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The chapter explores the relationship between official and “non-official” languages in Canada by taking as its starting point two Statistics Canada reports on ethnocultural and linguistic diversity released in 2017. Its goal is to examine how demographic trends, combined with recent debates and policy initiatives, are going to impact Canada’s language regime. The first section discusses international immigration. The second section focuses on Toronto, Montréal, Vancouver, and Ottawa. The third section reflects on how Canada’s language regime will respond to the challenges raised by the projected expansion of linguistic diversity in the population. The chapter concludes that, while Canada’s language regime shifted from Anglo-conformity to equality between English and French starting in the late 1960s, the projected increase in ethnocultural and linguistic diversity cannot render invisible the persistent pull of English, which could lend support to old Anglo-conformist attitudes and tendencies around language policy and planning in the country as a whole.
This article examines a key feature of Denis Bouchard's Sign Theory of Language, namely the Substantive Hypothesis (SH), the idea that “the most explanatory linguistic theory is one that minimizes the elements (ideally to zero) that do not have an external motivation in the prior properties of the perceptual and conceptual substances of language”. The article argues that the strongest form of the SH is challenged by two widespread classes of phenomena: morphosyntactic generalizations that are not sign-based, and non-sign-based external pressures on grammars. It concludes with some speculative remarks on why, to a significant degree, grammatical patterning is not sign-based.
Following Denis Bouchard's neo-Saussurean Sign Theory of Language, with a focus on the notion of Grammar Semantics, this article sketches a proposal for a unified understanding of the most multifunctional among Norwegian verbs, namely få ‘get’. Based on Bouchard's analysis of French être ‘be’ and avoir ‘have’ and corresponding signs in other languages, I propose that få is the dynamic version of ha ‘have’, which is a bivalent transitive copula. This abstract semantic value is shown to form the basis for the many contextual interpretations få receives, in its use both as a main verb and as an auxiliary. To my knowledge, a monosemic, unified understanding of få that covers all its uses and interpretations has not yet been proposed, especially not one that highlights its relationships with være ‘be’, ha ‘have’ and bli ‘be, become, get’. The study also includes a contrastive analysis of få and the English verb get.
Many pairs of words traditionally treated as crosslinguistic equivalents do not share the same set of senses, and dominant theories fail to account for this asymmetry. This article proposes an explanation for the crosslinguistic variation of polysemy based on two key insights from Bouchard's Sign Theory of Language. First, multifunctional words have only a single, abstract meaning, and second, properties of the linguistic sign follow from properties of the external systems with which language interfaces. The article describes the content of the English and French deictic verbs go, aller, come, and venir, showing that each possesses a simple semantic representation composed of primitives from general cognition. It then examines several specific semantic uses of go and aller, showing that differences in the surface polysemy of these verbs follow directly from a single difference in their abstract lexical meaning and the way the latter interacts with context, extralinguistic knowledge and grammar.
La valeur explicative d'une théorie scientifique repose non seulement sur la quantité des éléments primitifs adoptés (principe de simplicité), mais aussi sur la qualité de ces éléments. En linguistique, les propriétés des substances perceptuelles et conceptuelles des signes offrent une base explicative solide parce qu'elles sont logiquement antérieures à l'objet qui est à l’étude. Ceci est particulièrement important parce que le langage est un phénomène neurologique, voire biologique. Moins les éléments d'une théorie linguistique sont spécifiques au domaine langagier, plus ils sont susceptibles d'avoir la granularité nécessaire pour être biologiquement plausibles (Poeppel et Embick 2005).
Cette perspective est celle qui guide mes travaux depuis des décennies. Je l'illustre par l'analyse de plusieurs constructions maintenant classiques dans les études en syntaxe, pour donner une vision globale des conséquences de cette approche. Cette approche méthodologique renouvelle la notion d'adéquation explicative et répond à des questions laissées en suspens dans l'argumentation linguistique des six dernières décennies.
Cet article porte sur cesser qui, en contraste avec ses quasi-synonymes finir, achever et arrêter, semble échapper à la contrainte stative qui est généralement observée avec les verbes aspectuels. En fait, cesser permet assez facilement des infinitifs qui dénotent des états (Il a cessé d’être membre du syndicat), contrairement aux autres verbes aspectuels terminatifs (??Il a fini/achevé/arrêté d’être membre du syndicat). Je montre que les cas où ce prédicat ne semble pas respecter les contraintes générales imposées par les verbes aspectuels ne sont qu'apparemment des exceptions. L'article propose que la combinaison de certains états avec cesser crée un effet qui s'apparente à la sérialisation, une stratégie discutée dans certaines recherches, qui rend acceptable l'emploi de situations statives avec les verbes aspectuels. L'analyse s'inspire donc des prémisses des travaux de Bouchard (en particulier 1995, 2002), selon lesquelles l'explication des faits de langue doit demeurer simple et ne doit pas avoir recours à des mécanismes complexes qui sont autrement sans fondements.
Hydatigera (Cestoda: Taeniidae) is a recently resurrected genus including species seldom investigated in sub-Saharan Africa. We surveyed wild small mammal populations in the areas of Richard Toll and Lake Guiers, Senegal, with the objective to evaluate their potential role as intermediate hosts of larval taeniid stages (i.e. metacestodes). Based on genetic sequences of a segment of the mitochondrial DNA gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI), we identified Hydatigera parva metacestodes in 19 out of 172 (11.0%) Hubert's multimammate mice (Mastomys huberti) and one out of six (16.7%) gerbils (Taterillus sp.) and Hydatigera taeniaeformis sensu stricto metacestodes in one out of 215 (0.5%) Nile rats (Arvicanthis niloticus). This study reports epidemiological and molecular information on H. parva and H. taeniaeformis in West African rodents, further supporting the phylogeographic hypothesis on the African origin of H. parva. Our findings may indicate significant trophic interactions contributing to the local transmission of Hydatigera spp. and other parasites with similar life-cycle mechanisms. We therefore propose that further field investigations of rodent population dynamics and rodent-borne infectious organisms are necessary to improve our understanding of host–parasite associations driving the transmission risks of rodent parasites in West Africa.
The basis of this paper is the elementary observation that the n-step descendant distribution of any Galton–Watson process satisfies a discrete Smoluchowski coagulation equation with multiple coalescence. Using this we obtain simple necessary and sufficient criteria for the convergence of scaling limits of critical Galton–Watson processes in terms of scaled family-size distributions and a natural notion of convergence of Lévy triples. Our results provide a clear and natural interpretation, and an alternate proof, of the fact that the Lévy jump measure of certain continuous-state branching processes (CSBPs) satisfies a generalized Smoluchowski equation. (This result was previously proved by Bertoin and Le Gall (2006).) Our analysis shows that the nonlinear scaling dynamics of CSBPs become linear and purely dilatational when expressed in terms of the Lévy triple associated with the branching mechanism. We prove a continuity theorem for CSBPs in terms of the associated Lévy triples, and use our scaling analysis to prove the existence of universal critical Galton–Watson processes and CSBPs analogous to Doeblin's `universal laws'. Namely, these universal processes generate all possible critical and subcritical CSBPs as subsequential scaling limits. Our convergence results rely on a natural topology for Lévy triples and a continuity theorem for Bernstein transforms (Laplace exponents) which we develop in a self-contained appendix.
Some biological and chemical properties of a Gleysol were examined after 24 years of soil tillage (chisel plough – CP, mouldboard plough – MP, no-till – NT) and that of ploughing the 24-yr NT (P-NT) once, in two cropping systems (conventional – CONV, organic – ORG) applied over 4 years (2007–2010) of a long-term experiment (autumn 1987–autumn 2011) at La Pocatière, Québec, Canada. The 0–10, 10–20 and 20–30 cm soil depths were sampled in autumn 2011 after a maize trial. Tillage affected light fraction organic carbon (LFOC), light fraction organic nitrogen (LFON) and mineralizable N (Nmin) in soil, with the lowest LFOC, LFON and Nmin values in the MP treatment. No-till had lower soil pH than the other tillage systems in the 10–20 and 20–30 cm soil depths. Tillage affected the amounts of nitrate-N in 0–10 and 10–20 cm soil depths, with the lowest amounts for MP (4.3 kg nitrate-N/ha) compared with NT (7.2 or 8.5 kg nitrate-N/ha) or CP (7.7 kg nitrate-N/ha). The P-NT had no negative impact on organic C and N, or available nutrients in soil. Cropping system had no effect on soil organic C and N, available nutrients or pH. Findings suggest that long-term NT or CP may result in greater storage of organic C and N in soil and improve available nutrients compared with MP. Ploughing 25-year-old NT plots redistributed available nutrients in the profile but had no negative effect on soil organic C or N.
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules have been proposed as candidates to explain the Diffuse Interstellar Bands (DIBs). We have performed laboratory measurements of coronene, using rare gas matrix isolation techniques and UV photolysis. Our aim was to search for a possible identification of the 4430 Å DIB, but also to provide data almost free from environmental band shifts and broadening, which can be used for astronomical identification of the species.
Absorption spectra of some gaseous PAHs, either pure species or natural mixtures, have been obtained in the VUV-visible region and compared to the interstellar extinction curve.
The assumption that free PAHs are ubiquitous in the ISM cannot be rejected by incompatibility between the interstellar extinction curve and the absorption spectra of such molecules. PAHs absorb in the FUV rise and may give an important contribution to the bump at 2200 Å. We have derived that about 15% of the cosmic carbon is involved in these molecules.
The nature of the Very Small Grains evidenced by K. Sellgren (1985) is discussed. Their stability suggests that they are graphitic material and specifically Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). The expected IR emission of a typical PAH, coronene, gives an impressive spectroscopic agreement with the five observed “Unidentified IR Emission Features”, leading to an unambiguous identification. Those PAHs are the most abundant organic molecules detected to this date (f ~ 10−5).
Many gases, including CO, should be condensed at the temperature of interstellar grains in the absence of efficient desorption mechanisms. We consider such mechanisms and find that impulsive heating by X rays and heavy cosmic rays (iron group) are the most efficient ones.
For CO rich mantles, we conclude that species as CO, N2, O2 and probably H2CO, NH3, H2O should be desorbed in most cases including dense and obscure regions. for mantles composed mainly of refractory ices (H2CO, NH3, H2O) we expect very little desorption.
The case of PAH molecules that may offer a larger surface for condensation than grains is also discussed.