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Studies have shown that Text2Quit and other mobile cessation programs increase quit rates in adult smokers, but the mechanism of effects and user experiences are not well understood.
This study reports on participants' experiences with the program and explores aspects of the program that they liked and disliked.
Self-reported experiences of the program were collected through a follow-up survey conducted 1 month after enrollment (n = 185). Participant responses to open-ended items were dual coded by independent coders.
Overall participants agreed that they liked the program (4.2/5), that the program was helpful (4.1/5) and that they would recommend the program to a friend (4.3/5). Top reasons for liking the program included that it served as a constant reminder of quitting (17.8%), the content (16.7%), the encouragement provided (13.3%), and the on-demand tools (12.2%). Top reasons for disliking the program were message frequency (20.5%), content (7.0%), and the lack of personal interaction (7.0%).
The constancy of messaging was both liked as a reminder and disliked as an annoyance. Future programs might be improved by pre-testing and customizing the content based on user preferences, and by adding in human interactions, while keeping a supportive tone and offering on-demand tools.
The development of a second version of the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) coincides with the latest updates in the diagnosis of addiction as documented in the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The objective of the present study was to translate the YFAS 2.0 into the Malay language and test its psychometric properties in a primary-care population.
Patients were assessed for food addiction utilizing the Malay YFAS 2.0. The participants were also assessed for eating disorder using the validated Malay Binge Eating Scale. The psychometric properties of the YFAS 2.0 were determined by analysing factor structure, overall item statistics, internal consistency and construct validity.
Between 2017 and 2018, participants were chosen from a regional primary-care clinic in the district of Seremban, Malaysia.
Patients (n 382) from a regional primary-care clinic.
The prevalence of food addiction was 5·0%. A two-factor structure of the YFAS was confirmed as the most optimal solution for the scale via confirmatory factor analysis. In both its diagnostic and symptom count version, the YFAS 2.0 had good internal consistency (Kuder–Richardson α > 0·80 and McDonald’s ω > 0·9).
We validated a psychometrically sound Malay version of the YFAS 2.0 in a primary-care population. Both diagnostic and symptom count versions of the scale had robust psychometric properties. The questionnaire can be used to develop health promotion strategies to detect food addiction tendencies in a general population.
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of neck dissection on survival and complication rates in patients with no clinical or radiological evidence of cervical nodal disease (N0) undergoing salvage laryngectomy.
A retrospective study was conducted of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx following primary radiotherapy that required salvage laryngectomy. Disease-free and overall survival rates were compared over three years using Kaplan–Meier analysis. Pharyngocutaneous fistula rate, hospitalisation length and the requirement for further surgical intervention were also compared across cohorts.
Twenty-three cases met the inclusion criteria (17 neck dissections, 6 undissected). No significant differences in survival outcomes were identified. One patient who underwent neck dissection for advanced, recurrent transglottic squamous cell carcinoma showed evidence of occult lymph node metastases. Fistula rates did not differ significantly between dissected and non-dissected groups; however, two patients required surgical repair of post-operative pharyngocutaneous fistula following neck dissection.
In this study, elective neck dissection did not appear to alter survival outcomes or complication rates during salvage laryngectomy. Given the small but significant risk of occult neck metastases, its true value remains unclear.
The tri-global stability and sensitivity of the low-speed jet in cross-flow are studied using the adjoint equations and finite-time horizon optimal disturbance analysis at Reynolds number
, based on the average velocity at the jet exit, the jet nozzle exit diameter and the kinematic viscosity of the jet, for two jet-to-cross-flow velocity ratios
. A novel capability is developed on unstructured grids and parallel platforms for this purpose. Asymmetric modes are more important to the overall dynamics at
, suggesting increased sensitivity to experimental asymmetries at higher
. Low-frequency modes show a connection to wake vortices. Adjoint modes show that the upstream shear layer is most sensitive to perturbations along the upstream side of the jet nozzle. Lower frequency downstream modes are sensitive in the cross-flow boundary layer. For
, optimal analysis reveals that for short time horizons, asymmetric perturbations dominate and grow along the counter-rotating vortex pair observed in the cross-section. However, as the time horizon increases, large transient growth is observed along the upstream shear layer. When
, the optimal perturbations for short time scales grow along the downstream shear layer. For long time horizons, they become hybrid modes that grow along both the upstream and downstream shear layers.
In turbulent combustors, the transition from stable combustion (i.e. combustion noise) to thermoacoustic instability occurs via intermittency. During stable combustion, the acoustic power production happens in a spatially incoherent manner. In contrast, during thermoacoustic instability, the acoustic power production happens in a spatially coherent manner. In the present study, we investigate the spatiotemporal dynamics of acoustic power sources during the intermittency route to thermoacoustic instability using complex network theory. To that end, we perform simultaneous acoustic pressure measurement, high-speed chemiluminescence imaging and particle image velocimetry in a backward-facing step combustor with a bluff body stabilized flame at different equivalence ratios. We examine the spatiotemporal dynamics of acoustic power sources by constructing time-varying spatial networks during the different dynamical states of combustor operation. We show that as the turbulent combustor transits from combustion noise to thermoacoustic instability via intermittency, small fragments of acoustic power sources, observed during combustion noise, nucleate, coalesce and grow in size to form large clusters at the onset of thermoacoustic instability. This nucleation, coalescence and growth of small clusters of acoustic power sources occurs during the growth of pressure oscillations during intermittency. In contrast, during the decay of pressure oscillations during intermittency, these large clusters of acoustic power sources disintegrate into small ones. We use network measures such as the link density, the number of components and the size of the largest component to quantify the spatiotemporal dynamics of acoustic power sources as the turbulent combustor transits from combustion noise to thermoacoustic instability via intermittency.
A major challenge in taste research is to overcome the flavour imperfections in food products and to build nutritious strategies to combat against obesity as well as other related metabolic syndromes. The field of molecular taste research and chemical senses has contributed to an enormous development in understanding the taste receptors and mechanisms of taste perception. Accordingly, the development of taste-modifying compounds or taste modulators that alter the perception of basic taste modalities has gained significant prominence in the recent past. The beneficial aspects of these substances are overwhelming while considering their potential taste-modifying properties. The objective of the present review is to provide an impression about the taste-modulating compounds and their distinctive taste-modifying properties with reference to their targets and proposed mechanisms of action. The present review also makes an effort to discuss the basic mechanism involved in oro-gustatory taste perception as well as on the effector molecules involved in signal transduction downstream to the activation of taste receptors.
Direct numerical simulation (DNS) is performed for two wall-bounded flow configurations: laminar Couette flow at
and turbulent channel flow at
is the shear stress at the wall. The top wall is smooth and the bottom wall is a realistically rough superhydrophobic surface (SHS), generated from a three-dimensional surface profile measurement. The air–water interface, which is assumed to be flat, is simulated using the volume-of-fluid (VOF) approach. The two flow cases are studied with varying interface heights
to understand its effect on slip and drag reduction (
). For the laminar Couette flow case, the presence of the surface roughness is felt up to
of the channel height in the wall-normal direction. Nonlinear dependence of
is observed with three distinct regions. A nonlinear curve fit is obtained for gas fraction
as a function of
determines the amount of slip area exposed to the flow. A power law fit is obtained from the data for the effective slip length as a function of
and is compared to those derived for structured geometry. For the turbulent channel flow, statistics of the flow field are compared to that of a smooth wall to understand the effects of roughness and
. Four cases are simulated ranging from fully wetted to fully covered and two intermediate regions in between. Scaling laws for slip length, slip velocity, roughness function and
are obtained for different penetration depths and are compared to past work for structured geometry.
is shown to depend on a competing effect between slip velocity and turbulent losses due to the Reynolds shear stress contribution. Presence of trapped air in the cavities significantly alters near-wall flow physics where we examine near-wall structures and propose a physical mechanism for their behaviour. The fully wetted roughness increases the peak value of turbulent intensities, whereas the presence of the interface suppresses them. The pressure fluctuations have competing contributions between turbulent pressure fluctuations and stagnation due to asperities, the near-wall structure is altered and breaks down with increasing slip. Overall, there exists a competing effect between the interface and the asperities, the interface suppresses turbulence whereas the asperities enhance them. The present work demonstrates DNS over a realistic multiphase SHS for the first time, to the best of our knowledge.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The objective of this study was to reconstruct patient-specific distal airway patterns at the tissue- and single-cell resolution and develop personalized distal airway models based on utilization of patient-derived DABCs and autologous region-specific stromal cells. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Patient-specific distal airway units, containing parental small bronchiole (<2 mm in diameter, >12th generation) and daughter airway branches, including pre-terminal/terminal bronchioles, leading to alveoli (3-7 units/lung), were dissected. Epithelial and stromal cells were isolated from these units and processed for ddSeq single-cell RNA-sequencing (n=6 samples). Autologous DABCs and stromal cells were isolated, propagated, biobanked, and used for establishment of patient-specific distal airway models (3D-organoids and air-liquid interface-based airway wall model; n=10 samples). Region-specific tissue patterns were evaluated using immunofluorescence and laser-capture microdissection (LCM; n=6 samples). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Single-cell-based human distal airway transcriptome map (constructed based on the analysis of >6,500 distal airway cells obtained from 6 subjects) identified physiological and COPD-relevant distal airway differentiation patterns, including distal airway-specific secretory phenotype (DASP) characterized with high expression of secretoglobins 3A2 and 3A1, surfactant proteins SFTPB and SFTPA2, and mucin 1, unique signatures of DABCs, and stromal (fibroblasts, smooth muscle, endothelial cell subpopulations) and immune (macrophage, T cells, B cell, mast cells). Immunofluorescence analysis and LCM confirmed distribution of cell type-specific markers with differential expression patterns of DABC and DASP signatures. Patient-derived DABC-stromal co-culture models reproduced 3 regenerative patterns: 1) physiological (high DABC-clonogenic potency, establishment of polarized differentiated organoids and DASP-expressing epithelia); 2) hypo-regenerative (failure of DABCs to form clones, spheres and mechanically stable differentiated epithelial barrier); and 3) hyperplastic (generation of DABC hyperplasia accompanied in some COPD samples by mucous-cell hyperplasia mimicking in vivo remodeling patterns). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Patient-specific maps and models of distal airway regeneration patterns have been established in this study, which can be used to identify candidate pathways that mediate disease-relevant airway remodeling and potentially utilized as pre-clinical platforms for developing personalized therapeutic approaches to suppress the progression of distal airway remodeling in chronic lung diseases, including COPD.
Tree establishment in tropical dry forests is constrained by drought-related seedling mortality during early stages of recruitment. Predicted increases in the duration of growing-season droughts in the future pose a significant threat to these ecosystems that could significantly alter their vegetation structure and composition. Here, we examined drought tolerance in seedlings of seven common dry-forest tree species from the Indian subcontinent. We conducted a dry-down experiment on 3-wk-old seedlings, and asked whether the key plant functional traits, specific leaf area (SLA), leaf dry matter content (LDMC), seed size and stem specific density (SSD) were good predictors of seedling growth under well-watered conditions, and survival during drought. Seedlings displayed substantial drought tolerance with most seedlings surviving for more than 2 wk under protracted drought. Seed size in combination with SLA predicted seedling growth under well-watered conditions and seed size predicted survival under drought. In contrast to our expectations, seedlings with lower SSD survived for longer without water. Our results suggest that dry-forest species will be differentially affected by the predicted increases in the duration of growing-season droughts, and detrimental effects will be more severe for species with smaller seeds.
To assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices related to salt consumption among adults in rural and urban North India.
Data for the study were obtained from a community-based cross-sectional survey using an interviewer-administered questionnaire and 24 h urine samples.
Data collection was conducted during March–October 2012 in rural Haryana and urban Delhi in North India.
Adults (n 1635) aged ≥20 years (701 in rural Haryana; 934 in urban Delhi).
Twenty-four per cent of rural and 40·5 % of urban participants knew that a high-salt diet causes high blood pressure. Nearly one-fifth of both rural and urban participants knew that there should be a maximum daily limit for consumption of salt. In rural and urban areas, 46·6 and 45·1 %, respectively, perceived it important to reduce the salt content of their diet; however, only 3·7 and 10·2 %, respectively, reported taking some actions. Participants reported they were consuming ‘too little salt’, ‘just the right amount of salt’ or ‘too much salt’, but their corresponding mean (95 % CI) actual salt consumption (g/d; as measured by 24 h urinary Na excretion) was higher, especially among rural participants (rural: 9·2 (8·13, 10·22), 8·5 (8·19, 8·77) or 8·4 (7·72, 8·99); urban: 5·6 (4·67, 6·57), 5·7 (5·32, 6·01) or 4·6 (4·10, 5·14), respectively).
Knowledge about the deleterious health impact of excess salt consumption is low in this population. Tailored public education for salt reduction is warranted with a particular focus on rural residents.
Premature ductal constriction was diagnosed in a 30-week gestation fetus with hypoplastic left heart syndrome. The fetus developed right ventricular hypertrophy and mild tricuspid regurgitation. Foetal neuroimaging showed slowed growth of the brain and increased lactate. We describe the imaging and clinical findings. Fetuses with critical CHD and in utero ductal constriction are at increased risk of morbidity and mortality, and require appropriate counselling.
Brazil today has a legal market that allows for foreign lawyers and foreign firms, but existing regulations are restrictive. Foreign lawyers cannot practice domestic law or litigation, nor can Brazilian‐licensed lawyers working for foreign firms or partnering with foreign lawyers. This was not always the case, however. Until 1963, there was little regulation of the legal profession. Beginning in 1913, elite US lawyers traveled to Brazil, with some even becoming prominent domestic practitioners. They partnered with local elite lawyers (who maintained their domestic privileges) and served as key brokers for US businesses seeking market entry. Drawing on the elite theory literature, and on ethnographies, interview data, and over 1,000 pages of rare Portuguese and English archival sources, this study's thesis is that sophisticated US and Brazilian legal elites capitalized on the lack of regulation to advance their financial interests, and in the process transformed Brazil's corporate legal sector.
It has become commonplace in scholarship to place the experience of migration at the center of contemporary African literature, viewing the thematic content of the former as integral to the expressive aesthetics of the latter. Ranging from the claim that “African writers have become part of the worldwide phenomena of migration and globalization with the attendant physical, sociocultural, psychic, and other forms of dislocation, which permeate their individual writings,” to the observation that approximately “half of all the writers hailing from African countries are said to have lived abroad,” to the focus on “mobility [as] a key component” of this body of work, critical accounts of contemporary African writing place transnational fluidity at the heart of its epistemic foundations. While one might argue that an overdetermining emphasis on concepts such as migration and diaspora has hampered how contemporary criticism has engaged with literary production from and around the African continent, it is equally the case that a growing body of critical writing has emerged that registers how contemporary writing from Africa and its diasporas complicates teleological visions of migration in ways that far surpass the straightforward binaries of “here and there, homeland and hostland and indigenousness and foreignness on which it is assumed to be predicated.”
Along with a shift in emphasis from the former imperial center of the United Kingdom to the current symbolic center of the United States, contemporary Anglophone migration narratives reflect, too, an asymmetric, cyclical dynamism that both mimics long-running patterns of circular migration within territories and disallows any reading of migration as a simple, teleological, or Manichean movement from periphery to center. Maintaining epistemological, ontological, and material ties across multiple locations spanning continental “home” (or “homes”) and Euro-American “destination,” the polydirectional movements of contemporary migration that emerge in African literature defy any singular category or conscription. Instead, they foreground a “decentered and dynamic idea of Africa” in which the continent is “conceived as a site of passage and reproduced through circulation and mixing.” This is a literary aesthetic that registers the complexity of the agonistic and ongoing process of self-fashioning, set against the complex material circuits of a vision of diaspora that is multiaxial and multiple in its purview.
Using panel data on top management characteristics and a management quality factor constructed using common factor analysis on individual management quality measures, we analyze the relation between top firm management quality and corporate innovation input and output. We show that top management quality is an important determinant of corporate innovation, with individual aspects of management quality affecting innovation in younger and older firms differently. Further, firms with higher top management quality engage in more risky (“explorative”) innovation strategies. Finally, hiring more and higher-quality inventors is an important channel through which firms with higher management quality achieve greater innovation output.
This Element explores the mechanisms through which 'African literature', as a market category, has been consecrated within the global literary field. Drawing on archival, textual and field-based research, it proposes that the normative story of African literary writing has functioned to efface a broader material history of African literary production located on and oriented to the continent itself.
In his now-canonical essay, ‘Of Other Spaces’, Michel Foucault opens by arguing:
The great obsession of the nineteenth century was, as we know, history: with its themes of development and of suspension, of crisis and cycle, themes of the everaccumulating past, with its great preponderance of dead men and the menacing glaciation of the world. […] The present epoch will perhaps be above all the epoch of space. We are in the epoch of simultaneity: we are in the epoch of juxtaposition, the epoch of the near and far, of the side-by-side, of the dispersed.
In the years since the publication of this sweeping assertion, few disciplines in the humanities seem to have taken Foucault's words as seriously as postcolonial studies, here conceived of as a related cluster of scholarly perspectives in the humanities and social sciences, spanning literary criticism, political science, sociology, history and more. Indeed, since its legitimisation as an academic discipline with the 1978 publication of Said's Orientalism, postcolonial studies has placed space, in all its many forms, as central to the project of colonialism and its afterlives. Viewing the efficacy of colonial conquest as one enacted through a ‘series of intrinsically spatial strategies’, space has become a primary category through which the full reach of imperialism's work may be exposed, analysed and contested. In a certain sense, this is a statement that goes without saying: predicated on the physical and geographical conquest of the non-European world, colonialism, in its eighteenth- and nineteenth-century century instantiations, was fundamentally about the control of space and place, the rights of habitation and the economic deprivation of geographical locations. At the same time, there is another sense in which space has remained central to the discipline, captured in Ato Quayson's observation that ‘[e]ven when the term postcolonialism is being deployed exclusively for periodizing purposes […] the nature of what is highlighted insistently invokes spatializing processes’. Through its ‘projection of a series of sociopolitical dimensions upon geographical space’, the very ethos of postcolonial criticism remains inherently intertwined with spatial precepts. Space, as Soja reminds us, functions as more than simply an absolute container or matter of lines on a map.