To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Understanding the critical time of weed removal (CTWR) is necessary for designing effective weed management programs in popcorn production that do not result in yield reduction. The objective of this study was to determine the CTWR in popcorn with and without a premix of atrazine and S-metolachlor applied PRE. Field experiments were conducted at the University of Nebraska–Lincoln, South Central Agricultural Laboratory near Clay Center, NE in 2017 and 2018. The experiment was laid out in a split-plot design with PRE herbicide as the main plot and weed removal timing as the subplot. Main plots included no herbicide or atrazine/S-metolachlor applied PRE. Subplot treatments included a weed-free control, a non-treated control, and weed removal timing at V3, V6, V9, V15, and R1 popcorn growth stages and then kept weed free throughout the season. A four-parameter log-logistic function was fitted to percentage popcorn yield loss and growing degree days separately to each main plot. The number of growing degree days, when 5% yield loss was achieved, was extracted from the model and compared between main plots. The CTWR was from the V4 to V5 popcorn growth stage in absence of PRE herbicide. With atrazine/S-metolachlor applied PRE, the CTWR was delayed until V10 to V15. It is concluded that, to avoid yield loss, weeds must be controlled before the V4 popcorn growth stage when no PRE herbicide is applied, and PRE herbicide, such as atrazine/S-metolachlor in this study, can delay the CTWR until the V10 growth stage.
Widespread and repeated use of glyphosate resulted in an increase in glyphosate-resistant (GR) weeds. This led to an urgent need for diversification of weed control programs and use of PRE herbicides with alternative sites of action. Field experiments were conducted over a 4-yr period (2015 to 2018) across three locations in Nebraska to evaluate the effects of PRE-applied herbicides on critical time for weed removal (CTWR) in GR soybean. The studies were laid out in a split-plot arrangement with herbicide regime as the main plot and weed removal timing as the subplot. The herbicide regimes used were either no PRE or premix of either sulfentrazone plus imazethapyr (350 + 70 g ai ha−1) or saflufenacil plus imazethapyr plus pyroxasulfone (26 + 70 + 120 g ai ha−1). The weed removal timings were at V1, V3, V6, R2, and R5 soybean stages, with weed-free and weedy season-long checks. Weeds were removed by application of glyphosate (1,400 g ae ha−1) or by hoeing. The results across all years and locations suggested that the use of PRE herbicides delayed CTWR in soybean. In particular, the CTWR without PRE herbicides was determined to be around the V1 to V2 (14 to 21 d after emergence [DAE]) growth stage, depending on the location and weed pressure. The use of PRE-applied herbicides delayed CTWR from about the V4 (28 DAE) stage up to the R5 (66 DAE) stage. These results suggest that the use of PRE herbicides in GR soybean could delay the need for POST application of glyphosate by 2 to 5 wk, thereby reducing the need for multiple applications of glyphosate during the growing season. Additionally, the use of PRE herbicides could provide additional modes of action needed to manage GR weeds in GR soybean.
Understanding how plants alter their growth in response to interplant competition is an overlooked but complex problem. Previous studies have characterized the effect of light and water stress on soybean or common ragweed growth in monoculture, but no study has characterized soybean and common ragweed growth in mixture. A field study was conducted in 2015 and 2016 at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln to characterize the growth response of soybean and common ragweed with different irrigation levels and intraspecific and interspecific interference. The experiment was arranged in a split-plot design with irrigation level (0, 50%, 100% replacement of simulated evapotranspiration) as the main plot and common ragweed density (0, 2, 6, 12 plants m−1 row) as the subplot. Crop- and weed-free controls and three mixture treatments were included as subplots. Periodic destructive samples of leaf area and biomass of different organ groups were collected, and leaf area index (LAI), aboveground biomass partitioning, specific leaf area (SLA), and leaf area ratio (LAR) were calculated. Additionally, soybean and common ragweed yield were harvested, and 100-seed weight and seed production were determined. Soybean did not alter biomass partitioning, SLA, or LAR in mixture with common ragweed. Soybean LAI, biomass, and seed size were affected by increasing common ragweed density. Conversely, common ragweed partitioned less new biomass to leaves and increased SLA in response to increased interference. Common ragweed LAI, biomass, and seed number were reduced by the presence of soybean and increasing common ragweed density; however, seed weight was not affected. Results show that adjustment in biomass partitioning, SLA, and LAR is not the method that soybean uses to remain plastic under competition for light. Common ragweed demonstrated plasticity in both biomass partitioning and SLA, indicating an ability to maintain productivity under intra- and inter-specific competition for light or soil resources.
Kochia [Bassia scoparia (L.) A. J. Scott] is a problematic weed species across the Great Plains, as it is spreading fast and has developed herbicide-resistant biotypes. It is imperative to understand key life-history stages that promote population expansion of B. scoparia and control strategies that would provide effective control of these key stages, thereby reducing population growth. Diversifying weed control strategies has been widely recommended for the management of herbicide-resistant weeds. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to develop a simulation model to assess the population dynamics of B. scoparia and to evaluate the effectiveness of diverse weed control strategies on long-term growth rates of B. scoparia populations. The model assumed the existence of a glyphosate-resistant (GR) biotype in the B. scoparia population, but at a very low proportion in a crop rotation that included glyphosate-tolerant corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. The parameter estimates used in the model were obtained from various ecological and management studies on B. scoparia. Model simulations indicated that seedling recruitment and survival to seed production were more important than seedbank persistence for B. scoparia population growth rate. Results showed that a diversified management program, including glyphosate, could provide excellent control of B. scoparia populations and potentially eliminate already evolved GR B. scoparia biotypes within a given location. The most successful scenario was a diverse control strategy that included one or two preplant tillage operations followed by preplant or PRE application of herbicides with residual activities and POST application of glyphosate; this strategy reduced seedling recruitment, survival, and seed production during the growing season, with tremendous negative impacts on long-term population growth and resistance risk in B. scoparia.
Predictions of the mechanical response of polycrystalline metals and underlying microstructure evolution and deformation mechanisms are critically important for the manufacturing and design of metallic components, especially those made of new advanced metals that aim to outperform those in use today. In this review article, recent advancements in modeling deformation processing-microstructure evolution and in microstructure–property relationships of polycrystalline metals are covered. While some notable examples will use standard crystal plasticity models, such as self-consistent and Taylor-type models, the emphasis is placed on more advanced full-field models such as crystal plasticity finite elements and Green’s function-based models. These models allow for nonhomogeneity in the mechanical fields leading to greater insight and predictive capability at the mesoscale. Despite the strides made, it still remains a mesoscale modeling challenge to incorporate in the same model the role of influential microstructural features and the dynamics of underlying mechanisms. The article ends with recommendations for improvements in computational speed.
This study evaluated the effectiveness of 14 herbicide treatments for purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria L.) control over a period of 10 yr. The study commenced in 2000/2001 at four wetland locations in Nebraska. The evaluated herbicides included: glyphosate at 2.2 and 3.4 kg ha−1; 2,4-D dimethylamine at 1.4 and 2.8 kg ae ha−1; triclopyr at 1.3 and 2.1 kg ae ha−1; imazapyr at 1.1 and 1.7 kg ae ha−1; metsulfuron at 0.042 and 0.084 ai kg ha−1; fosamine at 13.5 and 22.4 kg ai ha−1; triclopyr at 1.3 kg ae ha−1 plus 2,4-D amine at 1.4 ae kg ha−1; and metsulfuron at 0.042 kg ai ha−1 plus 2,4-D amine at 1.4 kg ae ha−1. Some treatments provided excellent control (90%) that lasted only one season, while others suppressed L. salicaria growth for multiple seasons, depending on the location and the age of L. salicaria stand. Application of higher rates of glyphosate, imazapyr, and metsulfuron consistently provided excellent control (≥90%) of L. salicaria that lasted 360 d after treatment at most locations. Application of fosamine and the lower rate of 2,4-D amine provided the least L. salicaria control at most locations. The older the L. salicaria stand, the more multiple applications of herbicides were needed to completely control L. salicaria. Generally, there were higher percentages of grasses in the 2,4-D-, triclopyr-, and metsulfuron-treated plots compared with higher percentages of broadleaf species in the glyphosate- and imazapyr-treated plots at each location.
Persistent infection with one or more highly oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPVs) or high-risk-HPV (HR-HPV) is necessary but not a sufficient aetiological agent for the development of cervical neoplasia. A number of viral, host, environmental and behavioural factors are suggested to be associated with the progression of cervical disorder. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of environmental and behavioural cofactors on the development of cervical disorders in HR-HPV-infected women in Serbia. A total of 541 women have been tested by PCR for the presence of HPV on the cervix. HPV genotypes were determined by direct DNA sequencing. Women identified as HR-HPV-positive were further classified into four subgroups according to their cytological status. All relevant information about demographical and behavioural factors was obtained by interviewer-based questionnaire. A number of analytical and descriptive statistical methods were used for processing the data. The cofactors found to be of significance for the progression of cervical disease were older age, body mass index >25, lower educational level, long-term smoking, previous genital infections and cervical interventions. On the other hand, condom use was found to have a protective role. Information about these cofactors might be very important for the development of more efficient cancer prevention programmes and promotion of anti-HPV vaccination.
In this work, the deformation mechanisms underlying the room temperature deformation of the pseudomorphic body centered cubic (BCC) Mg phase in Mg/Nb nanolayered composites are studied. Nanolayered composites comprised of 50% volume fraction of Mg and Nb were synthesized using physical vapor deposition with the individual layer thicknesses h of 5, 6.7, and 50 nm. At the lower layer thicknesses of h = 5 and 6.7 nm, Mg has undergone a phase transition from HCP to BCC such that it formed a coherent interface with the adjoining Nb phase. Micropillar compression testing normal and parallel to the interface plane shows that the BCC Mg nanolayered composite is much stronger and can sustain higher strains to failure than the HCP Mg nanolayered composite. A crystal plasticity model incorporating confined layer slip is presented and applied to link the observed anisotropy and hardening in the deformation response to the underlying slip mechanisms.
Generalizing the secular perturbation theory of Milani and Knežević (1990), we have determined in the a — e — I proper elements space the locations of the secular resonances between the precession rates of the longitudes of perihelion and node of a small body and the corresponding eigenfrequencies of the secular perturbations of the four outer planets. We discuss some implications of the results for the dynamical evolution of small solar system bodies. In particular, our findings include: (i) the fact that the g = g6 resonance in the inner asteroid belt lies closer than previously assumed to the Flora region, providing a plausible dynamical route to inject asteroid fragments into planet-crossing orbits; (ii) the possible presence of some low-inclination “stable islands” between the orbits of the outer planets; (iii) the fact that none of the secular resonances considered in this work exists for semimajor axes > 50 AU, so that these resonances do not provide a mechanism for transporting inwards possible Kuiper–belt comets.
Spring tillage is a component of an integrated weed management strategy for control of early emerging glyphosate-resistant weeds such as common ragweed; however, the effect of tillage on common ragweed emergence pattern is unknown. The objectives of this study were to evaluate whether spring tillage during emergence would influence the emergence pattern or stimulate additional emergence of common ragweed and to characterize common ragweed emergence in southeast Nebraska. A field experiment was conducted for three years (2014 to 2016) in Gage County, Nebraska in a field naturally infested with glyphosate-resistant common ragweed. Treatments consisted of a no-tillage control and three spring tillage timings. The Soil Temperature and Moisture Model (STM2) software was used to estimate soil temperature and moisture at a 2-cm depth. The Weibull function was fit to total common ragweed emergence (%) with day of year (DOY), thermal time, and hydrothermal time as independent variables. Tillage treatments and year had no effect on total common ragweed emergence (P=0.88 and 0.35, respectively) and time to 10, 25, 50, 75, and 90% emergence (P=0.31). However, emergence pattern was affected by year (P=<0.001) with 50% total emergence reached on May 5 in 2014, April 20 in 2015, and April 2 in 2016 and 90% total emergence reached on May 12, 2014, May 8, 2015, and April 30, 2016. According to the corrected information-theoretic model comparison criterion (AICc), the Weibull function with thermal time and base temperature of 3 C best explained the emergence pattern over three years. This study concludes that spring tillage does not stimulate additional emergence; therefore, after the majority of the common ragweed has emerged and before the crop has been planted, tillage could be used as an effective component of an integrated glyphosate-resistant common ragweed management program in Nebraska.
Archaeological sites of the Mediterranean region are widely colonized by weed species causing various problems both to the monuments and the functionality of the sites. Due to recent regulatory restrictions for herbicide use at archaeological sites, flame weeding was studied as an alternative weed management method. The objective of the study was to test two propane doses (99 kg ha−1 and 129 kg ha−1) applied two, three, or four times at three archaeological sites of Greece (Kolona, Ancient Messene and Early Christian Amfipolis). Percent weed control and weed heights were significantly affected by flaming treatments. Visual evaluation of percent weed control suggested that the propane dose of 129 kg ha−1 applied four times provided excellent weed control (>90%) for over 2 months. Annual broadleaf weeds were controlled better with flaming than grasses and perennial broadleaf species. The high propane dose applied four times reduced average vegetation height to about 10 cm, which was the desirable vegetation height wanted by the managers of the archeological sites suggesting that flame weeding has the potential to be used effectively for weed management in archaeological sites of the Mediterranean region.
We present wide-field, spatially and highly resolved spectroscopic observations of Balmer filaments in the northeastern rim of Tycho’s supernova remnant in order to investigate the signal of cosmic-ray (CR) acceleration. The spectra of Balmer-dominated shocks (BDSs) have characteristic narrow (FWHM ~ 10 km s−1) and broad (FWHM ~ 1000 km s−1) Hα components. CRs affect the Hα-line parameters: heating the cold neutrals in the interstellar medium results in broadening of the narrow Hα-line width beyond 20 km s−1, but also in reduction of the broad Hα-line width due to energy being removed from the protons in the post-shock region. For the first time we show that the width of the narrow Hα line, much larger than 20 km s−1, is not a resolution or geometric effect nor a spurious result of a neglected intermediate (FWHM ~ 100 km s−1) component resulting from hydrogen atoms undergoing charge exchange with warm protons in the broad-neutral precursor. Moreover, we show that a narrow line width ≫ 20 km s−1 extends across the entire NE rim, implying CR acceleration is ubiquitous, and making it possible to relate its strength to locally varying shock conditions. Finally, we find several locations along the rim, where spectra are significantly better explained (based on Bayesian evidence) by inclusion of the intermediate component, with a width of 180 km s−1 on average.
Initial results en route toward construction of complex magnetic core-shell silica and organosilica nanotheranostics are presented. Magnetite nanoparticles are synthesized by three different methods and embedded within mesoporous silica and organosilica frameworks by different surfactant-templated procedures to produce three types of core-shell nanoparticles. Magnetite nanoparticles (15 nm in diameter) are embedded within mesoporous silica nanoparticles to produce cell-like material with predominantly one magnetite nuclei-resembling core per nanoparticle, with final particle diameter of ca. 150 nm, specific surface area of 573 m2/g and hexagonally structured tubular pores (2.6 nm predominant diameter), extended throughout the volume of nanoparticles. Two forms of spherical core-shell nanoparticles composed of magnetite cores embedded within mesoporous organosilica shells are also obtained by employing ethylene and ethane bridged organobisalkoxysilane precursors. The obtained nanomaterials are characterized by high surface area (978 and 820 m2/g), tubular pore morphology (2 and 2.8 nm predominant pore diameters), different diameters (386 and 100-200 nm), in case of ethylene- and ethane-composed organosilica shells, respectively. Different degree of agglomeration of magnetite nanoparticles was also observed in the obtained materials, and in the case of utilization of surfactant-pre-stabilized magnetite nanoparticles for the syntheses, their uniform and non-agglomerated distribution within the shells was noted.
The evolution of glyphosate and acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor-resistant common waterhemp in the Midwestern United States has reduced the number of effective POST herbicide options for management of this problem weed in glyphosate-resistant soybean. Moreover, common waterhemp emerges throughout the crop growing season, justifying the need to evaluate herbicide programs that provide season-long control. The objectives of this study were to compare POST-only and PRE followed by (fb) POST herbicide programs for control of glyphosate-resistant common waterhemp in glyphosate-resistant soybean. Field experiments were conducted in 2013 and 2014 in Dodge County, NE, in a field infested with glyphosate-resistant common waterhemp. Programs containing PRE herbicides resulted in ≥83% control of common waterhemp and densities of ≤35 plantsm–2 at 21 d after PRE (DAPRE). Post-only herbicide programs resulted in <70% control and densities of 107 to 215 plants m–2 at 14 d after early-POST (DAEPOST) treatment. PRE fb POST herbicide programs, including saflufenacil plus imazethapyr plus dimethenamid-P, sulfentrazone plus cloransulam, or S-metolachlor plus metribuzin, fb fomesafen plus glyphosate; S-metolachlor plus fomesafen fb acifluorfen plus glyphosate resulted in >90% control of glyphosate-resistant common waterhemp throughout the growing season, reduced density to ≤7plantsm–2, ≥92% biomass reduction, and soybean yield >2,200kg ha–1. Averaged across herbicide programs, common waterhemp control was 84%, and density was 15 plants m–2 with PRE fb POST herbicide programs compared with 42% control, and density of 101 plants m–2 with POST-only herbicide programs at harvest. Results of this study indicated that PRE fb POST herbicide programs with effective modes of action exist for season-long control of glyphosate-resistant common waterhemp in glyphosate-resistant soybean.