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To investigate whether vitamin D status predicts weight gain or increase in waist circumference during the 11-year follow-up in general adult population.
A population-based longitudinal study.
The study was conducted using data from the nationally representative Health 2000/2011 Survey. The analyses were based on regression models adjusted for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors.
Weight, waist circumference and vitamin D status (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration analysed with radioimmunoassay) were measured from 2924 participants aged 30–64 years at baseline.
In men, low vitamin D status at baseline predicted ≥10 % increase in waist circumference during the follow-up when adjusted for age only (OR for sufficient v. deficient S-25(OH)D 0·41; 95 % CI 0·25, 0·67; P for trend <0·01), but the association with weight gain was only borderline significant. After adjustment for potential confounders, low vitamin D status remained a significant predictor of increase in waist circumference, but the association with weight gain was further attenuated. In women, vitamin D status at baseline did not predict weight gain or increase in waist circumference.
Our results suggest that vitamin D insufficiency may be a risk factor of abdominal obesity among men but not among women. In men, it may also increase the risk of weight gain. Further studies are required to confirm these findings and examine potential mechanisms behind them. There is also a possibility that vitamin D is a biomarker of healthy lifestyle rather than an independent risk factor for obesity.
Our knowledge of Saturn’s neutral thermosphere is far superior to that of the other giant planets due to Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) observations of 15 solar occultations and 26 stellar occultations analyzed to date. These measurements yield H2 as the dominant species, with an upper limit on the H mole fraction of 5%. Inferred temperatures near the lower boundary are ~150 K, rising to an asymptotic value of ~400 K at equatorial latitudes and increasing with latitude to polar values in the range of 550–600 K. The latter is consistent with a total estimated auroral power input of ~10 TW generating Joule and energetic particle heating of ~5–6 TW that is more than an order of magnitude greater than solar EUV/FUV heating. This auroral heating would be sufficient to solve the “energy crisis” of Saturn’s thermospheric heating if it can be efficiently redistributed to low latitudes. The inferred structure of the thermosphere yields poleward-directed pressure gradients on equipotential surfaces consistent with auroral heating and poleward increasing temperatures. A gradient wind balance aloft with these pressure gradients implies westward, retrograde winds ~500 m s−1 or Mach number ~0.3 at mid-latitudes. The occultations reveal an expansion of the thermosphere peaking at or slightly after equinox, anti-correlated with solar activity, and apparently driven by lower thermospheric heating of unknown cause. The He mole fraction remains unconstrained, as no Cassini UVIS He 58.4 nm airglow measurements have been published.
Recent dairy product studies have suggested that fermented rather than non-fermented dairy products might provide benefits on cardiovascular health, but the evidence is inconclusive. Therefore, we investigated whether fermented and non-fermented dairy products have distinct associations with the risk of incident CHD in a population with high dairy product intake. The present study included a total of 1981 men, aged 42–60 years, from the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study, with no CHD at baseline. Dietary intakes were assessed with instructed 4-d food records. We used Cox’s proportional hazards regression model to estimate the associations with the risk of CHD. Fatal and non-fatal CHD events were ascertained from national registries. During a mean follow-up of 20·1 years, 472 CHD events were recorded. Median intakes were 105 g/d for fermented (87 % low-fat products) and 466 g/d for non-fermented dairy products (60 % low-fat products). After adjusting for potential confounders, those in the highest (v. lowest) intake quartile of fermented dairy products had 27 % (95 % CI 5, 44; P-trend=0·02) lower risk of CHD. In contrast, those in the highest intake quartile of non-fermented dairy products had 52 % (95 % CI 13, 104; P-trend=0·003) higher risk of CHD. When analysed based on fat content, low-fat (<3·5 % fat) fermented dairy product intake was associated with lower risk (hazard ratio in the highest quartile=0·74; 95 % CI 0·57, 0·97; P-trend=0·03), but high-fat fermented dairy and low-fat or high-fat non-fermented dairy products had no association. These results suggest that fermented and non-fermented dairy products can have opposite associations with the risk of CHD.
Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a type of depression with seasonal pattern. Although it involves some idiosyncratic symptoms, it can overlap with other depressive disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD) or dysthymia. We aimed to characterize the differences in specific cognitive and clinical symptoms between SAD and depressive-related disorders.
In total, 4554 Finnish subjects from the population-based Health 2011 Survey were interviewed with the Munich version of Composite International Diagnostic Interview (M-CIDI) and filled in the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ). From this sample for our analysis, we included those participants who fulfilled the criteria for SAD (n = 171), MDD (n = 153) or dysthymia (n = 84) and their 816 psychologically healthy controls matched by age and gender. In addition to M-CIDI and SPAQ, the Beck Depression Inventory, the General Health Questionnaire, an abbreviated version of the Mini-Mental State Examination, the category verbal fluency test, and the CERAD 10-word list were used.
Subjects with dysthymia showed major deficits in both clinical and cognitive domains compared to MDD, SAD and healthy controls. Although clinical comorbidity was mild in SAD, these participants showed similar cognitive deficits to dysthymic subjects and greater impairments than MDD.
SAD subjects show a differential clinical and cognitive profile compared to other depressive-related disorders. Although less severe clinical symptoms are found in these individuals, some cognitive impairment already appears in subjects with SAD recruited from a population-based study.
We argue that a multimodal approach to defining a depictive class of words called ‘ideophones’ by linguists is essential for grasping their meanings. Our argument for this approach is based on the formal properties of Pastaza Quichua ideophones, which set them apart from the non-ideophonic lexicon, and on the cultural assumptions brought by speakers to their use. We analyze deficiencies in past attempts to define this language's ideophones, which have used only audio data. We offer, instead, an audiovisual corpus which we call an ‘antidictionary’, because it defines words not with other words, but with clips featuring actual contexts of use. The major discovery revealed by studying these clips is that ideophones’ meanings can be clarified by means of a distinction found in modality and American Sign Language studies. This distinction between speaker-internal and speaker-external perspective is evident in the intonational and gestural details of ideophones’ use.
The roles of different dietary proteins in the aetiology of type 2 diabetes (T2D) remain unclear. We investigated the associations of dietary proteins with the risk of incident T2D in Finnish men from the prospective Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study. The study included 2332 men aged 42–60 years at the baseline examinations in 1984–1989. Protein intakes were calculated from 4-d dietary records. Incident T2D was determined by self-administered questionnaires, fasting blood glucose measurements, 2-h oral glucose tolerance tests, and with national registers. The multivariable-adjusted risk of T2D on the basis of protein intakes was compared by the Cox proportional hazard ratios (HR). During the mean follow-up of 19·3 years, 432 incident T2D cases were identified. Total, animal, meat or dairy product protein intakes were not associated with risk of T2D when the potential confounders were accounted for. Plant (multivariable-adjusted extreme-quartile HR 0·65; 95 % CI 0·42, 1·00; Ptrend 0·04) and egg (HR 0·67; 95 % CI 0·44, 1·00; Ptrend 0·03) protein intakes were associated with a decreased risk of T2D. Adjustments for BMI, plasma glucose and serum insulin slightly attenuated associations. Replacing 1 % energy from carbohydrates with energy from protein was associated with a 5 % (95 % CI 0, 11) increased risk of T2D, but adjustment for fibre intake attenuated the association. Replacing 1 % of energy from animal protein with energy from plant protein was associated with 18 % (95 % CI 0, 32) decreased risk of T2D. This association remained after adjusting for BMI. In conclusion, favouring plant and egg proteins appeared to be beneficial in preventing T2D.
Ideophones are described as expressive marked linguistic units with a dramaturgic depictive function. Although commonly regarded in traditional general linguistics as rare and marginal, recent research on this topic has shown that these elements are pervasive in all languages and that they might share some linguistic characteristics across languages. This article analyses Basque ideophones from a typological perspective. The main goal is to describe the structure, meaning and function of Basque ideophones and to discuss how the Basque ideophonic system fits into the cross-linguistic characterisation of these linguistic units.
This article engages questions about translation, phonological iconicity, and seductive ideophony. I begin by discussing the work of Paul Friedrich as it relates to questions of linguistic relativity and poetics and the qualities of music and myth that constitute poetry. I then present a poem written in Navajo by Rex Lee Jim and four translations of the poem. Three are from Navajo consultants and one of those translations will be, from a certain perspective, rather surprising. Namely, why does one consultant translate this poem as if it is composed of ideophones? The fourth translation is mine. I then work through the morphology of the poem in Navajo, saying something more about the translators and the process of translation. I then provide a transcript of a conversation I had with Blackhorse Mitchell about this poem. I use this to take up questions of phonological iconicity (punning) and the seductive quality of ideophony (the pole of music). I also place this poem within a context of the stick game in Navajo philosophy (the pole of myth). This leads, in the conclusion, to reflections about linguistic relativity, misunderstandings, sound, and poetics.
We argue for the existence of nominal serialization based on our analysis of a Finnish construction consisting of a syntactically fixed sequence in which a prosaic noun is followed by an ideophonic noun. A database compiled from a range of diverse sources provides material for the analysis. Muysken and Veenstra's (2006) criteria for the serialization of verbs are adapted and applied to our analysis of these ideophonic constructions as involving the serialization of nouns. We provide evidence that the noun–noun sequence is nested within a possessive structure that behaves as a syntactic atom, exhibits idiosyncratic phonology, and encodes speaker perspective.
The Munda languages of South Asia exhibit sound symbolism in their use of mimetic reduplication, to which they devote a surprisingly large percentage of their lexicons, typically upwards of ten percent. We present an extensive empirical typology of mimetic reduplication in seven Munda languages: Ho, Kera Mundari, Kharia, Mundari, Remo (Bondo), Santali, and Sora (Savara). Munda Mimetic forms can depict sensory qualities of sound, space, movement, texture, smell, taste, temperature, feelings, and sensations. The typology of mimetic reduplication in Munda varies across syntactic class, semantic domain and phonological form. This can shed light on the breadth of diverse structures in Munda languages, and may also be extrapolated to other languages and other examinations of reduplication and/or mimesis. This work provides a wealth of data to researchers of mimesis and reduplication, challenging the definition of what it means for forms to be sound-symbolic or reduplicated.
In this article, the author demonstrates that verbal compound constructions involving an ideophone and a light verb represent a widespread syntactic device in the world's languages. The author provides evidence that phono-symbolic morphemes cannot be treated as ‘bare’ direct objects in such constructions. Ideophones appearing in the light verb-adjacent position form a semantic unit with the verbal predicate, despite the fact that in some languages they can be syntacticized as (bare) nouns and appear in argumental position. Specifically, ideophones in complex predicates are part of the verbal domain with which they ‘blend’ (yielding a single predicate) through the mechanism of conflation, along the lines of Hale and Keyser (1993, 2002), and building on Ramchand (2008).
This article proposes that two linguistic systems (that is, two languages or registers) with different degrees of morphosyntactic integration of ideophones may apply the same restrictions on ideophones in different ways. In Study 1, the author shows quantitatively that the sentence-type restrictions reported for ideophones in several languages also constrain Japanese ideophones, but to a lesser extent. In Study 2, the author argues that two previously identified restrictions on Japanese ideophonic verbs appear to apply only partially to ideophonic verbs in baby talk and highly playful discourse. It is concluded that the strength of these restrictions is negatively correlated with the overall degree of morphosyntactic integration of ideophones in the language or register.
Adverse psychosocial working environments characterized by job strain (the combination of high demands and low control at work) are associated with an increased risk of depressive symptoms among employees, but evidence on clinically diagnosed depression is scarce. We examined job strain as a risk factor for clinical depression.
We identified published cohort studies from a systematic literature search in PubMed and PsycNET and obtained 14 cohort studies with unpublished individual-level data from the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-analysis in Working Populations (IPD-Work) Consortium. Summary estimates of the association were obtained using random-effects models. Individual-level data analyses were based on a pre-published study protocol.
We included six published studies with a total of 27 461 individuals and 914 incident cases of clinical depression. From unpublished datasets we included 120 221 individuals and 982 first episodes of hospital-treated clinical depression. Job strain was associated with an increased risk of clinical depression in both published [relative risk (RR) = 1.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.47–2.13] and unpublished datasets (RR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.04–1.55). Further individual participant analyses showed a similar association across sociodemographic subgroups and after excluding individuals with baseline somatic disease. The association was unchanged when excluding individuals with baseline depressive symptoms (RR = 1.25, 95% CI 0.94–1.65), but attenuated on adjustment for a continuous depressive symptoms score (RR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.81–1.32).
Job strain may precipitate clinical depression among employees. Future intervention studies should test whether job strain is a modifiable risk factor for depression.
Spent nuclear fuel from Finnish power plants is planned to be deposited deep in the crystalline bedrock. The bedrock needs to be well characterized to properly assess the risks inherent to the long term safety of the site. In the bedrock the possibly released radionuclides are assumed to be mainly transported by water conducting fractures and their transport is retarded by matrix diffusion and sorption. In this work transport properties of an 80 centimeters long veined gneiss drill core sample from Olkiluoto was studied using an advection-matrix diffusion experiment, which was developed to demonstrate the effect of rock matrix for transport of radionuclides in an advective fracture. The experiment was performed using H-3 and Cl-36 as tracers, and effective diffusion coefficients (De) of (1.7 ± 0.7) × 10-13 m2/s and (1.4 ± 1.0) × 10-14 m2/s and porosities of 1.1 ± 0.3 % and 0.23 ± 0.10 % were determined, respectively. A lower porosity and De for Cl-36 than for H-3 indicates an effect of anion exclusion and the results were found to be in agreement with previous laboratory experiments. However, the comparison to results from a similar in-situ experiment showed that the transport of H-3 and Cl-36 is retarded more in laboratory than in in-situ conditions by matrix diffusion.
Spent nuclear fuel from Finnish power plants is planned to be deposited deep in the crystalline bedrock in Olkiluoto, Finland. The bedrock and more specifically the elemental composition of ground water, which is composed of the fracture water and the matrix pore water, needs to be well characterized to assess the risks inherent to the long term safety of the site. To this end, it is valuable to investigate elemental composition of the matrix pore water since it tends to conserve hydrogeological signals for longer time spans compared to open fracture waters.
In this study, the chloride concentration of matrix pore water in veined gneiss (VGN) and pegmatitic granite (PGR) samples were investigated. Chloride was out-diffused from the naturally saturated rock cores into deionized water. Chloride pore diffusion coefficients were derived by modelling the chloride breakthrough curves obtained from the out-diffusion experiments. Two component modelling gave best fit to the experimental results. There two diffusion coefficients were (9±2)×10-11 m2/s and (0.5±0.1)×10-11 m2/s for PGR and (2.5±0.5)×10-11 m2/s and (0.4±0.1)×10-11 m2/s for VGN. Porosity distribution and total porosities of the rock samples were studied with the C-14-PMMA autoradiography. Porosity for PGR was found to be 0.6 % with large mineral transecting fissures, and porosity for VGN was found to be 0.7 % with highly porous mineral clusters connected to each other via grain boundaries and intragranular pores. The findings here show that heterogeneity has to be taken into account in modelling to find better agreement with the experimental results. C-14-PMMA autoradiography results indicate dual-component behavior for diffusion in PGR and VGN which were used in the modelling.