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Crime, Deviance and Society: An Introduction to Sociological Criminology offers a comprehensive introduction to criminological theory. The book introduces readers to key sociological theories, such as anomie and strain, and examines how traditional approaches have influenced the ways in which crime and deviance are constructed. It provides a nuanced account of contemporary theories and debates, and includes chapters covering feminist criminology, critical masculinities, cultural criminology, green criminology, and postcolonial theory, among others. Case studies in each chapter demonstrate how sociological theories can manifest within and influence the criminal justice system and social policy. Each chapter also features margin definitions and timelines of contributions to key theories, reflection questions and end-of-chapter questions that prompt students reflection. Written by an expert team of academics from Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom, Crime, Deviance and Society is a highly engaging and accessible introduction to the field for students of criminology and criminal justice.
Many studies demonstrate that marriage protects against risky alcohol use and moderates genetic influences on alcohol outcomes; however, previous work has not considered these effects from a developmental perspective or in high-risk individuals. These represent important gaps, as it cannot be assumed that marriage has uniform effects across development or in high-risk samples. We took a longitudinal developmental approach to examine whether marital status was associated with heavy episodic drinking (HED), and whether marital status moderated polygenic influences on HED. Our sample included 937 individuals (53.25% female) from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism who reported their HED and marital status biennially between the ages of 21 and 25. Polygenic risk scores (PRS) were derived from a genome-wide association study of alcohol consumption. Marital status was not associated with HED; however, we observed pathogenic gene-by-environment effects that changed across young adulthood. Among those who married young (age 21), individuals with higher PRS reported more HED; however, these effects decayed over time. The same pattern was found in supplementary analyses using parental history of alcohol use disorder as the index of genetic liability. Our findings indicate that early marriage may exacerbate risk for those with higher polygenic load.
We present a rare case of incidentally diagnosed Twiddler’s syndrome in a child 7 years after implantation of a dual-chamber pacemaker system with epicardial leads. During revision, an insulation defect of the ventricular lead was evident, despite unremarkable prior pacemaker lead testing. The lead was repaired and a new generator was suture-fixated to prevent re-occurrence of generator manipulation.
Protein-losing enteropathy is an infrequent but severe condition occurring after Fontan procedure. The multifactorial pathogenesis remains unclear and no single proposed treatment strategy has proven universally successful. Therefore, we sought to describe different treatment strategies and their effect on clinical outcome and mortality.
Material and Methods:
We performed a retrospective observational study. From the total cohort of 439 Fontan patients treated in our institution during the study period 1986–2019, 30 patients (6.8%) with protein-losing enteropathy were identified. Perioperative, clinical, echocardiographic, laboratory, and invasive haemodynamic findings and treatment details were analysed.
Median follow-up after disease onset was 13.1 years [interquartile range 10.6]. Twenty-five patients received surgical or interventional treatment for haemodynamic restrictions. Medical treatment, predominantly pulmonary vasodilator and/or systemic anti-inflammatory therapy with budesonide, was initiated in 28 patients. In 15 patients, a stable remission could be achieved by medical or surgical procedures (n = 3 each), by combined multimodal therapy (n = 8), or ultimately by cardiac transplantation (n = 1). Phrenic palsy, bradyarrhythmia, Fontan pathway stenosis, and absence of a fenestration were significantly associated with development of protein-losing enteropathy (p = 0.001–0.48). Ten patients (33.3%) died during follow-up; 5-year survival estimate was 96.1%. In unadjusted analysis, medical therapy with budesonide and pulmonary vasodilator therapy in combination was associated with improved survival.
Protein-losing enteropathy is a serious condition limiting survival after the Fontan procedure. Comprehensive assessment and individual treatment strategies are mandatory to achieve best possible outcome. Nevertheless, relapse is frequent and long-term mortality substantial. Cardiac transplantation should be considered early as treatment option.
Little is known about the influence of patients’ preferences and expectations about offered treatments for depression on treatment outcome. Therefore, we investigated whether in primary care patients with depressive disorders receiving a preferred treatment is associated with a better clinical outcome.
Within a randomized, placebo-controlled, single-centre, 10-week trial with five arms (sertraline; placebo; cognitive-behavioural group therapy (CBT-G); moderated self-help group control; treatment with sertraline or CBT-G according to patients’ choice), 145 primary care patients with mild-to-moderate depressive disorders according to DSM-IV criteria were investigated. Preference for medication versus psychotherapy was assessed at the time of patients’ screening using a single item. To assess therapy outcome, the post-baseline sum scores of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17) were used.
Depressed patients receiving their preferred treatment (sertraline or CBT-G) (N=63) responded significantly better than those who did not receive their preferred therapy (N=54) (p = 0.001). The difference in outcome between both groups was 8.0 points on HAMD-17 for psychotherapy and 2.9 points on HAMD-17 for treatment with antidepressants. This result is not explained by differences in depression severity or drop-out rates.
Patients’ preference for pharmaco- versus psychotherapy should be considered when offering a treatment because receiving the preferred treatment conveys an additional and clinically relevant benefit (HAMD-17: +2.9 points for drugs; +8.0 points for CBT-G) in outcome.
The term ‘postmodernism’ hovers between two usages, one referring to an aesthetic of pastiche and self-conscious eclecticism, the other to a conceptual orientation averse to what Jean-François Lyotard famously called grand narratives. The two are linked, however, by their non-hierarchical character and by their disregard for chronological or generic boundaries. The relevant traits are familiar, even clichéd: an emphasis on surface rather than depth, a preference for juxtaposition at the expense of expository or narrative continuity, a penchant for quotation and for the recycling of cultural material. These traits typically combine with each other while remaining detached from the imperatives of a central point of reference or controlling consciousness. It is the detachment that most distinctly uncouples the ‘post’ from the ‘modern’, although the difference is not always clear or, for that matter, real. Similarly, it is an affirmative, anxiety-free, or playful attitude toward that detachment that typifies a ‘postmodernist’ style in the art worlds of the late twentieth century. Otherwise the traits I have just listed as familiarly postmodernist are equally typical of much art throughout history, though perhaps most emphatically so since 1900. It is important to state at the outset that my concern in this essay is neither with postmodernism as an aesthetic trend nor with postmodernist styles of art or music but with the general epistemic condition of the postmode rn, which is independent of the aesthetic orientations that share part of its name. My topic is not postmodern times but the ti me of the postmodern and its range of relationships to music.
In order to inquire about the time of the postmodern, if there is such a (single) thing, we need to situate the postmodern itself in time. As many observers have noted, the category is not chronological, although, one might add, it became possible only at a certain late point in the history of the modern, along with a certain conception of postmodern knowledge. Understanding the postmodern is in that respect a retrospective enterprise, even when it is most closely attuned to the present. Understanding the postmodern is a postmodern project.
How then is the phenomenon to be understood? The postmodern is a latent condition within the modern itself.
Former studies show low treatment rates of outpatients with a diagnosis of depression. The aims of this study are to examine
(1) the rate of diagnosed depression in outpatient care,
(2) rates of treatment of depression according to individual and regional characteristics and
(3) effects of individual and regional characteristics on getting depression-specific treatment in the federal state of Bavaria.
Prevalence of depression and outpatient treatment for depression as well as individual and regional characteristics of outpatients diagnosed with depression were analysed based on secondary data from the Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians Bavaria in 2006 (N=780,226). Descriptive analyses were followed by logistic regression analysis (STATA, PASW) to examine predictive effects of individual and regional characteristics on getting depression-specific treatment.
Prevalence of diagnosed depression is 9.2% for persons who are statutory health insured and older than 17 years. 55% of diagnosed depressed patients do not get a depression-specific treatment within one year. Rates of a depression-specific treatment are higher for persons who are female, of middle age, with a moderate or severe depression, with a psychiatric comorbidity, without somatic comorbidity, who live in more rural areas.
The access to depression-specific treatment after a diagnosis of depression must be facilitated. Training for physicians, psychoeducation for patients and anti-stigma campaigns are necessary measures to reach this goal. The knowledge about influence of individual characteristics on getting a depression-specific treatment is important to reach the groups who get least depression-specific treatment.
Neuroimaging studies in adults with borderline personality disorder (BPD) have reported alterations in frontolimbic areas, but cannot differentiate between alterations originating from disease and those occurring as side-effects of medication or other consequences of the disorder.
To provide a clearer picture of the organic origins of BPD, the present study reduced such confounds by examining adolescents in the early stages of the disorder. It also examined the extent to which alterations associated with BPD are specific, or shared more broadly among other psychiatric disorders.
Sixty right-handed, female adolescents (14-18 years) participated. 20 had a DSM-IV diagnosis of BPD, 20 had a different DSM-IV defined psychiatric disorder, and 20 were healthy controls. All groups were matched for age and IQ. Images were analysed using voxel-based morphometry.
No differences were found in limbic or white matter structures. Compared to healthy controls, adolescents with BPD displayed reduced gray matter in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex bilaterally and in left orbitofrontal cortex, but there were no significant differences in gray matter between BPD and other psychiatric patients. Like BPD patients, non-BPD psychiatric patients displayed significantly less gray matter in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex compared to healthy controls.
These findings indicate that the prefrontal cortex is the earliest affected in the progression of BPD, but this does not distinguish it clearly from other psychiatric disorders. Alterations in limbic areas and white matter structures were not observed, but may play a later role in the progression of the illness.
Client and therapist document the therapy process using handheld computers by answering questions about symptom severity (e.g. depression, anxiety and stress), life satisfaction, therapeutic relationship and problem domains. The encrypted data is sent to the University of Mannheim via internet, where the data is analyzed by specific software. As a response for each data delivery, the therapist gets an individual feedback report, monitoring the therapy process of all of his / her patients in comparison to reference groups, build by the steady growing database of the trustcenter. The KVB provides the documentation software and handheld computers for a sample of 200 psychotherapists. 1694 patients participate in the prospective naturalistic study and 1091 patients have completed their therapy so far. As from now the first 1-year-follow-up measures are done. For outcome evaluation, an overall index of outcome quality is computed, aggregating single pre-post-measures to a multiple outcome criterion. 76.8% of the 1694 patients at intake are female; the age mean is 40.2 years (SD = 12.3). About 48.4% suffer from depressive disorders, followed by anxiety disorders (18.9%). Outcome results demonstrate impressive effect sizes (Cohen's d = 0.87) at discharge on a multiple outcome criterion. Electronic documentation is well accepted by most of the participating therapists. The encrypted computer based documentation is a secure and comfortable approach to improve transparency for therapists and patients. It provides useful information for therapy process optimization and outcome documentation of therapy results.
From September 1, 2001 to August 31, 2003, a 29-item questionnaire was sent to 977 institutions in 45 countries in Asia.
334 institutions (34%) in 29 countries replied, of which 257 institutions in 23 countries had ECT. 39,875 patients (men: women = 1.56: 1) received 240,314 ECTs from 1,919 psychiatrists during the survey period. Brief-pulse device was used in 103 institutions, 60 did not know the type of their ECT devices. Thymatron or MECTA devices were used in 58 institutions, 115 respondents did not know the brand of their ECT devices. EEG monitoring was used routinely in 59 institutions. Bilateral ECT was always used in 202 institutions. Patients commonly received ECT were schizophrenia (41.8%), major depressive disorder (32.4%), mania (14%), catatonia (6.9%), drug abuse (1.8%), and dysthymia (1.6%). 26,167 ECTs (73%) were given to patients age group 18-44 years, 2,138 ECTs (5.4%) to children and adolescent, and 1,581 ECTs (4%) to age group 65 and above. 22,194 patients (55.7%) received unmodified ECT totally of 129,906 treatments (54%) at 141 institutions in 14 countries. Continuation ECT was done in 115 institutions in 17 countries and maintenance ECT was done in 63 institutions in 14 countries.
ECT is commonly practiced in Asia. Unmodified ECT accounted for 54% of treatments. There was no formal training in any institution.
In the case of a first episode of psychosis among members of different associations of families of mentally ill people, little is known about their priorities and how satisfied they are with the help provided to them. A survey was conducted in five European family associations. Respondents emphasized the need for early (ambulant) intervention through outreach with very practical goals directed at creating stability and social functioning. About one-third of the respondents are unsatisfied or very unsatisfied. The highest percentage of unsatisfied respondents was in the following five areas of care: advice on how to handle specific problems; help with preserving or regaining social functioning; help with regaining structure and routine; information; prompt assistance preferably in patientˈs own environment. The agreement of these findings with findings from earlier studies underlines the importance of suggesting specific changes in the delivery of care.
Depression is common in nursing home residents, but is still underrecognized. Screening for depression could be a first step to increase recognition rates within this high-risk group.
Therefore, we investigated the validity of the WHO (Five) Well-Being Index (WHO-5) for early detection of depression in nursing home residents.
The Structural Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) was used as the gold standard for the validation of the WHO-5. The diagnoses covered in this assessment were both current major depression (MD) as well as minor depression (MinD) according to DSM-IV research criteria.
In our sample of 92 nursing home residents in Munich aged 65–97 years, (73.9% female, 26.1% male) 14.1% fulfilled the criteria of MinD, and again 14.1% fulfilled the criteria of MD in the SCID. Overall diagnostic validity (area under the ROC curve) of the WHO-5 was 90.1% (95% confidence interval: 83.5%–96.7%). The World Health Organization's recommended cut-off-point of 13 yielded a sensitivity of 92.3% for the category of ‘MinD or MD’, and a specificity of 74.2%. Corresponding values for an adapted cut-off point of 12 are 92.3% and 78.7%, respectively.
The diagnostic accuracy of the WHO-5 in our study is promising. The WHO-5 might be an efficient screening tool for nursing home residents, especially with the adapted cut-off point, but results have to be replicated in a larger sample.
Former studies show low treatment rates of outpatients with a diagnosis of depression. Various characteristics influence these treatment rates.
To examine the effects of individual and regional characteristics on getting depression-specific treatment in the federal state of Bavaria.
Outpatient treatment for depression as well as individual and regional characteristics of outpatients diagnosed with depression were analyzed based on secondary data from the Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians Bavaria in 2006 (N = 780,226). Depression-specific treatment was classified in “Threshold” and “Subthreshold” treatment according to its intensity. Descriptive analyses were followed by logistic regression analysis (STATA, PASW).
More than half of the patients diagnosed with depression did not use any depression-specific treatment within one year. Individual factors which heighten the rates of a depression-specific treatment were female gender, middle age, a moderate or severe depression, a psychiatric comorbidity and no somatic comorbidity. Interestingly, living in a more rural area increased the chance of using “Threshold” treatment.
The knowledge about the influence of individual characteristics on getting a depression-specific treatment is important to reach the risk groups. A possible reason for higher rates of “Threshold” treatment in rural areas is the higher rate of pharmacotherapy in rural areas, which was more often classified as “Threshold” treatment than psychotherapy according to our classification.
Early onset and frequency of sexual experience are associated with problem behaviours such as delinquent acts, substance abuse and exposure to HIV. Sexual health services focus on young people may have a potential to identify those at risk.
Aim of the study:
To assess whether the levels, nature and associations of emotional and behavioural problems in adolescents attending a sexual health clinic differ from those of adolescents in the community.
A cross sectional survey was carried out at a London walk-in sexual clinic and an inner city school. We gathered demographic information and psychiatric and behavioural assessment using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), a sexual attitude and behaviour questionnaire and the Westminster Substance Use Questionnaire.
We found significant differences between the groups in terms of their families (trouble with the police), sexual and health risks (sexual activity, pregnancy, number of sexual partners and Sexually Transmitted Diseases and more regular use of tobacco, alcohol and cannabis) and psychological risks (higher scores in BDI and SDQ emotional, conduct and hyperactivity subscales).
We conclude that urban sexual health clinics for adolescents appropriately attract young people, especially girls, with high sexual risk but also with high levels of substance use risk behaviours. However it also attracts girls with high levels of depressive disorder, and thus provides an opportunity to intervene not just for sexual risks, but also to provide psychoeducation and guidance on adolescent depressive symptoms.
In the brain, estrogen plays an important role in neural plasticity and its decline during menopause might result in cognitive impairment and predispose to the development of dementia. Two estrogen receptors – α and ß – mediate estrogen actions either as ligand-activated dimeric transcription factors or as membrane-embedded ER monomers.
To analyze ERß-variants and ApoE-genotype in the population-based SALIA cohort of 834 non-demented, elderly women.
We aimed to explore, whether ERß variants may impact on cognitive performance in interaction with air pollution and APOE.
DNA was isolated from lymphocytes. ApoE-epsilon-variants and ERß SNPs rs944045, rs1256062, rs10144225 and rs2274705 were determined by LCG /KBioscience (Hoddesdon, UK). All participants were assessed for cognitive impairment by the CERAD-Plus test battery. Subtests were merged to a total z-score, that corrected for gender, age and time of education. Long-term exposure to air pollution was backextrapolated from data collected by monitoring stations using a geographic information system.
SNP analysis revealed that 3 ERß variants (rs1256062, rs10144225 and rs2274705) were significantly correlated with lower CERAD z total scores and especially with decline in episodic memory. These effects were strengthened in APOE-epsilon-E4 carriers. Air pollution (NO2, PM2,5) did not worsen the CERAD z total score of the women, but interacting with the ERß variants PM2,5 affected their visuoconstructive practice and NO2 their semantic memory.
In this population-based, prospective study a gene-gene interaction effect of ApoE and ERß on cognitive performance appeared. Moreover, significant gene-environment interactions on cognition were found for air pollution.
Previous studies in other countries have reported that cyberbullying was related to Information and Communication Technology (ICT) use. Helweg-Larsen, (2011) reported that knowledge about safe internet use did not decrease the prevalence of cyberbullying. Less is known about this relationship with family functioning.
To examine the rates of cyberbullying and their relationships with ICT use and family functioning in a sample of secondary students in the UK
To study 1) associations between cyberbullying and ICT use 2) associations between family functioning and parental controls with ICT-use and cyberbullying.
A cross-sectional questionnaire of 2218 secondary students was completed
included demographic data, ICT use (levels and nature), Olweus bullying questionnaire adapted for cyberbullying, General Functioning subscale of the Family Assessment Device and parental controls (type and levels).
Response rate 80%, 45% males, mean (SD) age 14.97 (1.9) years. Cyberbullying seems to be related to the time spent online and to the general family functioning. Bullies or bully-victims spend significantly more time online than those who are not involved. The majority of students have been told how to be safe online; however only a few have parental controls on their computers. There is a significant positive correlation between worse family functioning and time spent online and with being involved in cyberbullying, even after controlling for the time spent online.
Our results suggest that increasing family communication may contribute to reduce children involvement in cyberbullying
We describe an ultra-wide-bandwidth, low-frequency receiver recently installed on the Parkes radio telescope. The receiver system provides continuous frequency coverage from 704 to 4032 MHz. For much of the band (
), the system temperature is approximately 22 K and the receiver system remains in a linear regime even in the presence of strong mobile phone transmissions. We discuss the scientific and technical aspects of the new receiver, including its astronomical objectives, as well as the feed, receiver, digitiser, and signal processor design. We describe the pipeline routines that form the archive-ready data products and how those data files can be accessed from the archives. The system performance is quantified, including the system noise and linearity, beam shape, antenna efficiency, polarisation calibration, and timing stability.