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In the 2015 review paper ‘Petawatt Class Lasers Worldwide’ a comprehensive overview of the current status of high-power facilities of
was presented. This was largely based on facility specifications, with some description of their uses, for instance in fundamental ultra-high-intensity interactions, secondary source generation, and inertial confinement fusion (ICF). With the 2018 Nobel Prize in Physics being awarded to Professors Donna Strickland and Gerard Mourou for the development of the technique of chirped pulse amplification (CPA), which made these lasers possible, we celebrate by providing a comprehensive update of the current status of ultra-high-power lasers and demonstrate how the technology has developed. We are now in the era of multi-petawatt facilities coming online, with 100 PW lasers being proposed and even under construction. In addition to this there is a pull towards development of industrial and multi-disciplinary applications, which demands much higher repetition rates, delivering high-average powers with higher efficiencies and the use of alternative wavelengths: mid-IR facilities. So apart from a comprehensive update of the current global status, we want to look at what technologies are to be deployed to get to these new regimes, and some of the critical issues facing their development.
The aim of the present paper is to describe the morphosyntactic properties of Iranian Coastal Balochi as spoken by the Afro-Balochi community. The Afro-Baloch have completely switched to Balochi and there are no traces of African languages in their speech. However, in comparison with other Balochi dialects of Iran on the one hand, and with Coastal Balochi dialects of Pakistan on other, Afro-Balochi shows archaic characteristics, particularly in its case system, in the demonstrative pronouns and in the alignment features. This might be due to the persisting social segregation of the Afro-Baloch and their limited access to education and media, resulting in reduced contact with the languages and dialects outside of their community.
The fossil conchs of ammonoids provide valuable information about the life habits of this extinct group. A new conch measurement, the apertural surface area (ASarea), is introduced here along with modeled sizes of the buccal mass and the hyponome, based on ratios of these organs in comparison with the aperture height from the Recent Nautilus pompilius. A principal components analysis was performed using the three main characters: (1) apertural surface area index (i.e., the ratio of the apertural surface and the conch diameter), (2) buccal mass area index (i.e., the ratio between the buccal mass area and the ASarea), and (3) coiling rate of the conch. It revealed an ecomorphospace where life history traits can be tentatively assigned to species of the Ammonoidea. In this morphospace, Recent Nautilus has a marginal position, being one of the ectocochleate cephalopods with best properties for active life (capacity for handling large food items, rather good mobility). In contrast, most ammonoids possessed, at comparable conch sizes, much smaller buccal apparatuses and hyponomes, suggesting a more passive life history with reduced mobility potential and reduced capacities for larger prey items.
The mental health outcomes of military personnel deployed on peacekeeping
missions have been relatively neglected in the military mental health
To assess the mental health impacts of peacekeeping deployments.
In total, 1025 Australian peacekeepers were assessed for current and
lifetime psychiatric diagnoses, service history and exposure to
potentially traumatic events (PTEs). A matched Australian community
sample was used as a comparator. Univariate and regression analyses were
conducted to explore predictors of psychiatric diagnosis.
Peacekeepers had significantly higher 12-month prevalence of
post-traumatic stress disorder (16.8%), major depressive episode (7%),
generalised anxiety disorder (4.7%), alcohol misuse (12%), alcohol
dependence (11.3%) and suicidal ideation (10.7%) when compared with the
civilian comparator. The presence of these psychiatric disorders was most
strongly and consistently associated with exposure to PTEs.
Veteran peacekeepers had significant levels of psychiatric morbidity.
Their needs, alongside those of combat veterans, should be recognised
within military mental health initiatives.
Food group guideline adherence is vital to prevent obesity and diabetes. Various studies have demonstrated that environmental variables influence food intake behaviour. In the present study we examined the effect of a portion design plate with food group portion guidelines demarcated by coloured lines (ETE Plate™). A two-group quasi-experimental design was used to measure proportions of carbohydrate, vegetable and protein portions and user experience in a hospital staff lounge setting in Singapore. Lunch was served on the portion design plate before 12.15 hours. For comparison, a normal plate (without markings) was used after 12.15 hours. Changes in proportions of food groups from 2 months before the introduction of the design plate were analysed in a stratified sample at baseline (859 subjects, all on normal plates) to 1, 3 and 6 months after (in all 1016 subjects on the design plate, 968 subjects on the control plate). A total of 151 participants were asked about their experiences and opinions. Between-group comparisons were performed using t tests. Among those served on the portion design plate at 6 months after its introduction, the proportion of vegetables was 4·71 % (P < 0·001) higher and that of carbohydrates 2·83 % (P < 0·001) lower relative to the baseline. No significant change was found for proteins (−1·85 %). Over 6 months, we observed different change patterns between the different food group proportions. While participants were positive about the portion design plate, they did not think it would influence their personal behaviour. A portion design plate might stimulate food group guideline adherence among hospital staff and beyond.
The population and reproductive characteristics of the hermit crab Pagurus proximus Komai, 2000 have been examined in the northern part of the species range (Vostok Bay, Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan). The average population density was 4–5 ind m−2 in winter and spring, 10 ind m−2 in summer and autumn; the biomass was 7–9 and 18–19 g m−2, respectively. Hermit crabs were found at a depth of 0 to 12 m but were most numerous at about 3 m depth with an average population density of up to 26 ± 7 ind m−2. The shield length of males varied from 1.3 to 7.8 mm and females from 1.2 to 6.7 mm. The male to female ratio was close to 1 but varied with size and season. Females attained sexual maturity at a shield length of more than 1.3 mm. Ovigerous females were found from December to August. The proportion of ovigerous females increased from 7% in December to 93% in late April; however, the embryos in clutches remained at early developmental stage until May. The mass release of larvae was observed at the beginning of June. A subsequent spawning probably took place in July. The main factors contributing to the high abundance of P. proximus in the investigated area are the presence of the embryonic diapause synchronizing the release of larvae at the most favourable time for their development, high fecundity, the presence of at least two egg clutches during the reproductive season, and total absence of parasites.
The complete larval development of the lobster shrimp Leonardsaxius amurensis (Kobjakova, 1937) (Decapoda: Axiidea: Axiidae) is described and illustrated for the first time. The first zoeae of this species were collected from the plankton samples and reared in the laboratory before moulting to the megalopa. A molecular genetic analysis based on comparison of partial mitochondrial COI, 12S rDNA and 16S rDNA sequence data confirmed the identity of axiid larvae found in the plankton and L. amurensis adults collected in the same area. The larval development of L. amurensis includes five zoeal stages and a single megalopa. Zoeae I of L. amurensis are characterized by the presence of one short posterodorsal spine on the fifth pleonite in contrast to the larvae of related sympatric species Boasaxius princeps having four posterodorsal spines on the pleonites 2–5. Leonardsaxius amurensis occupies an intermediate position between lobster shrimps with abbreviated pelagic development (2–3 zoeal stages) and species with long development (up to eight zoeal stages). Thus, the number of zoeal stages in the family Axiidae varies widely, similarly to that in the families Callianassidae and Upogebiidae.
To assess parental awareness of per-meal energy (calorie) recommendations for children’s restaurant meals and to explore whether calorie awareness was associated with parental sociodemographic characteristics and frequency of eating restaurant food.
Cross-sectional online survey administered in July 2014. Parents estimated calories (i.e. kilocalories; 1 kcal=4·184 kJ) recommended for a child’s lunch/dinner restaurant meal (range: 0–2000 kcal). Responses were categorized as ‘underestimate’ (<400 kcal), ‘accurate’ (400–600 kcal) and ‘overestimate’ (>600 kcal). Confidence in response was measured on a 4-point scale from ‘very unsure’ to ‘very sure’. Logistic regressions estimated the odds of an ‘accurate’ response and confident response (‘somewhat’ or ‘very sure’) by parental sociodemographic characteristics and frequency of eating from restaurants. Sampling weights based on demographics were incorporated in all analyses.
Parents (n 1207) of 5–12-year-old children.
On average, parents estimated 631 (se 19·4) kcal as the appropriate amount for a 5–12-year-old child’s meal. Thirty-five per cent answered in the accurate range, while 33·3 and 31·8 % underestimated and overestimated, respectively. Frequent dining at restaurants, lower income and urban geography were associated with lower odds of answering accurately. Parents’ confidence in their estimates was low across the sample (26·0 % confident) and only 10·1 % were both accurate and confident.
Parent education about calorie recommendations for children could improve understanding and use of menu labelling information in restaurants. Targeted strategies are recommended to ensure that such efforts address, rather than exacerbate, health disparities.
Measured highly elevated gains of proton–boron (HB11) fusion (Picciotto et al., Phys. Rev. X 4, 031030 (2014)) confirmed the exceptional avalanche reaction process (Lalousis et al., Laser Part. Beams 32, 409 (2014); Hora et al., Laser Part. Beams 33, 607 (2015)) for the combination of the non-thermal block ignition using ultrahigh intensity laser pulses of picoseconds duration. The ultrahigh acceleration above
for plasma blocks was theoretically and numerically predicted since 1978 (Hora, Physics of Laser Driven Plasmas (Wiley, 1981), pp. 178 and 179) and measured (Sauerbrey, Phys. Plasmas 3, 4712 (1996)) in exact agreement (Hora et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 072701 (2007)) when the dominating force was overcoming thermal processes. This is based on Maxwell’s stress tensor by the dielectric properties of plasma leading to the nonlinear (ponderomotive) force
resulting in ultra-fast expanding plasma blocks by a dielectric explosion. Combining this with measured ultrahigh magnetic fields and the avalanche process opens an option for an environmentally absolute clean and economic boron fusion power reactor. This is supported also by other experiments with very high HB11 reactions under different conditions (Labaune et al., Nature Commun. 4, 2506 (2013)).
Fast magnetic field annihilation in a collisionless plasma is induced by using TEM(1,0) laser pulse. The magnetic quadrupole structure formation, expansion and annihilation stages are demonstrated with 2.5-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. The magnetic field energy is converted to the electric field and accelerate the particles inside the annihilation plane. A bunch of high energy electrons moving backwards is detected in the current sheet. The strong displacement current is the dominant contribution which induces the longitudinal inductive electric field.
Nine MC young globular cluster and field stars are analysed using fully line-blanketed LTE ATLAS 9 atmospheres and the DETAIL/SURFACE non-LTE line formation code. CNO mixing seems to occur much earlier than predicted by standard theory.
The principal conch parameters—whorl expansion rate, whorl overlap rate, umbilical width, and whorl thickness—of Early and Middle Devonian ammonoids have been extensively investigated. Stratophenetic analyses show long-term trends in the transformations of these characters over long periods of time, but sudden and rapid reversals can also be observed. On the basis of these four quantifiable conch parameters and supplementary qualitative characters, ten ammonoid morphs were distinguished. Reconstruction of the evolutionary history of these morphs reflects the existence of two major phylogenetic lineages, both already visible in Early Devonian faunas. The agoniatitid lineage is characterized by slow character development and leads to the Frasnian gephuroceratids; the anarcestid lineage displays rapid morphological evolution that leads to the late Givetian pharciceratids as well as the Middle and Late Devonian tornoceratids. Morphological evolution is interpreted as partly limited by geometrical and physical constraints.
Armenian karmir “red” has often been considered as deriving from East Iranian, thus speaking in favour of relations between Armenian and Sogdian, a Middle Iranian language spoken at considerable distance from Armenia. For the origin of Hebrew karmīl, on the other hand, a Middle Persian “karmīr” has been suggested. In either case, the etymology would be Proto-Indo-European *ku̯ṛ́mi- “worm” (be it directly or as a borrowing from Sanskrit kṛ́mi-) from which the colour term would be derived in a way parallel to French vermeil “scarlet” from ver “worm”, thus a term referring to a red dye obtained from scale insects (cochineals). I argue that karmīr is not a Middle Persian word for “red”, that Sogdian is unlikely to be the source of the Armenian and Hebrew words, and that an Indian origin is not probable either because of the specific features of the Indian scale insect dye. Conversely, Armenian scarlet was widely known and appreciated already in antiquity, so that, for historical as well as linguistic reasons, the origin of the word is likely to be an Iranian language within the region where Armenian was spoken.
Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) show negative and unstable self- and other-evaluations compared to healthy individuals. It is unclear, however, how they process self- and other-relevant social feedback. We have previously demonstrated a positive updating bias in healthy individuals: When receiving social feedback on character traits, healthy individuals integrate desirable more than undesirable feedback. Here, our aim was to test whether BPD patients exhibit a more negative pattern of social feedback processing.
We employed a character trait task in which BPD patients interacted with four healthy participants in a real-life social interaction. Afterwards, all participants rated themselves and one other participant on 80 character traits before and after receiving feedback from their interaction partners. We compared how participants updated their ratings after receiving desirable and undesirable feedback. Our analyses included 22 BPD patients and 81 healthy controls.
Healthy controls showed a positivity bias for self- and other-relevant feedback as previously demonstrated. Importantly, this pattern was altered in BPD patients: They integrated undesirable feedback for themselves to a greater degree than healthy controls did. Other-relevant feedback processing was unaltered in BPD patients.
Our study demonstrates an alteration in self-relevant feedback processing in BPD patients that might contribute to unstable and negative self-evaluations.
Various Galactic stellar spectroscopic surveys are currently underway, and each is expected to achieve high internal accuracy in terms of stellar parameters and abundances. A number of questions related to the formation and evolution of the Galaxy may be addressed based on samples of stars observed within each survey. In addition, complementary samples of stars may be constructed by combining data from different surveys. The Gaia FGK Benchmark Stars provide the necessary link to bring the quantities measured from different spectra with different methods onto the same scale. We selected 28 FGK stars and 5 M giants with available angular diameter θ, bolometric flux Fbol, and distance. We used the fundamental relation Teff ∝ F/θ0.5 to determine a reference effective temperature. We used the fundamental relation g ∝ M/R2, where M is the mass and R the radius, to determine a reference surface gravity. A homogeneous analysis of a high resolution and high signal-to-noise spectral library provides a reference metallicity (Blanco-Cuaresma et al. 2014A&A...566A..98B, Jofré et al. 2014A&A...564A.133J). These stars serve as a reference for testing and homogenizing large stellar surveys such as the Gaia mission and the Gaia-ESO public spectroscopic survey and for improving models of FGK-star atmospheres. A detailed discussion of the fundamental Teff and logg values will be presented in Heiter et al. (to be submitted).
Exceptionally high reaction gains of hydrogen protons measured with the boron isotope 11 are compared with other fusion reactions. This is leading to the conclusion that secondary avalanche reactions are happening and confirming the results of high-gain, neutron-free, clean, safe, low-cost, and long-term available energy. The essential basis is the unusual non-thermal block-ignition scheme with picosecond laser pulses of extremely high powers above the petawatt range.
The potential of various quantitative lateral flow (LF) based assays utilizing up-converting phosphor (UCP) reporters for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis is reviewed including recent developments. Active infections are demonstrated by screening for the presence of regurgitated worm antigens (genus specific polysaccharides), whereas anti-Schistosoma antibodies may indicate ongoing as well as past infections. The circulating anodic antigen (CAA) in serum or urine (and potentially also saliva) is identified as the marker that may allow detection of single-worm infections. Quantitation of antigen levels is a reliable method to study effects of drug administration, worm burden and anti-fecundity mechanisms. Moreover, the ratio of CAA and circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) is postulated to facilitate identification of either Schistosoma mansoni or Schistosoma haematobium infections. The UCP-LF assays allow simultaneous detection of multiple targets on a single strip, a valuable feature for antibody detection assays. Although antibody detection in endemic regions is not a useful tool to diagnose active infections, it gains potential when the ratio of different classes of antibody specific for the parasite/disease can be determined. The UCP-LF antibody assay format allows this type of multiplexing, including testing a linear array of up to 20 different targets. Multiple test spots would allow detection of specific antibodies, e.g. against different Schistosoma species or other pathogens as soil-transmitted helminths. Concluding, the different UCP-LF based assays for diagnosis of schistosomiasis provide a collection of tests with relatively low complexity and high sensitivity, covering the full range of diagnostics needed in control programmes for mapping, screening and monitoring.
This is a non-exhaustive review of what we have learned from 10+ years of cluster studies with multi-object spectrographs at 10 m-class telescopes about what stars do with their birth-cloud lithium. This light and fragile element ties together Big-Bang and stellar physics, stellar atmospheric and interior modelling, it is a sensitive measure of our ability to quantitatively model Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis, stellar physics and Galactic chemical evolution. Progress has undoubtedly been made, but the picture that emerges is far from complete.
The quality of adolescents' relationships with peers can have a lasting impact on later psychosocial adjustment, mental health, and behavior. However, the effect of peer relations on later problem behavior is not uniformly strong, and genetic factors might influence this association. This study used four-wave longitudinal (11–19 years) data (n = 1,151) from the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey, a Dutch cohort study into adolescent development to test whether the dopamine receptor D4 polymorphism moderates the impact of negative (i.e., victimization) and positive peer experiences (i.e., social well-being) on later delinquency. Contrary to our expectations, results showed that carriers of the dopamine receptor D4 gene 4-repeat homozygous variant instead of those carrying the 7-repeat allele were more susceptible to the effects of both peer victimization and social well-being on delinquency later in adolescence. Findings of our study are discussed in light of other studies into genetic moderation of peer effects on adolescent development and the possibility that developmental specifics in adolescence, such as maturation processes in brain structure and functioning, may affect the interplay of environmental and genetic factors in this period in life.