To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Previous studies have shown the anthelmintic efficacy of Senna alata, Senna alexandrina and Senna occidentalis on the zoonotic parasite Hymenolepis diminuta through microscopic studies on morphological structure. The present study is based on the light and confocal microscopic studies to understand if Senna extracts affect neurotransmitter activity of the parasites. A standard concentration (40 mg/mL) of the three leaf extracts and one set of 0.005 mg/mL concentration of the reference drug praziquantel were tested against the parasites, keeping another set of parasites in phosphate buffer saline as a control. Histochemical studies were carried out using acetylthiocholine iodide as the substrate and acetylcholinesterase as the marker enzyme for studying the expression of the neurotransmitter of the parasite and the staining intensity was observed under a light microscope. Immunohistochemical studies were carried out using anti serotonin primary antibody and fluorescence tagged secondary antibody and observed using confocal microscopy. Intensity of the stain decreases in treated parasites compared with the control which implies loss of activity of the neurotransmitters. These observations indicated that Senna have a strong anthelmintic effect on the parasite model and thus pose as a potential anthelmintic therapy.
The effect of uniform wind flow on modulational instability of two crossing waves is studied here. This is an extension of an earlier work to the case of a finite-depth water body. Evolution equations are obtained as a set of three coupled nonlinear equations correct up to third order in wave steepness. Figures presented in this paper display the variation in the growth rate of instability of a pair of obliquely interacting uniform wave trains with respect to the changes in the air-flow velocity, depth of water medium and the angle between the directions of propagation of the two wave packets. We observe that the growth rate of instability increases with the increase in the wind velocity and the depth of water medium. It also increases with the decrease in the angle of interaction of the two wave systems.
In this study, nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HAp) of average crystallite size ∼8.15 ± 4 nm of hexagonal geometry with size ranging between 14 and 50 nm was synthesized in laboratory at room temperature by using suitable sources of calcium and phosphate ions and using triethanolamine. Mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG) was synthesized by using cationic surfactant cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide of the SiO2–CaO–P2O5 glass system. After calcination at 650 °C, MBG powders were having a zeta potential of −16.5 mV (pH ∼9.1), median particle size ∼75 nm, and specific surface area 473.2 m2/g. An aqueous suspension of DNA was used to disperse both n-HAp and MBG and further subjected for analysis including absorbance, circular dichroism spectroscopy, UV-melting, and isothermal titration calorimetry. Absorbance spectroscopy indicated that an equilibrium binding was obtained between both materials and DNA in solution phase. Due to the addition of the nanomaterial, molar ellipticity of DNA was changed revealing that the materials were interacted with DNA. From UV melting characterization, there is a shifting of the melting temperature of DNA in the presence of MBG and n-HAp, respectively, suggesting that the nanoparticles stabilized DNA helix to a considerable extent.
To increase the corrosion prevention of stainless steel implant and fast recovery due to new bone-cell formation at the orthopedic implant site, in the present investigation, a trilayered (with bioceramic interlayer sandwiched between innermost passivated surface and outermost polymer coating) 316L stainless steel (SS) implant was designed and investigated. It was inferred that this new designed implant invokes faster and more bone-cell formation than uncoated commercially available 316L SS implants. Faster bone-cell formation at the coated implant site reduces the initial threat of implant corrosion. The electrochemical corrosion study proved that this model of coated implants is able to prevent corrosion up to 90% better than uncoated commercially available 316L SS. Subsequently, preclinical studies in the rabbit bone defect model (which included histology, radiology, fluorochrome labeling, push-out test, and scanning electron microscopy taken after 45 and 90 days) proved higher rate of new bone tissue formation and better push-out strength between tissue in contact and the coated implant. The toxicological study of vital organs like liver, kidney, and heart also exhibited no abnormality. The outcome of the experimentations indicates suitability of this trilayered 316L SS implant for bone repair and healing.
In most materials, surfaces and interfaces present a significant portion of the workable area, but this area has often been erroneously perceived as a challenge in processing and thus, largely ignored. Surfaces and interfaces, however, present a network of energetically mismatched (sometimes metastable) molecules that can be exploited to either control surface reactions, engineer bulk stability or reveal new fundamental details of otherwise not well understood processes or systems as described herein. This perspective captures the role of i) structure, ii) chemistry and iii) thermodynamics at the interface in fabricating functional materials. Engineering substrate morphology enables tunable wettability either through the substrate or an adsorbed self-assembled monolayer (SAM), the latter being largely due to effect of sub-nanoscale roughness on conformational defects and overall order in the SAM. Surface roughness and chemistry also dictates the nature and amount of adventitious contaminants on a surface, and this was used to control volume of adsorbed water leading to controlled and tunable step-growth polymerization. The chemical treatment renders the paper amphiphobic, which could be used for self-cleaning surfaces and nucleation of water microdroplets for water harvesting. Finally, creating a self-passivating polished thin (∼0.7-2 nm) shell on a molten metal microdroplet kinetically frustrates solidification leading to significant undercooling. The ambient undercooled liquid metal is used for mechanically-triggered heat-free solder and smart composites. These three cases demonstrate key aspects of surface and interface engineering in integrating well-known concepts for the development of functional materials.
Declining pulse production has caused wide concern in recent years. A field experiment was conducted to investigate effects of balance fertilizers based on soil test values and targeted yield equations on soil biological activities, soil quality, nutrient acquisition and grain yield of lentil. Treatments included the use of farmyard manure (FYM), bio-inoculants and inorganic fertilizers at different rates and combinations. The results revealed significant improvement in nodulation, microbial counts, microbial biomass carbon (MBC), soil respiration, soil enzymes and soil organic carbon (SOC) with integrated approaches (i.e. fertilizer plus FYM or bio-inoculants); these improvements led to achievement of the specific target yield of 1.50 t/ha. Although the highest yield was achieved with fertilizers applied for a target yield of 2.0 t/ha, there was significant decline in nodulation, microbial counts, MBC, soil respiration, soil enzymes, SOC and soil quality. Correlation between soil quality index (SQI) and grain yield suggested a significant influence of balanced fertilization based on soil tests and target yield. Principal component analysis revealed the average contribution of soil quality indicators towards SQI was in descending order of SOC > acid phosphatase activity > total culturable fungi > available phosphorus > BMC, which are crucial for sustainable lentil production in alluvial soils.
Childhood-onset attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults is clinically heterogeneous and commonly presents with different patterns of cognitive deficits. It is unclear if this clinical heterogeneity expresses a dimensional or categorical difference in ADHD.
We first studied differences in functional connectivity in multi-echo resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) acquired from 80 medication-naïve adults with ADHD and 123 matched healthy controls. We then used canonical correlation analysis (CCA) to identify latent relationships between symptoms and patterns of altered functional connectivity (dimensional biotype) in patients. Clustering methods were implemented to test if the individual associations between resting-state brain connectivity and symptoms reflected a non-overlapping categorical biotype.
Adults with ADHD showed stronger functional connectivity compared to healthy controls, predominantly between the default-mode, cingulo-opercular and subcortical networks. CCA identified a single mode of brain–symptom co-variation, corresponding to an ADHD dimensional biotype. This dimensional biotype is characterized by a unique combination of altered connectivity correlating with symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity, inattention, and intelligence. Clustering analyses did not support the existence of distinct categorical biotypes of adult ADHD.
Overall, our data advance a novel finding that the reduced functional segregation between default-mode and cognitive control networks supports a clinically important dimensional biotype of childhood-onset adult ADHD. Despite the heterogeneity of its presentation, our work suggests that childhood-onset adult ADHD is a single disorder characterized by dimensional brain–symptom mediators.
This paper intends to study the dispersion and attenuation characteristics of Love-type wave propagation due to a disturbance point source in a hydrostatic stressed magneto-viscoelastic layer, lying over a heterogeneous fibre-reinforced elastic half-space. The shear elastic moduli and mass density of half-space are the functions of depth and heterogeneity parameters. The coupled field equations are solved with the aid of Green's function technique and Fourier transform. The dispersion and damping equations have been obtained for the wave. The deduced equations coincide with the classical Love-wave condition for the uniform homogeneous isotropic structure. Numerical computations are carried out for involved parameters and demonstrated with the help of graphs. The effects of hydrostatic stress, magnetic coupling parameter, dissipation factor, attenuation coefficient, reinforcement parameters, heterogeneity parameters and order of the depth variation on the dispersion and damping curves are highlighted.
The indigenous poultry germplasm of Andaman & Nicobar Islands includes Nicobari fowl, Barred desi, Naked neck and Frizzle fowl, of which Nicobari fowl is the only native fowl of these Islands. The study of immune status is indirectly correlated with the disease resistance characteristics of the bird’s. The present study was conducted to know the primary humoral antibody response to Sheep RBC (SRBC) and their persistence in the immune system. However, for complete immunocompetence status, beside humoral responses the CMI and phagocytic responses are also to be considered.
Nicobari fowl is an endangered breed of chicken with an estimated population of 7524 (Chatterjee and Yadav, 2003). This breed is endemic to Andaman and Nicobar Islands and are distributed in a scattered form. Andaman and Nicobar group of Islands are located in the Bay of Bengal (Latitude 6°′/ N and 13°41′ N, longitude 92°12′ E and 93°57′E) and have a typical maritime climate. The bird is brownish matty in colour, medium in size, short-legged and hardy with compact body conformity. The bird has short and thick neck, black plumage tipped with brown shade, breast bulging in front, medium sized tail and long saddle feathers (Chatterjee et al., 2003). The present study was an effort to characterize the growth, production and reproductive performance of the breed under backyard system in Middle Andaman, India.
We present recent results from meter-decameter imaging of several classes of solar radio bursts: Preflare activity in the form of type III bursts, correlated type IIIs from distant sources, and type II and moving type IV bursts associated with flares and CMEs.
Radio emission from dMe flare stars has both a flaring and a quiescent component. When we compare stellar radio emission with the Sun, however, we find that the apparent brightness temperature of the quiescent component often exceeds the temperature of non-thermal solar radio flares, and so it is likely that stellar quiescent emission also comes from non-thermal electrons. The duration of stellar quiescent emission is much longer than solar non-thermal emission. Obvious questions to ask are, what is the source of the non-thermal electrons, where do they reside, and how can non-thermal emission last so long? Here we briefly review the observations of quiescent emission, argue that the emitting regions are small, show that such small regions can still account for the observed fluxes, and discuss the source of electrons.
The non-linear coalescence instability of current carrying solar loops can explain many of the characteristics of the solar flares such as their impulsive nature, heating and high energy particle acceleration, amplitude oscillations of electromagnetic and emission as well as the characteristics of 2–D microwave images obtained during a flare. The plasma compressibility leads to the explosive phase of loop coalescence and its overshoot results in amplitude oscillations in temperatures by adiabatic compression and decompression. We note that the presence of strong electric fields and super–Alfvenic flows during the course of the instability play an important role in the production of non–thermal particles. A qualitative explanation on the physical processes taking place during the non–linear stages of the instability is given.
Recent observations of the fast time variability in the hard X-ray emission from solar flares are interpreted. The fast spikes are assumed to be superimposed on the thermal X-ray emission. The rise and fall of a spike are caused by disruptions in the plasma. The rise time represents the impulsive heating time and the decay or fall time represents a quick cooling of the plasma due to the accelerating growth rate of the m=1 tearing mode. The estimated characteristic time durations of the spike are found to be in good agreement with the observed ones.
In this paper, we first discuss a set of 6 cm observations made with the NRAO Very Large Array (VLA) (spatial resolution ~ 2″) that pertain to changes in the coronal magentic field configurations that took place before the onset of an impulsive burst observed on 14 May 1980. We also discuss a second set of 6 cm VLA observations (spatial resolution 18″ arc) where several interacting loops were involved in triggering the onset of an impulsive burst observed on June 24, 1980, 19:57:00 UT. Both sets of observations are examples of magnetic reconnection process being involved in accelerating microwave emitting electrons.
We report preliminary results of the partial eclipse seen from the BIMA millimeter–wavelength interferometer in northern California. The use of an interferometer has many advantages over previous single–dish eclipse observations at 3 mm, and in particular it allows a quite different type of measurement of the height of the “3-mm limb” which is direct and precise: we find it to be 11.9″ ± 0.4″ above the optical limb.