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Previous evidence suggested that lymphocytic thyroiditis (LT) was a variant of Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), thus the aim of the current study is to quantify structural changes in histological specimens taken from HT and LT patients. A total of 600 images containing a single lymphocyte nucleus (300 nuclei per group) were obtained from 20 patients with HT and LT. In order to quantify changes in the nuclear architecture of investigated lymphocytes, the fractal dimension (FD) and some gray-level co-occurrence matrix texture parameters (angular second moment, inverse difference moment, contrast, entropy, and correlation) were calculated for each nucleus. A statistically significant difference in the FD of the “binary-outlined” nucleus and that of the corresponding “black-and-white” nucleus was detected between HT and LT lymphocyte nuclei. In addition, there was also a statistically significant difference in contrast and correlation between HT and LT lymphocyte nuclei. In conclusion, the results of this study suggested that there was a difference in structural complexity between investigated lymphocyte nuclei; additionally, LT lymphocytes possessed probably more complex texture and larger variations as well as more asymmetrical nuclei compared with HT lymphocytes. Accordingly, these findings indicate that LT is probably not a variant of HT; however, more complex studies are necessary to estimate differences between these types of thyroiditis.
A majority of patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) have tendency of a good recovery. Our aim was to evaluate the outcome of the disease 1 and 3 years after GBS symptom onset. Methods: During 2014, GBS was diagnosed in 82 patients in seven tertiary healthcare centers. Neurological follow-up was conducted in 57 (70%) patients after 1 year, and in 54 (66%) after 3 years. Functional disability was estimated according to the GBS disability scale (GDS), with a score of 0-3 indicating mild disability and a score of 4-6 indicating severe disability during acute phase, whereas a score >1 indicated poor recovery on follow-ups. Visual analog scale was used to assess sensory symptoms and musculoskelatal pain, and Krupp’s Fatigue Severity Scale was used to asses fatigue. Results: Poor functional outcome was found in 39% of GBS patients at year 1 and 30% at year 3. Paresthesias/dysesthesias were detected in 60% of patients after 1 year and 43% after 3 years. Musculoskeletal pain was present in 40% of patients at year 1 and 33% at year 3. Significant fatigue after 1 year was found in 21% of subjects and after 3 years in 7%. Parameters associated with poor functional outcome after 1 year were age >55 years (p=0.05), severe disability at admission (p<0.05), and on discharge (p<0.01). Poor functional outcome after 3 years was associated with male gender (p<0.05) and severe disability on discharge (p=0.06). Conclusion: One and even three years after GBS onset, a substantial number of patients had neurological sequelae, including functional disability, sensory symptoms, pain, and fatigue.
Most young patients with mild-to-moderate aortic stenosis show no symptoms, and sudden death appears only occasionally. We hypothesised that malignant ventricular arrhythmias could be responsible for the high incidence of sudden death in such patients. If multiple factors such as asymptomatic aortic stenosis in association with arrhythmia-provoking agents are involved, could it be sufficient to account for sudden unexpected death? In this study, eight cases of sudden death in young adults, with ages ranging from 22 to 36 years, who had never reported any symptoms that could be related to aortic stenosis, were investigated. Full autopsies were performed, and congenital aortic stenosis in all eight cases was confirmed. DNA testing for channelopathies was negative. Comprehensive toxicological analyses found an electrolyte imbalance, or non-toxic concentrations of amitriptyline, terfenadine, caffeine, and ethanol. Collectively, these results suggest that congenital asymptomatic aortic stenosis without cardiac hypertrophy in young adults is not sufficient to cause sudden death merely on its own; rather, an additional provoking factor is necessary. According to our findings, the provoking factor may be a state of physical or emotional stress, a state of electrolyte imbalance, or even taking a therapeutic dose of a particular drug.
In this article, a detailed introduction of the light extinction spectrometry (LES) diagnostics is given. LES allows the direct in situ measurement of the particle size distribution and absolute concentration of dust clouds levitating in plasmas. Using a relatively simple and compact experimental set-up, the dust cloud parameters can be recovered with a good accuracy making minimum assumptions on their physical properties. Special emphases are given to the inversion procedure of light extinction spectra and all the required particle shape, refractive index and light extinction models. The parameter range and the limitations of LES are discussed. Two measurements in low-pressure gas discharges are presented: (i) in a direct-current (DC) glow discharge in which nanoparticles are growing from the sputtering of a tungsten cathode and (ii) in an argon–silane radio-frequency discharge. They demonstrate the capabilities of the LES technique to characterise, in situ and in real-time, the growth dynamics of nanoparticles in the size range 5–100 nm and volume concentrations in the range from a few ppb to a few ppm.
Between December 2010 and August 2011 an outbreak of measles occurred in Serbia with 363 reported cases. Sera and/or nose/throat swabs were collected from 193 patients and tested for measles-specific IgM antibodies by ELISA and viral RNA by RT–PCR, respectively. Epidemiological data were obtained from the surveillance database of the Institute of Public Health of Serbia. Of the 363 cases involved in the outbreak, 113 were laboratory confirmed. More than one third of the patients were hospitalized (n = 130, 35·8%) and for 15 (4·1% of the reported outbreak cases) the infection was complicated by pneumonia. Mostly pre-school children aged ⩽4 years (37·8%) and adults aged ⩾30 years (27·3%) were affected. The majority of patients belonged to the Roma population with a preponderance of female cases (57·0%). Nearly 94% of the patients were either unvaccinated or of unknown vaccination status. The main outbreak virus was the D4-Hamburg strain. The outbreak in Serbia occurred after several years of very low measles incidence despite a high routine immunization coverage in the general population, suggesting that special efforts to identify and vaccinate susceptible population groups are required even in countries with apparently good disease control.
In 2009, the University of Adelaide embarked on a co-creation process, with the aim of providing the best on-campus experience within the Australian national tertiary sector for all our students. Completed in September 2011, on time and on budget, the project involved more than 9,000 individual student hours of consultation and over 3,000 hours of staff participation and discussion, and acted as a catalyst for a profound change in the relationship between the university and its students.
The construction of a $41.8 million student learning hub (the Hub) enabled the university to develop and implement an innovative method for consulting with its student population. By involving the university-wide student cohort, via a number of mechanisms throughout the life of the project, the university has given ownership of the Hub's final outcome to those for whom it is intended, the students.
Located in the ‘heart’ of the university's main campus on North Terrace, the new dedicated learning space now supports up to 25,000 undergraduate and postgraduate students enrolled at the University of Adelaide. It brings together informal learning and social spaces with student information services and food and service retail outlets. It integrates with the Barr Smith Library and provides new connections through to existing lecture theatres and across campus.
In the past five to ten years, significant changes made within the Australian higher education sector have impacted on the University of Adelaide.
This comprehensive and engaging textbook introduces the basic principles and techniques of signal processing, from the fundamental ideas of signals and systems theory to real-world applications. Students are introduced to the powerful foundations of modern signal processing, including the basic geometry of Hilbert space, the mathematics of Fourier transforms, and essentials of sampling, interpolation, approximation and compression The authors discuss real-world issues and hurdles to using these tools, and ways of adapting them to overcome problems of finiteness and localization, the limitations of uncertainty, and computational costs. It includes over 160 homework problems and over 220 worked examples, specifically designed to test and expand students' understanding of the fundamentals of signal processing, and is accompanied by extensive online materials designed to aid learning, including Mathematica® resources and interactive demonstrations.