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Guinea fowl production is increasing in developing countries and has a crucial role in the fight against poverty. However, the feed cost is very high, especially the soya bean meal cost, and farmers cannot afford to buy commercial feed. Consequently, animals do not receive feed adapted to their nutritional needs and they exhibit poor performance. The aim of this paper is to partially substitute soya bean meal by local by-products, discarded, in abundant supply and not used in human nutrition. French Galor guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) and local African guinea fowl (150 birds per breed) were reared for 16 weeks and fed the same starter diet for the initial 4 weeks. From 4 weeks of age, experimental birds from each breed were randomly assigned to three grower isoproteic and isolipidic dietary treatments, each containing five replications (floor pens); each replication included 10 birds of the same breed. The guinea fowl of each breed were fed either control grower diet using soya bean meal as the protein supplement GS, or trial grower diet GN (soya bean meal supplement partially substituted by 15% cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale) meal) or trial grower diet GH (soya bean meal supplement partially substituted by 15% hevea seed (Hevea brasiliensis) meal). The results indicated that hevea seed meal contained a high content of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) (21.2% of total fatty acids (FAs)). The use of hevea seed meal in guinea fowl grower diet was found to exert no adverse effect on growth performance and carcass yield. However, the use of cashew nut meal led to negative effects on performance like daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio. Therefore, cashew nut meal cannot be considered as a suitable partial substitute for soya bean meal in diets. The use of hevea seed meal led to a very low abdominal fat proportion and low blood triglyceride and cholesterol content. Additionally, inclusion of dietary hevea seed meal resulted in guinea fowl meat enriched in PUFAs, especially n-3 FAs, thereby significantly improving the nutritional value.
The blue shark Prionace glauca is the most abundant species in the artisanal driftnet fishery off the coastal waters of Ivory Coast. The reproductive parameters were investigated with the aim of providing basic information on the reproductive biology for fisheries management. A total of 424 specimens (256 males and 168 females) ranging from 170–330 cm in total length (TL) were sampled between August 2014 and November 2016. Sample for embryonic sex ratio was obtained from 18 litters of 503 individuals (255 males and 248 females). The embryonic sex ratio was not significantly different from 1:1 (χ2 = 0.10, P > 0.05, N = 503). The size at 50% maturity (L50) was 218.1 cm TL for males and 223.3 cm TL for females. The litter size based on the number of embryos varied from 6 to 62, with an average of 30 embryos. Mating started in July whereas ovulation, fertilization and uterine eggs occurred in late October–November. Smallest embryos of 3–5 cm in stretch total length (STL) appeared in uterus from November to January. The embryo size varied widely among months, and well-pigmented embryos were already present in April–May samples, although most of them occurred in August–September, suggesting a gestation period of around 11 months. The absence of neonates in catches, as well as parturition females, does not support a hypothesis that parturition takes place in the Gulf of Guinea.
Traditionally users of x-ray spectrometers have been forced to optimize their instrument for light element analysis and heavy element analysis through the choice of either a light or heavy element anode. The advent of the rhodium tube brought some relief to this situation, but some compromise was still required. The recent addition of the scandium side-window tube to the range has provided twice the excitation efficiency of the chromium tube, whilst providing an equivalent heavy element performance.
In the past there have been attempts to produce x-ray tubes combining the properties of both light and heavy element tubes. An example of this is the dual-target tube which has two preferentially excited targets (anodes) of different materials constructed side-by-side.
Research to document Aboriginal occupation across the Dampier Archipelago has also encountered the earliest archaeological evidence for the presence of American whalers in North West Australia. Inscriptions in the form of rock engravings made by the crews of the whaling ships Connecticut (1842) and Delta (1849) have been discovered on Rosemary and West Lewis Islands. These maritime inscriptions are uniquely superimposed over earlier Indigenous rock art motifs, appearing to represent distinct mark-making practices by the whalers on encountering an already-inscribed landscape, and thus providing insight into the earliest phases of North West Australia's colonial history.
To maintain savanna vegetation, mid-seasonal fire has been applied since 1961 in the Lamto Savanna (Côte d'Ivoire). However, this prescribed fire has not impeded tree encroachment during recent years, nor have its effects on insect assemblages been documented. Also the impact of tree intrusion on insect assemblages is poorly studied in savanna. To prevent tree density increasing, a change in fire regime might be a solution. In this study, we examined the effect of different fire regimes (early, mid-seasonal and late fires) on leaf-litter ant assemblages in order to suggest appropriate measures for preventing tree invasion without having an effect on insect communities. Sampling was implemented by combining pitfall trapping and leaf-litter sampling before and after three different fire regimes, early, mid-seasonal and late fires. While the ant species richness declined after the passage of early and mid-seasonal fires, significantly more species were found in the burnt savanna after the late fire. However, the losses or gains of species due to different fire regimes did not cause severe changes in the ant species composition. Of the functional groups identified, only the generalists and specialist predators were respectively strongly affected by the early and mid-seasonal fires, certainly due to micro-habitat modification. Based on the trends observed in the present study, we suggest sampling other invertebrate fauna in similar savanna plots to find out if other insect groups have similar reactions to the applied fire regimes.
Biomass burning has links with a number of global concerns including soil health, food security and climate change. In central Côte d'Ivoire (West Africa), we conducted a field study to compare nutrient losses, soil fertility and yam yield in slash-and-burn versus slash-and-mulch agriculture. Trials involved five sites established in the dominant Chromolaena odorata fallows of the region, each consisting of paired plots: slash and burnt biomass (SB) versus slashed and unburnt biomass, but left to serve as mulch (SM). Carbon and five elemental nutrients were assessed in the aboveground biomass prior to burning and in ash after fires; losses were assessed by subtraction. The greatest proportions of loss occurred with C (95%), N (95%) and K (74%), corresponding to losses into the atmosphere of 3532 ± 408, 200 ± 36, 132 ± 36 kg ha−1. Six weeks after the fire, soil properties were assessed: soil organic C, total N and Mg2+ were higher in SM than in SB sites. At final harvest, yam tuber yield was twice as large in SM as in SB (18 ± 4 vs. 9 ± 2 Mg ha−1) with soil C, total N and K+ as the main influential soil parameters. The key finding was that the elements lost in greatest proportion during burning were those mostly influencing yam yields. Because a clear negative relationship between biomass burning and yam production has been established the promotion of the more productive, alternate slash-and-mulch system compared to slash-and-burn system, is warranted. The findings of our research can be used in support of developing a sustainable yam production system in the region and in West Africa more generally.
Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been recently described as an innovative and effective tool for identifying arthropods and mosquito blood meal sources. To test this approach in the context of an entomological survey in the field, mosquitoes were collected from five ecologically distinct areas of Mali. We successfully analysed the blood meals from 651 mosquito abdomens crushed on Whatman filter paper (WFPs) in the field using MALDI-TOF MS. The legs of 826 mosquitoes were then submitted for MALDI-TOF MS analysis in order to identify the different mosquito species. Eight mosquito species were identified, including Anopheles gambiae Giles, Anopheles coluzzii, Anopheles arabiensis, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex neavei, Culex perexiguus, Aedes aegypti and Aedes fowleri in Mali. The field mosquitoes for which MALDI-TOF MS did not provide successful identification were not previously available in our database. These specimens were subsequently molecularly identified. The WFP blood meal sources found in this study were matched against human blood (n = 619), chicken blood (n = 9), cow blood (n = 9), donkey blood (n = 6), dog blood (n = 5) and sheep blood (n = 3). This study reinforces the fact that MALDI-TOF MS is a promising tool for entomological surveys.
The global spread of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) may be due to HIV/AIDS and other environmental factors. The symptoms of NTM and tuberculosis (TB) disease are indistinguishable, but their treatments are different. Lack of research on the epidemiology of NTM infections has led to underestimation of its prevalence within TB endemic countries. This study was designed to determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of pulmonary NTM in Bamako. A cross-sectional study which include 439 suspected cases of pulmonary TB. From 2006 to 2013 a total of 332 (76%) were confirmed to have sputum culture positive for mycobacteria. The prevalence of NTM infection was 9.3% of our study population and 12.3% of culture positive patients. The seroprevalence of HIV in NTM group was 17.1%. Patients who weighed <55 kg and had TB symptoms other than cough were also significantly more likely to have disease due to NTM as compared to those with TB disease who were significantly more likely to have cough and weigh more than 55 kg (OR 0.05 (CI 0.02–0.13) and OR 0.32 (CI 0.11–0.93) respectively). NTM disease burden in Bamako was substantial and diagnostic algorithms for pulmonary disease in TB endemic countries should consider the impact of NTM.
The effectiveness of protected area management is a major concern. In Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire, recurrent human pressure challenges the ability of law enforcement authorities to protect wildlife. During 2010–2015 we studied the implementation of law enforcement in the Park to determine (1) the potential for improvement of the protection of large mammals and (2) the minimum patrolling effort needed to obtain increases in their populations. We recorded presence of large mammals and illegal activities in two areas within the Park, the research area (210 km2) and the rest of the Park (5,150 km2), and compiled data about patrolling efforts from the Park authorities. Using a generalized linear mixed model we identified a relationship between increased patrolling effort and the relative abundance of large mammals, especially for monkey groups, pygmy hippopotamuses Choeropsis liberiensis and duikers. At low patrolling efforts duiker encounter rates remained stable, whereas rates of encounter with monkey groups and pygmy hippopotamuses decreased. Chimpanzee Pan troglodytes verus encounter rates were slower to respond and remained stable at higher patrolling effort, but decreased at low patrolling effort. Our findings suggest that a minimum of 1.32 patrol days per km2 over 2 years is required for chimpanzee and monkey populations to increase, whereas a patrolling effort of 0.48 days per km2 over 2 years would lead to an increase in duiker and pygmy hippopotamus populations. We maintain that the patrolling effort required to ensure an increase in wildlife can be estimated relatively precisely from multi-year biomonitoring programmes.
For a long time, the only claim the western Netherlands had to participation in the 5th-century adventus Saxonum was based upon a handful of Anglo-Saxon pots in three cemeteries in the Rhine estuary. Recent research, however, dates these pots to the 6th century, thus beyond the initial period of migrations from Old Saxony (Niedersachsen) to Britain. Together with other differences in material culture, this clearly reveals a contrast to developments in the terpen area of Friesland and Groningen. The internal partition in the Lex Frisionum into three parts also points to regional differences (see further Knol and Ĳssenagger, and Nĳdam, this vol.). Even within the region of West Frisia, the modern provinces of North and South Holland, regular archaeological distinctions can be found. Bazelmans (2009, 332–3) has already pointed to the fragmented ethnicity the different coastal regions must have had, following the crisis in habitation they all went through between the late 3rd and early 6th century ad.
At the same time there were some shared characteristics in the Frisian coastal region, such as brooches of the Domburg Type (Deckers, this vol.). How does this all add up to a coherent picture of the habitation history of the Dutch west coast in the Migration Period? In this paper a general outline is presented of the recent research of both authors as part of the former ‘Frisia Project’, taking an interdisciplinary approach (Dĳkstra and van der Velde 2011; Dĳkstra 2011; de Koning 2003; 2012).
An introductory warning about geographical terminology is required, however. In German studies present-day Friesland is called ‘West Frisia’, to distinguish it from the German East and North Frisia (e.g. Bos 2001, 490 and map 1). This is confusing, because in the Early Middle Ages the littoral of the western Netherlands was known as Frisia as well, and its inhabitants as Fresiones or Fresiones occidentales (West Frisians). The name Holland did not come into regular use until c. 1100, reserving the name West-Friesland for the northernmost part of Holland until the present day (Blok 1969). Consequently we prefer to refer to modern Friesland as Middle Frisia (Fig. 4.1).
Consumption of bushmeat, a staple food of people living in the vicinity of protected areas, is a challenge for the conservation of wildlife. The underlying factors driving this consumption are, however, relatively understudied, particularly among rural households, and improved understanding would facilitate the development of conservation strategies. We therefore aimed to identify the factors that influence bushmeat consumption in rural households to the west of Taï National Park, in Côte d'Ivoire. We carried out enquiries in a total of 144 rural households in 20 localities during July–December 2012. Bushmeat, the majority of which comprised rodents and bovids, accounted for 13% of the animal protein consumed in these households. This consumption was significantly higher in households in which poverty was more acute (low annual income and more dependent children). We found that repeated awareness campaigns involving theatre performances and/or film screenings (multimedia campaigns) contributed to a decrease in bushmeat consumption. This decrease exceeded 62% after exposure to four multimedia campaigns. We highlight the importance of awareness campaigns for reducing consumption of wild animals, and demonstrate the importance of recurring multimedia campaigns to maximize the impact of such conservation activities in rural communities.
Since Mali’s independence in 1960, the Tuareg, a minority ethnic group, have staged successive rebellions, with the major ones occurring in 1963, 1990, 2006, and 2012. While discussions of “the Tuareg issue” have sometimes led both the Malian and the international press, as well as scholars, to make inaccurate generalizations, it is true that almost all the armed conflicts of the past fifty years in Mali were originated by people of the Tuareg group. Therefore, many of their Malian compatriots hold the Tuareg people responsible for the destruction of life and human rights violations that have taken place since the beginning of 2012. This article focuses on the events of 2012 and their aftermath and explores some social, cultural, and political differences between northern Tuareg and southern Bamana peoples in particular. It asks two specific questions: Is there something about Tuareg society, culture, and politics (i.e., Tuareg identity) that causes an incompatibility with the Mali Republic? And if not, where has the Malian government failed through the successive regimes since independence?
Pathogenic animal trypanosomes affecting livestock have represented a major constraint to agricultural development in Africa for centuries, and their negative economic impact is increasing in South America and Asia. Chemotherapy and chemoprophylaxis represent the main means of control. However, research into new trypanocides has remained inadequate for decades, leading to a situation where the few compounds available are losing efficacy due to the emergence of drug-resistant parasites. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the current options available for the treatment and prophylaxis of the animal trypanosomiases, with a special focus on the problem of resistance. The key issues surrounding the main economically important animal trypanosome species and the diseases they cause are also presented. As new investment becomes available to develop improved tools to control the animal trypanosomiases, we stress that efforts should be directed towards a better understanding of the biology of the relevant parasite species and strains, to identify new drug targets and interrogate resistance mechanisms.
Loneliness and social isolation are recognised, conceptually distinct threats to health and wellbeing in older age but limited evidence is available on their predictors in rural populations. This study performed logistical regression modelling to explore the predictors of loneliness, isolation from one's family and isolation from one's community in 884 British rural-living older adults (57.9% female; mean age = 71.5, standard deviation = 8.1 years) within the Grey and Pleasant Land data-set. While 13 per cent of participants reported feeling lonely, 49 per cent reported isolation from their family and 9 per cent reported isolation from their community. Minimal cross-over between groups was observed. Widowhood, financial difficulties, area deprivation, and self-reported impairments in physical and mental health predicted loneliness. Greater financial difficulty gave lower odds of isolation from one's family, and higher levels of community engagement gave lower odds of isolation from the community. Ageing in place (longer residency) was the only common predictor for all three dependent variables. Initiatives aimed at tackling loneliness and social isolation in rural-living older people must recognise that the two concepts are distinct, affecting different population sub-groups with mostly different risk factor profiles. Future interventions and policies should clearly identify whether their target is loneliness or social isolation and tailor their interventions appropriately.