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This study aimed at identifying the needs for the health workforce in 16 public health laboratories in the Serbian capital by assessing the workforce stock, workload activities, activity standards, and workload pressure.
A review of laboratory records and regulations, interviews with key respondents, and observing work processes provided data for the World Health Organization method for determining staffing needs based on workload indicators (Workload Indicators of Staffing Need, WISN).
A total of 99 laboratory workers spend almost 70% of their available working time in undertaking core activities. Core activities per sample can take from 0.25 to 180 min. Laboratory workers are under moderate or high workload pressure (the WISN ratio from 0.86 to 0.50). The WISN difference indicates a shortage of 22.22% of laboratory analysts and 20.63% of laboratory technicians. To balance the staffing to workload, these laboratories need an additional 8 FTE analysts and 13 FTE technicians. They could also consider selectively reducing workload pressure by automating some of the additional activities while maintaining the competence of laboratory workers and opportunities for professional development.
Staffing policy should account for work processes, activity standards, and workload pressure to determine necessary staffing to meet the need for laboratory services in the local context.
Occasionally, Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) share similar nuclear features. The current study aims to quantify the differences between the investigated specimens of HT-associated PTC versus the HT alone, to reduce the subjective experience of an observer, by the use of fractal parameters as well as gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) textural parameters. We have analyzed 250 segmented nuclei per group (nn = 25 per patient and np = 10 patients per group) using the ImageJ software (NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA) as well as an in-house written code for the GLCM analysis. The mean values of parameters were calculated for each patient. The results demonstrated that the malignant cells from the HT-associated PTC specimens showed lower chromatin fractal dimension (p = 0.0321) and higher lacunarity (p = 0.0038) compared with the corresponding cells from the HT specimens. Also, there was a statistically significant difference between the investigated specimens, in the contrast, correlation, angular second moment, and homogeneity, of the GLCM corresponding to the visual texture of follicular cell chromatin. The differences in chromatin fractal and GLCM parameters could be integrated with other diagnostic methods for the improved evaluation of distinctive features of the HT-associated PTC versus the HT in cytology and surgical pathology specimens.
There are no precize estimation of problem drug use prevalence in Serbia. The research about drug use in a whole population has been done two years ago, but the results have shown far to much underestimated results regarding problem drug use then expected. Preliminary preparations for an ESPAD survey have been done in 2005. The results were concordant with similar researches conducted on a local or municipality level and they have shown that 13% adolescent at the age of 16 have had an experience with cannabis.
Official records show that a wide mayority of patients in state or private medical facilities request an opiate dependency treatment. There is far too more requests then available medical capacities and trained professionals for different treatment programs.
An intensified efforts are made for overcoming this actual discordance and an adopting and implementing a national strategy and an action plan to fight drug problems in society are of a greatist significance.
The family is institution in which the life is born and rise. Homicide is cruel form of violence that is ruining and stopping the life. Those two, exclusive extremities, appear in one phenomenon- homicide in family.
Materials and methods:
This research is one part of comparative analytic prospective study, which last 10 years. In the Department of forensic psychiatry in Prison hospital in Belgrade we examined 266 perpetrators of homicide in family, 212 (79.70%) were male and 54 (20.30%) were female. Among those perpetrators we identified psychotic disorders in 77 mails (36.32 %) and 12 female (22.22 %). Thos groups committed 89 homicides in family with 99 victims.
We found statistically significant difference between males and females with regard to previous psychiatric treatment, alcohol abuses and intoxicated with alcohol at the time of the homicide. In male group with psychotic disorders, dominate schizophrenia (40, 26%) and paranoid psychosis (37, 66%), and in female dominate paranoid psychosis (50, 00%). Many perpetrators (41% male and 27% female) were not treated because of psychiatric disorder before, and psychiatric disorder diagnosed after the homicidal act.
Among perpetrators of homicide in family there were two times more male than female with psychopathological symptoms. In both groups, psychoses are most usual diagnosis. The arm of future research should be recognizing factors that increased risk of violent behaviors and comparing those factors among person with and without mental disorders.
Very few researches concerning women addictions are done up to day. This paper tries to define basic similarities and differences in defense mechanisms used by women alcohol and opiate addicts.
Sample of alcohol and opiate female addicts (30 patients in each group) plus control group (30 women) with no psychiatric diagnosis were questioned with Defense Style Questionnaire - DSQ 40 (Andrews, Singh, Bond, 1993).
There were found no statistically relevant differences between two experimental and one control group concerning mature defense mechanism use. Significant differences were found in neurotic and immature defense mechanism use: alcohol addicts use prevalently neurotic mechanisms and immature mechanisms prevail among opiate addicts.
In our research mostly used neurotic defense mechanisms by alcohol addicts were: pseudoaltruism, idealization, and undoing. The mostly used immature defense mechanisms among opiate addicts were: phantasy, isolation, devaluation, denial and splitting.
Studies have revealed that areas associated with violent behaviour are located in the prefrontal cortex, medial temporal regions and limbic regions. Key regions commonly found to be impaired in population of violent homicide offenders include prefrontal cortex, temporal gyrus, amygdala-hippocampal complex, and anterior cingulate cortex. Recent findings have confirmed link between large arachnoid cysts and psychotic symptoms. There is no scientific data in literature on the case of homicidal forensic patient with large arachnoidal cyst and lesion of frontal and temporal brain regions.
We present the first forensic clinical case of male homicidal patient, age 29, with arachnoidal cyst (Galassi III) occupying large portion of the right brain hemisphere. The patient is presented with acute psychotic behavior after he killed his father and was escorted to our department for psychiatric evaluation. The patient was catatonic upon admission to the hospital and completely non-cooperative (mute). After interviewing patient's family members we have collected data regarding visible changes in his behaviour in the last two years accompanied with frequent attacks of headache. MRI study revealed large arachnoid cyst in the right brain hemisphere compressing right frontal and temporal cortex with lesions in frontal and temporal cortex and lesion of the white brain matter in insular region of both hemispheres. The patient was ordered antipsychotic therapy (clozapin) and schedulled for further psychiatric observation.
This clinical case represents highly probable link between structural brain changes and homicidal forensic patient. We have shown multiple structural brain abnormalities supporting neuroscientific hypothesis that impulsive homicide offenders lack the prefrontal “inhibitory” machinery.
Studies of normal aging have shown age-related decreases in functional connectivity (FC) within the default mode network (DMN), particularly involving the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Although psychiatric conditions are common and underdiagnosed, none of these studies have combined psychiatric structured interview and neuropsychological evaluation to select the sample.
to characterize age-related changes in PCC-FC connectivity in adults carefully screened to rule out neuropsychiatric disorders.
neuropsychiatric disorders were excluded by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and neuropsychological evaluation. Restingstate functional MRI was acquired from 40, young, middle-age and elderly participants. After preprocessing, whole-brain, seed-based FC was estimated using a PCC seed. The relationship between age and PCC-FC was assessed using partial least squares.
age was positively associated with PCC-FC in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, bilateral supplementary motor area, right insula and left cerebellum; PCC-FC in these regions was negative or close to zero in young adults. PCC-FC of the medial part of the ventral prefrontal cortex was negatively associated with age; this region presented high positive PCC-FC in young adults (see figure).
age-related increases in PCC-FC were found in regions which are anti-correlated with the DMN, suggesting a decrease in the magnitude of anti-correlation. This may reflect a dedifferentiation process or weaker inter-network interactions. The careful sample selection prevents confounds related to neuropsychiatric disorders.
Reports in the recent literature indicate that consumption of phytochemicals (e.g. plant polyphenols) has been associated with a wide range of health benefits. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) is common Mediterranean plant that has been widely used as medicinal and aromatic herb. Numerous studies reported the use of fennel extracts (plant or seed) due to its diversity of phenolic compounds to whom inhibitory effects against several diseases are prescribed. Hence, phenolic compounds isolated from fennel are of the great interest for the use in food, chemical and pharmaceutical industries.
In order to obtain the highest quality of the fennel extracts, the selection of an effective extraction procedure is required. Nowadays, innovative extraction techniques have been introduced for isolation of bioactive compounds from plant material, among which pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) was reported as automated extraction procedure that combines effects of elevated temperature and pressure to increase the efficiency of the extraction process. Improved efficiency is also achieved by selecting the right solvent and by optimizing processing conditions (temperature, static time, cycle number).
Thus, PLE was applied for the extraction of phenolic compounds from fennel seeds. The effects of exhaustive extraction (acetone followed by methanol) as well as extraction temperatures (75 and 100 °C), static time (5 and 10 min) and cycle number (1,2,3) on the phenolic compounds concentrations were evaluated. A total of 27 phenolic compounds were identified and characterized by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS whereas 6 different categories are distinguished: (1) simple phenolic acid derivatives, (2) hydroxycinnamoylquinic acid derivatives, (3) flavonoid diglycosides, (4) flavonoid O-rhamnoglucosides, (5) flavonoid glucuronides and (6) flavonoid glycosides. Phenolic compounds were identified by comparing retention time and m/z values obtained by MS and MS/MS with the mass spectra from corresponding standards whereas the quantification was made on the basis of their peak areas and comparison with calibration curve obtained with the corresponding standards. Obtained results indicated that hydroxycinnamoylquinic acid derivatives (10 compounds) and flavonoid glucuronides (3 compounds) were found as the most abundant phenolics in acetone and methanol extracts, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that optimized PLE conditions for the most effective extraction of phenolic compounds were as follows: 100 °C/10 min/3 cycles for acetone and 100 °C/5 min/3 cycles for methanol extracts. In conclusion, PLE might be considered as a rapid and effective extraction procedure that could be useful in production of fennel seeds extracts.
Previous evidence suggested that lymphocytic thyroiditis (LT) was a variant of Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), thus the aim of the current study is to quantify structural changes in histological specimens taken from HT and LT patients. A total of 600 images containing a single lymphocyte nucleus (300 nuclei per group) were obtained from 20 patients with HT and LT. In order to quantify changes in the nuclear architecture of investigated lymphocytes, the fractal dimension (FD) and some gray-level co-occurrence matrix texture parameters (angular second moment, inverse difference moment, contrast, entropy, and correlation) were calculated for each nucleus. A statistically significant difference in the FD of the “binary-outlined” nucleus and that of the corresponding “black-and-white” nucleus was detected between HT and LT lymphocyte nuclei. In addition, there was also a statistically significant difference in contrast and correlation between HT and LT lymphocyte nuclei. In conclusion, the results of this study suggested that there was a difference in structural complexity between investigated lymphocyte nuclei; additionally, LT lymphocytes possessed probably more complex texture and larger variations as well as more asymmetrical nuclei compared with HT lymphocytes. Accordingly, these findings indicate that LT is probably not a variant of HT; however, more complex studies are necessary to estimate differences between these types of thyroiditis.
A majority of patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) have tendency of a good recovery. Our aim was to evaluate the outcome of the disease 1 and 3 years after GBS symptom onset. Methods: During 2014, GBS was diagnosed in 82 patients in seven tertiary healthcare centers. Neurological follow-up was conducted in 57 (70%) patients after 1 year, and in 54 (66%) after 3 years. Functional disability was estimated according to the GBS disability scale (GDS), with a score of 0-3 indicating mild disability and a score of 4-6 indicating severe disability during acute phase, whereas a score >1 indicated poor recovery on follow-ups. Visual analog scale was used to assess sensory symptoms and musculoskelatal pain, and Krupp’s Fatigue Severity Scale was used to asses fatigue. Results: Poor functional outcome was found in 39% of GBS patients at year 1 and 30% at year 3. Paresthesias/dysesthesias were detected in 60% of patients after 1 year and 43% after 3 years. Musculoskeletal pain was present in 40% of patients at year 1 and 33% at year 3. Significant fatigue after 1 year was found in 21% of subjects and after 3 years in 7%. Parameters associated with poor functional outcome after 1 year were age >55 years (p=0.05), severe disability at admission (p<0.05), and on discharge (p<0.01). Poor functional outcome after 3 years was associated with male gender (p<0.05) and severe disability on discharge (p=0.06). Conclusion: One and even three years after GBS onset, a substantial number of patients had neurological sequelae, including functional disability, sensory symptoms, pain, and fatigue.
Most young patients with mild-to-moderate aortic stenosis show no symptoms, and sudden death appears only occasionally. We hypothesised that malignant ventricular arrhythmias could be responsible for the high incidence of sudden death in such patients. If multiple factors such as asymptomatic aortic stenosis in association with arrhythmia-provoking agents are involved, could it be sufficient to account for sudden unexpected death? In this study, eight cases of sudden death in young adults, with ages ranging from 22 to 36 years, who had never reported any symptoms that could be related to aortic stenosis, were investigated. Full autopsies were performed, and congenital aortic stenosis in all eight cases was confirmed. DNA testing for channelopathies was negative. Comprehensive toxicological analyses found an electrolyte imbalance, or non-toxic concentrations of amitriptyline, terfenadine, caffeine, and ethanol. Collectively, these results suggest that congenital asymptomatic aortic stenosis without cardiac hypertrophy in young adults is not sufficient to cause sudden death merely on its own; rather, an additional provoking factor is necessary. According to our findings, the provoking factor may be a state of physical or emotional stress, a state of electrolyte imbalance, or even taking a therapeutic dose of a particular drug.
In this article, a detailed introduction of the light extinction spectrometry (LES) diagnostics is given. LES allows the direct in situ measurement of the particle size distribution and absolute concentration of dust clouds levitating in plasmas. Using a relatively simple and compact experimental set-up, the dust cloud parameters can be recovered with a good accuracy making minimum assumptions on their physical properties. Special emphases are given to the inversion procedure of light extinction spectra and all the required particle shape, refractive index and light extinction models. The parameter range and the limitations of LES are discussed. Two measurements in low-pressure gas discharges are presented: (i) in a direct-current (DC) glow discharge in which nanoparticles are growing from the sputtering of a tungsten cathode and (ii) in an argon–silane radio-frequency discharge. They demonstrate the capabilities of the LES technique to characterise, in situ and in real-time, the growth dynamics of nanoparticles in the size range 5–100 nm and volume concentrations in the range from a few ppb to a few ppm.
Between December 2010 and August 2011 an outbreak of measles occurred in Serbia with 363 reported cases. Sera and/or nose/throat swabs were collected from 193 patients and tested for measles-specific IgM antibodies by ELISA and viral RNA by RT–PCR, respectively. Epidemiological data were obtained from the surveillance database of the Institute of Public Health of Serbia. Of the 363 cases involved in the outbreak, 113 were laboratory confirmed. More than one third of the patients were hospitalized (n = 130, 35·8%) and for 15 (4·1% of the reported outbreak cases) the infection was complicated by pneumonia. Mostly pre-school children aged ⩽4 years (37·8%) and adults aged ⩾30 years (27·3%) were affected. The majority of patients belonged to the Roma population with a preponderance of female cases (57·0%). Nearly 94% of the patients were either unvaccinated or of unknown vaccination status. The main outbreak virus was the D4-Hamburg strain. The outbreak in Serbia occurred after several years of very low measles incidence despite a high routine immunization coverage in the general population, suggesting that special efforts to identify and vaccinate susceptible population groups are required even in countries with apparently good disease control.
In 2009, the University of Adelaide embarked on a co-creation process, with the aim of providing the best on-campus experience within the Australian national tertiary sector for all our students. Completed in September 2011, on time and on budget, the project involved more than 9,000 individual student hours of consultation and over 3,000 hours of staff participation and discussion, and acted as a catalyst for a profound change in the relationship between the university and its students.
The construction of a $41.8 million student learning hub (the Hub) enabled the university to develop and implement an innovative method for consulting with its student population. By involving the university-wide student cohort, via a number of mechanisms throughout the life of the project, the university has given ownership of the Hub's final outcome to those for whom it is intended, the students.
Located in the ‘heart’ of the university's main campus on North Terrace, the new dedicated learning space now supports up to 25,000 undergraduate and postgraduate students enrolled at the University of Adelaide. It brings together informal learning and social spaces with student information services and food and service retail outlets. It integrates with the Barr Smith Library and provides new connections through to existing lecture theatres and across campus.
In the past five to ten years, significant changes made within the Australian higher education sector have impacted on the University of Adelaide.
This comprehensive and engaging textbook introduces the basic principles and techniques of signal processing, from the fundamental ideas of signals and systems theory to real-world applications. Students are introduced to the powerful foundations of modern signal processing, including the basic geometry of Hilbert space, the mathematics of Fourier transforms, and essentials of sampling, interpolation, approximation and compression The authors discuss real-world issues and hurdles to using these tools, and ways of adapting them to overcome problems of finiteness and localization, the limitations of uncertainty, and computational costs. It includes over 160 homework problems and over 220 worked examples, specifically designed to test and expand students' understanding of the fundamentals of signal processing, and is accompanied by extensive online materials designed to aid learning, including Mathematica® resources and interactive demonstrations.
Our main goals in this book and its companion volume, Fourier and Wavelet Signal Processing (FWSP) , are to enable an understanding of state-of-the-art signal processing methods and techniques, as well as to provide a solid foundation for those hoping to advance the theory and practice of signal processing. We believe that the best way to grasp and internalize the fundamental concepts in signal processing is through the geometry of Hilbert spaces, as this leverages the great innate human capacity for spatial reasoning. While using geometry should ultimately simplify the subject, the connection between signals and geometry is not innate. The reader will have to invest effort to see signals as vectors in Hilbert spaces before reaping the benefits of this view; we believe that effort to be well placed.
Many of the results and techniques presented in the two volumes, while rooted in classic Fourier techniques for signal representation, first appeared during a flurry of activity in the 1980s and 1990s. New constructions of local Fourier transforms and orthonormal wavelet bases during that period were motivated both by theoretical interest and by applications, multimedia communications in particular. New bases with specified time – frequency behavior were found, with impact well beyond the original fields of application. Areas as diverse as computer graphics and numerical analysis embraced some of the new constructions – no surprise given the pervasive role of Fourier analysis in science and engineering.