplazamiento del empleo en dirección de usos de baja productividad relativa, el desarrollo de industrias intensivas en capital e insertas en dinámicas globales, no impulsó la modernización estructural debido a la naturaleza de las tareas efectuadas. Los ejercicios permiten esbozar una primera tipología en términos de las carencias más apremiantes de cada caso.
Elasmobranchs in the Gulf of California have been found with malformations, probably originated during embryonic development or caused by environmental anomalies and pollution associated with intense mining activity in the region. Clasper malformations are reported for the first time in two specimens of Pseudobatos buthi, a species recently described from the Gulf of California. The function of the claspers was not affected by the size difference, because specimens presented the distinctive characteristics of an adult individual. The reproductive system did not show any malformation, with symmetrical testes. Histological analysis of the testes revealed a normal spermatogenic development. To elucidate the causes and to detect a possible effect of the morphological malformations due to high levels of heavy metals, trace concentration values (cadmium, copper, iron, manganese, silver, lead and zinc) were determined in muscle and liver. Cadmium and lead concentrations in the muscle of the two specimens were below the permissible limit for human consumption (<0.05 mg kg−1); however, iron and zinc presented high values (0.455, 4.024 mg kg−1 in muscle and 21.931, 3.694 mg kg−1 in liver respectively). Mining activity and heavy metal pollution in the sampling area may have caused the malformations, which might be attributed to the high values of iron and zinc discovered in the muscle and liver.
Schools have a significant role in disaster education to children. This study investigates the research works about school-based education programs in order to discover challenges and best practices. We conducted a systematic review of English language papers published in peer-review journals.
The search identified 2577 publications and 61 articles meeting selection criteria and included in the review. Reviewed studies indicated that disaster education in schools is effective but yet insufficient in many countries. Lack of equipment, financial resources, policy gaps, and teachers’ knowledge are common problems in programs. Main outcomes of this systematic review are showing methods used for health emergency preparedness of children of different ages and gender differences in school-based disaster preparedness, as well as the difference in their lifesaving skills in disasters.
This study shows that some disaster education programs reported in the papers reviewed were not high-quality enough, which may lead to insufficient preparedness of children in disasters and consequently may put their health at risk, considering the increasing number of natural hazards.
Este trabajo identifica íconos de numerales asociados a dos tipos de cómputo del tiempo plasmados en el arte de Teotihuacan durante el periodo Clásico (150-650 dC). Primero, se analiza la pintura mural del altar de Atetelco, distinguiendo seis íconos de números y un símbolo matemático empleados para computar cuentas de 104 años trópicos, y 72 y 7.300 ciclos sinódicos de Venus. Un segundo análisis muestra que ambas cuentas fueron usadas en obras de estilo teotihuacano mediante una iconografía distinta al sistema numérico de puntos y barras. Las fechas teotihuacanas pueden ser correlacionadas con los registros de la cuenta larga del área Maya, lo que nos permite datar los monumentos y artefactos arqueológicos mediante la iconografía. La evidencia muestra que los teotihuacanos midieron el tiempo a largo plazo plasmando las cuentas en complejas obras como parte de la institucionalización del registro del tiempo.
Triploidization plays an important role in aquaculture and surrogate technologies. In this study, we induced triploidy in the matrinxã fish (Brycon amazonicus) using a heat-shock technique. Embryos at 2 min post fertilization (mpf) were heat shocked at 38°C, 40°C, or 42°C for 2 min. Untreated, intact embryos were used as a control. Survival rates during early development were monitored and ploidy status was confirmed using flow cytometry and nuclear diameter analysis of erythrocytes. The hatching rate reduced with heat-shock treatment, and heat-shock treatments at 42°C resulted in no hatching events. Optimal results were obtained at 40°C with 95% of larvae exhibiting triploidy. Therefore, we report that heat-shock treatments of embryos (2 mpf) at 40°C for 2 min is an effective way to induce triploid individuals in B. amazonicus.
Food insecurity has been shown to be associated with fast-food consumption. However, to date, studies on this specific topic are scarce. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the association between food insecurity and fast-food consumption in adolescents aged 12-15 years from 68 countries (7 low-income, 27 lower middle-income, 20 upper middle-income, 14 high-income countries). Cross-sectional, school-based data from the Global School-based Student Health Survey were analyzed. Data on past 30-day food insecurity (hunger) and fast-food consumption in the past 7 days were collected. Multivariable logistic regression and meta-analysis were conducted to assess associations. Models were adjusted for age, sex, and body mass index. There were 180,164 adolescents aged 12-15 years [mean (SD) age 13.8 (1.0) years; 50.8% boys] included in the analysis. Overall, severe food insecurity (i.e., hungry because there was not enough food in home most of the time or always) was associated with 1.17 (95%CI=1.08-1.26) times higher odds for fast-food consumption. The estimates pooled by country-income levels were significant in low-income countries (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=1.30; 95%CI=1.05-1.60), lower middle-income countries (aOR=1.15; 95%CI=1.02-1.29), and upper middle-income countries (aOR=1.26; 95%CI=1.07-1.49), but not in high-income countries (aOR=1.04; 95%CI=0.88-1.23). The mere co-occurrence of food insecurity and fast-food consumption is of public health importance. To tackle this issue, a strong governmental and societal approach is required to utilize effective methods as demonstrated in some high-income countries such as the implementation of food banks and the adoption of free school meals.
Little is known about the heritable behavioural traits of attacks by large carnivores on people. During the last 30 years attacks by brown bears Ursus arctos on people in the Cantabrian Mountains of Spain have been disproportionately concentrated in the eastern subpopulation. Excluding factors such as the existence of a single unusually bold bear, a higher human population density, particular human activities promoting encounters, or clear habitat differences in the area of this subpopulation, we propose that a plausible explanation for the unbalanced geographical attack pattern is that this subpopulation, separated a century earlier from the western subpopulation, may harbour a higher proportion of bolder bears. In the absence of genetic analyses this explanation remains speculative, but supports the hypothesis that genetic variation on the shy–bold continuum may influence attacks of large carnivores on people.
This paper discusses the design steps and experimental characterization of a monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) power amplifier developed for the next generation of K-band 17.3–20.2 GHz very high throughput satellites. The technology used is a commercially available 100-nm gate length gallium nitride on silicon process. The chip was developed taking into account the demanding constraints of the spacecraft and, in particular, carefully considering the thermal constraints of such technology, in order to keep the junction temperature in all devices below 160°C in the worst-case condition (i.e., maximum environmental temperature of 85°C). The realized MMIC, based on a three-stage architecture, was first characterized on-wafer in pulsed regime and, subsequently, mounted in a test-jig and characterized under continuous wave operating conditions. In 17.3–20.2 GHz operating bandwidth, the built amplifier provides an output power >40 dBm with a power added efficiency close to 30% (peak >40%) and 22 dB of power gain.
To examine whether the educational level moderates the relationship between baseline depressive symptoms and cognitive functioning at 5- and 10-year follow-ups in older adults, considering the association between cognitive functioning and difficulty with activities of daily living (ADL).
Using a prospective design, a path analysis was performed.
In-home, face-to-face interviews and self-administered questionnaires, within the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project.
In total, 1,461 participants (mean age = 66.62) were followed up from Wave 1 (baseline) to Wave 2 (at 5 years) and Wave 3 (at 10 years).
Depressive symptoms were assessed at baseline. Cognitive functioning and difficulty with ADL were assessed at baseline and at 5 and 10 years.
Educational level moderates the relationship between depressive symptoms and cognitive functioning at 5 years (β = 0.07, SE = 0.03, p = 0.04, Cohen’s f2 = 0.02), being depressive symptoms related to poor cognitive functioning only at low educational levels. Cognitive functioning predicts difficulty with ADL at 5 and 10 years (β = −0.08, SE = 0.03, p = 0.008, Cohen’s f2 = 0.01; β = −0.09, SE = 0.03, p = 0.006, Cohen’s f2 = 0.02). The proposed model yielded excellent fit (CFI = 1.00, RMSEA = 0.0001, 90% CI 0.0001–0.03, SRMR = 0.004, and χ2(8) = 7.16, p = 0.52).
Cognitive reserve may act as a protective factor against the effect of depressive symptoms on cognition in older adults, which, in turn, is relevant to their functional independence.
Sharks have a long and rich fossil record that consists predominantly of isolated teeth due to the poorly mineralized cartilaginous skeleton. Tiger sharks (Galeocerdo), which represent apex predators in modern oceans, have a known fossil record extending back into the early Eocene (ca. 56 Ma) and comprise 22 recognized extinct and one extant species to date. However, many of the fossil species remain dubious, resulting in a still unresolved evolutionary history of the tiger shark genus. Here, we present a revision of the fossil record of Galeocerdo by examining the morphological diversity and disparity of teeth in deep time. We use landmark-based geometric morphometrics to quantify tooth shapes and qualitative morphological characters for species discrimination. Employing this combined approach on fossil and extant tiger shark teeth, our results only support six species to represent valid taxa. Furthermore, the disparity analysis revealed that diversity and disparity are not implicitly correlated and that Galeocerdo retained a relatively high dental disparity since the Miocene despite its decrease from four to one species. With this study, we demonstrate that the combined approach of quantitative geometric morphometric techniques and qualitative morphological comparisons on isolated shark teeth provides a useful tool to distinguish between species with highly similar tooth morphologies.
Old age constitutes a vulnerable stage for developing gambling-related problems. The aims of the study were to identify patterns of gambling habits in elderly participants from the general population, and to assess socio-demographic and clinical variables related to the severity of the gambling behaviours. The sample included N = 361 participants aged in the 50–90 years range. A broad assessment included socio-demographic variables, gambling profile and psychopathological state. The percentage of participants who reported an absence of gambling activities was 35.5 per cent, while 46.0 per cent reported only non-strategic gambling, 2.2 per cent only strategic gambling and 16.3 per cent both non-strategic plus strategic gambling. Gambling form with highest prevalence was lotteries (60.4%), followed by pools (13.9%) and bingo (11.9%). The prevalence of gambling disorder was 1.4 per cent, and 8.0 per cent of participants were at a problematic gambling level. Onset of gambling activities was younger for men, and male participants also reached a higher mean for the bets per gambling-episode and the number of total gambling activities. Risk factors for gambling severity in the sample were not being born in Spain and a higher number of cumulative lifetime life events, and gambling severity was associated with a higher prevalence of tobacco and alcohol abuse and with worse psychopathological state. Results are particularly useful for the development of reliable screening tools and for the design of effective prevention programmes.
A stably stratified fluid-filled two-dimensional square cavity is subjected to harmonic horizontal oscillations with frequencies less than the buoyancy frequency. The static linearly stratified state, which is an equilibrium of the unforced system, is not an equilibrium for any non-zero forcing amplitude. As viscous effects are reduced, the horizontally forced flows computed from the Navier–Stokes–Boussinesq equations tend to have piecewise constant or piecewise linear vorticity within the pattern of characteristic lines originating from the corners of the cavity. These flows are well described in the inviscid limit by a perturbation analysis of the unforced equilibrium using the forcing amplitude as the small perturbation parameter. At first order, this perturbation analysis leads to a forced linear inviscid hyperbolic system subject to boundary conditions and spatio-temporal symmetries associated with the horizontal forcing. A Fredholm alternative determines the type of solutions of this system: either the response is uniquely determined by the forcing, or it is resonant and corresponds to an intrinsic mode of the cavity. Both types of responses are investigated in terms of a waveform function satisfying a set of functional equations and are related to the behaviour of the characteristics of the hyperbolic system. In particular, non-retracing (ergodic) characteristics may lead to fractal responses. Models of viscous dissipation are also formulated to adjust the linear inviscid model for viscous effects obtained in the viscous nonlinear simulations.
Critical staffing shortages have compelled hospitals to allow healthcare workers (HCWs) with low-risk COVID-19 exposures to continue to work. We performed SARS-CoV-2 PCR surveillance of asymptomatic HCWs allowed to work with masks after a low-risk COVID-19 exposure. A total of 66 HCWs participated and 5 (7.6%) were found to be PCR positive. Asymptomatic HCWs with low-risk exposures may represent a significant transmission risk.