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The study aimed to determine the associated factors of household food security (HFS) and household dietary diversity (HDD) during the COVID−19 pandemic in Bangladesh.
Both online survey and face-to-face interviews were employed in this cross-sectional study. The Household Food Security Scale and Household Dietary Diversity Score were used to access HFS and HDD, respectively. The HDD scores were derived from a 24-h recall of food intake from 12 groups.
A total sample of 1876 households were recruited.
The overall mean scores of HFS and HDD were 31·86 (sd 2·52) and 6·22 (sd 5·49), respectively. Being a rural resident, having no formal education, occupation of household head other than government job and low monthly income were potential determinants of lower HFS and HDD. Approximately 45 % and 61 % of Bangladeshi households did not get the same quantity and same type of food, respectively, as they got before the pandemic. Over 10 % of respondents reported that they lost their job or had to close their businesses, and income reduction was reported by over 70 % of household income earners during the COVID-19 pandemic, which in turn was negatively associated with HFS and HDD.
Household socio-economic variables and COVID-19 effects on occupation and income are potential predictors of lower HFS and HDD scores. HFS and HDD deserve more attention during this pandemic particularly with reference to low-earning households and the households whose earning persons’ occupation has been negatively impacted during the COVID-19 pandemic.
The process of software testing usually involves the correction of a detected bug immediately upon detection. In this article, in contrast, we discuss continuous time testing of a software with periodic debugging in which bugs are corrected, instead of at the instants of their detection, at some pre-specified time points. Under the assumption of renewal distribution for the time between successive occurrence of a bug, maximum-likelihood estimation of the initial number of bugs in the software is considered, when the renewal distribution belongs to any general parametric family or is arbitrary. The asymptotic properties of the estimated model parameters are also discussed. Finally, we investigate the finite sample properties of the estimators, specially that of the number of initial number of bugs, through simulation.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Precision care may engage smokers and providers in treatment but is understudied in the community. We piloted guideline-based care (GBC) alone or with Respiragene, a lung cancer polygenic risk score (PRS, 1-10), or metabolism-informed choice of medication using the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR). METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Daily smokers (n = 58) with stored biospecimens in the Southern Community Cohort Study were randomized 1:1:1 to GBC, PRS, or NMR, counseled to quit smoking, and co-selected FDA-approved cessation medication (nicotine replacement, varenicline) with a tobacco counselor. In PRS, precision motivational counseling was guided by PRS (i.e., lung cancer risk 10-40-fold that of never-smokers). In NMR, precision medication recommendations consisted of varenicline for faster metabolizers (NMR≥0.31) and nicotine replacement for slow metabolizers (NMR<0.31). Feasibility was defined as achieving at least 50% provider engagement (med prescription) and at least 50% patient engagement (self-reported med use). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Participants were median age 59, 72% female, 81% Black, 60% with incomes <$15,000; median cigarettes/day was 15 (IQR 8-20) and 52% reported time-to-first cigarette <5 minutes, illustrating moderate nicotine dependence. Providers confirmed medication prescriptions for 40% of patients (32% GBC, 50% PRS, 37% NMR) and 83% of patients reported using medication (prescribed or unprescribed) during the study (90% GBC, 80% PRS, 79% NMR). At 6-month follow-up, 27% (n = 15) reported cessation (39% GBC, 16% PRS, 26% NMR). Among persistent smokers, 46% reported smoking at least 50% fewer cigarettes/day compared to baseline (45% GBC, 38% PRS, 57% NMR). Small sample size precluded statistical comparisons. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Precision interventions to quit smoking are feasible for community smokers, who engaged at high rates. However, only 40% of providers supported patients’ quit attempts with medication prescriptions. Future research should test strategies to raise provider engagement in precision smoking treatment. CONFLICT OF INTEREST DESCRIPTION: R.F.T. has consulted for Quinn Emmanual and Apotex on unrelated topics. H.A.T. reported providing input on design for a phase 3 trial of cytisine proposed by Achieve Life Sciences and being a principal investigator of National Institutes of Health–sponsored studies for smoking cessation that include medications donated by the manufacturers. Other authors declare no potential conflicts of interest.
In this paper, we study the growth of fine Selmer groups in two cases. First, we study the growth of fine Selmer ranks in multiple
-extensions. We show that the growth of the fine Selmer group is unbounded in such towers. We recover a sufficient condition to prove the
conjecture for cyclotomic
-extensions. We show that in certain non-cyclotomic
-invariant of the fine Selmer group can be arbitrarily large. Second, we show that in an unramified
-class field tower, the growth of the fine Selmer group is unbounded. This tower is non-Abelian and non-
Previous studies have shown the anthelmintic efficacy of Senna alata, Senna alexandrina and Senna occidentalis on the zoonotic parasite Hymenolepis diminuta through microscopic studies on morphological structure. The present study is based on the light and confocal microscopic studies to understand if Senna extracts affect neurotransmitter activity of the parasites. A standard concentration (40 mg/mL) of the three leaf extracts and one set of 0.005 mg/mL concentration of the reference drug praziquantel were tested against the parasites, keeping another set of parasites in phosphate buffer saline as a control. Histochemical studies were carried out using acetylthiocholine iodide as the substrate and acetylcholinesterase as the marker enzyme for studying the expression of the neurotransmitter of the parasite and the staining intensity was observed under a light microscope. Immunohistochemical studies were carried out using anti serotonin primary antibody and fluorescence tagged secondary antibody and observed using confocal microscopy. Intensity of the stain decreases in treated parasites compared with the control which implies loss of activity of the neurotransmitters. These observations indicated that Senna have a strong anthelmintic effect on the parasite model and thus pose as a potential anthelmintic therapy.
The effect of uniform wind flow on modulational instability of two crossing waves is studied here. This is an extension of an earlier work to the case of a finite-depth water body. Evolution equations are obtained as a set of three coupled nonlinear equations correct up to third order in wave steepness. Figures presented in this paper display the variation in the growth rate of instability of a pair of obliquely interacting uniform wave trains with respect to the changes in the air-flow velocity, depth of water medium and the angle between the directions of propagation of the two wave packets. We observe that the growth rate of instability increases with the increase in the wind velocity and the depth of water medium. It also increases with the decrease in the angle of interaction of the two wave systems.
In this study, nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HAp) of average crystallite size ∼8.15 ± 4 nm of hexagonal geometry with size ranging between 14 and 50 nm was synthesized in laboratory at room temperature by using suitable sources of calcium and phosphate ions and using triethanolamine. Mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG) was synthesized by using cationic surfactant cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide of the SiO2–CaO–P2O5 glass system. After calcination at 650 °C, MBG powders were having a zeta potential of −16.5 mV (pH ∼9.1), median particle size ∼75 nm, and specific surface area 473.2 m2/g. An aqueous suspension of DNA was used to disperse both n-HAp and MBG and further subjected for analysis including absorbance, circular dichroism spectroscopy, UV-melting, and isothermal titration calorimetry. Absorbance spectroscopy indicated that an equilibrium binding was obtained between both materials and DNA in solution phase. Due to the addition of the nanomaterial, molar ellipticity of DNA was changed revealing that the materials were interacted with DNA. From UV melting characterization, there is a shifting of the melting temperature of DNA in the presence of MBG and n-HAp, respectively, suggesting that the nanoparticles stabilized DNA helix to a considerable extent.
To increase the corrosion prevention of stainless steel implant and fast recovery due to new bone-cell formation at the orthopedic implant site, in the present investigation, a trilayered (with bioceramic interlayer sandwiched between innermost passivated surface and outermost polymer coating) 316L stainless steel (SS) implant was designed and investigated. It was inferred that this new designed implant invokes faster and more bone-cell formation than uncoated commercially available 316L SS implants. Faster bone-cell formation at the coated implant site reduces the initial threat of implant corrosion. The electrochemical corrosion study proved that this model of coated implants is able to prevent corrosion up to 90% better than uncoated commercially available 316L SS. Subsequently, preclinical studies in the rabbit bone defect model (which included histology, radiology, fluorochrome labeling, push-out test, and scanning electron microscopy taken after 45 and 90 days) proved higher rate of new bone tissue formation and better push-out strength between tissue in contact and the coated implant. The toxicological study of vital organs like liver, kidney, and heart also exhibited no abnormality. The outcome of the experimentations indicates suitability of this trilayered 316L SS implant for bone repair and healing.
Declining pulse production has caused wide concern in recent years. A field experiment was conducted to investigate effects of balance fertilizers based on soil test values and targeted yield equations on soil biological activities, soil quality, nutrient acquisition and grain yield of lentil. Treatments included the use of farmyard manure (FYM), bio-inoculants and inorganic fertilizers at different rates and combinations. The results revealed significant improvement in nodulation, microbial counts, microbial biomass carbon (MBC), soil respiration, soil enzymes and soil organic carbon (SOC) with integrated approaches (i.e. fertilizer plus FYM or bio-inoculants); these improvements led to achievement of the specific target yield of 1.50 t/ha. Although the highest yield was achieved with fertilizers applied for a target yield of 2.0 t/ha, there was significant decline in nodulation, microbial counts, MBC, soil respiration, soil enzymes, SOC and soil quality. Correlation between soil quality index (SQI) and grain yield suggested a significant influence of balanced fertilization based on soil tests and target yield. Principal component analysis revealed the average contribution of soil quality indicators towards SQI was in descending order of SOC > acid phosphatase activity > total culturable fungi > available phosphorus > BMC, which are crucial for sustainable lentil production in alluvial soils.
Childhood-onset attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults is clinically heterogeneous and commonly presents with different patterns of cognitive deficits. It is unclear if this clinical heterogeneity expresses a dimensional or categorical difference in ADHD.
We first studied differences in functional connectivity in multi-echo resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) acquired from 80 medication-naïve adults with ADHD and 123 matched healthy controls. We then used canonical correlation analysis (CCA) to identify latent relationships between symptoms and patterns of altered functional connectivity (dimensional biotype) in patients. Clustering methods were implemented to test if the individual associations between resting-state brain connectivity and symptoms reflected a non-overlapping categorical biotype.
Adults with ADHD showed stronger functional connectivity compared to healthy controls, predominantly between the default-mode, cingulo-opercular and subcortical networks. CCA identified a single mode of brain–symptom co-variation, corresponding to an ADHD dimensional biotype. This dimensional biotype is characterized by a unique combination of altered connectivity correlating with symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity, inattention, and intelligence. Clustering analyses did not support the existence of distinct categorical biotypes of adult ADHD.
Overall, our data advance a novel finding that the reduced functional segregation between default-mode and cognitive control networks supports a clinically important dimensional biotype of childhood-onset adult ADHD. Despite the heterogeneity of its presentation, our work suggests that childhood-onset adult ADHD is a single disorder characterized by dimensional brain–symptom mediators.
This paper intends to study the dispersion and attenuation characteristics of Love-type wave propagation due to a disturbance point source in a hydrostatic stressed magneto-viscoelastic layer, lying over a heterogeneous fibre-reinforced elastic half-space. The shear elastic moduli and mass density of half-space are the functions of depth and heterogeneity parameters. The coupled field equations are solved with the aid of Green's function technique and Fourier transform. The dispersion and damping equations have been obtained for the wave. The deduced equations coincide with the classical Love-wave condition for the uniform homogeneous isotropic structure. Numerical computations are carried out for involved parameters and demonstrated with the help of graphs. The effects of hydrostatic stress, magnetic coupling parameter, dissipation factor, attenuation coefficient, reinforcement parameters, heterogeneity parameters and order of the depth variation on the dispersion and damping curves are highlighted.
In most materials, surfaces and interfaces present a significant portion of the workable area, but this area has often been erroneously perceived as a challenge in processing and thus, largely ignored. Surfaces and interfaces, however, present a network of energetically mismatched (sometimes metastable) molecules that can be exploited to either control surface reactions, engineer bulk stability or reveal new fundamental details of otherwise not well understood processes or systems as described herein. This perspective captures the role of i) structure, ii) chemistry and iii) thermodynamics at the interface in fabricating functional materials. Engineering substrate morphology enables tunable wettability either through the substrate or an adsorbed self-assembled monolayer (SAM), the latter being largely due to effect of sub-nanoscale roughness on conformational defects and overall order in the SAM. Surface roughness and chemistry also dictates the nature and amount of adventitious contaminants on a surface, and this was used to control volume of adsorbed water leading to controlled and tunable step-growth polymerization. The chemical treatment renders the paper amphiphobic, which could be used for self-cleaning surfaces and nucleation of water microdroplets for water harvesting. Finally, creating a self-passivating polished thin (∼0.7-2 nm) shell on a molten metal microdroplet kinetically frustrates solidification leading to significant undercooling. The ambient undercooled liquid metal is used for mechanically-triggered heat-free solder and smart composites. These three cases demonstrate key aspects of surface and interface engineering in integrating well-known concepts for the development of functional materials.
In the propagation of seismic waves through layered media, the boundaries play crucial role. The boundaries separating the different layers of the earth are irregular in nature and not perfectly plane. It is, therefore, necessary to take into account the corrugation of the boundaries while dealing with the problem of reflection and refraction of seismic waves. The present study explores the reflection and refraction phenomena of SH-waves at a corrugated interface between visco-elastic half-space and fibre-reinforced half-space. Method of approximation given by Rayleigh is adopted and the expressions for reflection and transmission coefficients are obtained in closed form for the first and second order approximation of the corrugation. The closed form formulae of these coefficients are presented for a corrugated interface of periodic shape (cosine law interface). It is found that these coefficients depend upon the amplitude of corrugation of the boundary, angle of incidence and frequency of the incident wave. Numerical computations for a particular type of corrugated interface are performed and a number of graphs are plotted. Some special cases are derived.
The radio non-detection of two Type Ia supernovae (SNe) SN 2011fe and SN 2014J has been modeled considering synchrotron radiation from shock accelerated electrons in the SN shock fronts. With 10% each of the bulk kinetic energy in electric and magnetic fields, a very low density of the medium around both the SNe has been estimated from the null detection of radio emission, around 1 and 4 years after the explosion of SNe 2014J and 2011fe, respectively. Keeping the fraction of energy in electrons fixed at 10%, a medium with particle density ~ 1cm−3 is found when 1% of the post shock energy is in magnetic fields. In case of a wind medium, the former predicts the mass loss rate Ṁ to be <10−9M⊙ yr−1, and the latter gives an upper limit ~10−9M⊙ yr−1, for wind velocity of 100 kms−1, for both the SNe. The tenuous media obtained from this study favor the double degenerate as well as a spin up/down model for both SNe 2011fe and 2014J.
Glutamate is the most important excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is a glutamate-gated ionotropic cation channel that is composed of several subunits and modulated by a glycine binding site. Many forms of synaptic plasticity depend on the influx of calcium ions through NMDA receptors, and NMDA receptor dysfunction has been linked to a number of neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. Whole-exome sequencing was performed in a family with a strong history of psychotic disorders over three generations. We used an iterative strategy to obtain condense and meaningful variants. In this highly affected family, we found a frameshift mutation (rs10666583) in the GRIN3B gene, which codes for the GluN3B subunit of the NMDA receptor in all family members with a psychotic disorder, but not in the healthy relatives. Matsuno et al., also reported this null variant as a risk factor for schizophrenia in 2015. In a broader sample of 22 patients with psychosis, the allele frequency of the rs10666583 mutation variant was increased compared to those of healthy population samples and unaffected relatives. Compared to the 1000 Genomes Project population, we found a significant increase of this variant with a large effect size among patients. The amino acid shift degrades the S1/S2 glycine binding domain of the dominant modulatory GluN3B subunit of the NMDA receptor, which subsequently affects the permeability of the channel pore to calcium ions. A decreased glycine affinity for the GluN3B subunit might cause impaired functional capability of the NMDA receptor and could be an important risk factor for the pathogenesis of psychotic disorders.
The efficient organization and communication of brain networks underlie cognitive processing and their disruption can lead to pathological behaviours. Few studies have focused on whole-brain networks in obesity and binge eating disorder (BED). Here we used multi-echo resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) along with a data-driven graph theory approach to assess brain network characteristics in obesity and BED.
Multi-echo rsfMRI scans were collected from 40 obese subjects (including 20 BED patients) and 40 healthy controls and denoised using multi-echo independent component analysis (ME-ICA). We constructed a whole-brain functional connectivity matrix with normalized correlation coefficients between regional mean blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals from 90 brain regions in the Automated Anatomical Labeling atlas. We computed global and regional network properties in the binarized connectivity matrices with an edge density of 5%–25%. We also verified our findings using a separate parcellation, the Harvard–Oxford atlas parcellated into 470 regions.
Obese subjects exhibited significantly reduced global and local network efficiency as well as decreased modularity compared with healthy controls, showing disruption in small-world and modular network structures. In regional metrics, the putamen, pallidum and thalamus exhibited significantly decreased nodal degree and efficiency in obese subjects. Obese subjects also showed decreased connectivity of cortico-striatal/cortico-thalamic networks associated with putaminal and cortical motor regions. These findings were significant with ME-ICA with limited group differences observed with conventional denoising or single-echo analysis.
Using this data-driven analysis of multi-echo rsfMRI data, we found disruption in global network properties and motor cortico-striatal networks in obesity consistent with habit formation theories. Our findings highlight the role of network properties in pathological food misuse as possible biomarkers and therapeutic targets.