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Herbert S. Klein and Francisco Vidal Luna present a sweeping narrative of social change in Brazil that documents its transition from a predominantly rural and illiterate society in 1950, to an overwhelmingly urban, modern, and literate society in the twenty-first century. Tracing this radical evolution reveals how industrialization created a new labor force, how demographic shifts reorganized the family and social attitudes, and how urban life emerged in what is now one of the most important industrial economies in the world. A paradigm for modern social histories, the book also examines changes in social stratification and mobility, the decline of regional disparities, education, social welfare, race, and gender. By analyzing Brazil's unprecedented political, economic, and social changes in the late twentieth and twenty-first century, the authors address an under-explored area in current scholarship and offer an invaluable resource for scholars of Latin American and Brazil.
The DSM-5 introduced purging disorder (PD) as an other specified feeding or eating disorder characterized by recurrent purging in the absence of binge eating. The current study sought to describe the long-term outcome of PD and to examine predictors of outcome.
Women (N = 84) who met research criteria for PD completed a comprehensive battery of baseline interview and questionnaire assessments. At an average of 10.24 (3.81) years follow-up, available records indicated all women were living, and over 95% were successfully located (n = 80) while over two-thirds (n = 58) completed follow-up assessments. Eating disorder status, full recovery status, and level of eating pathology were examined as outcomes. Severity and comorbidity indicators were tested as predictors of outcome.
Although women experienced a clinically significant reduction in global eating pathology, 58% continued to meet criteria for a DSM-5 eating disorder at follow-up. Only 30% met established criteria for a full recovery. Women reported significant decreases in purging frequency, weight and shape concerns, and cognitive restraint, but did not report significant decreases in depressive and anxiety symptoms. Quality of life was impaired in the physical, psychological, and social domains. More severe weight and shape concerns at baseline predicted meeting criteria for an eating disorder at follow-up. Other baseline severity indicators and comorbidity did not predict the outcome.
Results highlight the severity and chronicity of PD as a clinically significant eating disorder. Future work should examine maintenance factors to better adapt treatments for PD.
Early irritability predicts a broad spectrum of psychopathology spanning both internalizing and externalizing disorders, rather than any particular disorder or group of disorders (i.e. multifinality). Very few studies, however, have examined the developmental mechanisms by which it leads to such phenotypically diverse outcomes. We examined whether variation in the diurnal pattern of cortisol moderates developmental pathways between preschool irritability and the subsequent emergence of internalizing and externalizing symptoms 9 years later.
When children were 3 years old, mothers were interviewed about children's irritability and completed questionnaires about their children's psychopathology. Six years later, children collected saliva samples at wake-up and bedtime on three consecutive days. Diurnal cortisol patterns were modeled as latent difference scores between evening and morning samples. When children were approximately 12 years old, mothers again completed questionnaires about their children's psychopathology.
Among children with higher levels of irritability at age 3, a steeper diurnal cortisol slope at age 9 predicted greater internalizing symptoms and irritability at age 12, whereas a blunted slope at age 9 predicted greater externalizing symptoms at age 12, adjusting for baseline and concurrent symptoms.
Our results suggest that variation in stress system functioning can predict and differentiate developmental trajectories of early irritability that are relatively more internalizing v. those in which externalizing symptoms dominate in pre-adolescence.
The Batn el-Hagar in Sudan has traditionally been characterised as sparsely occupied during the Middle Kingdom Period, with most activity limited to the Egyptian fortresses along the Second Cataract. A new survey programme undertaken by the Uronarti Regional Archaeological Project offers evidence for a more richly occupied landscape.
“Real knowledge,” as I use the term, is the most highly prized form of true belief sought by an epistemic agent. This paper argues that defeasible infinitism provides a good way to characterize real knowledge and it shows how real knowledge can arise from fallible justification. Then, I argue that there are two ways of interpreting Ernest Sosa's account of real knowledge as belief that is aptly formed and capable of being fully defended. On the one hand, if beliefs are aptly formed only if they have a specific causal etiology, namely that they are efficiently caused fully or partially by virtuous characteristics of the epistemic agent, then Sosa's account falls prey to what I call the problem of the Hazard of Empirical Disconfirmation (HED). The HED problem applies to all forms of causal accounts of real knowledge and is simply that as we gain more empirical knowledge about the causal origins of our true beliefs that are the most highly prized we will discover that they do not always (or even hardly ever) satisfy the required efficient causal constraints. Bluntly put, having sufficiently good reasons for our beliefs might not require that the beliefs have the requisite efficient causal etiology. On the other hand, there is a way of interpreting Sosa's views that does not include an efficient causal prerequisite. That interpretation makes Sosa's account of real knowledge almost identical to defeasible infinitism but expressed in an alternate vocabulary. Such a view is not subject to the HED problem and it can solve the deep problem in epistemology, namely how to get epistemically certain (as opposed to psychologically certain) knowledge from fallible justification.
There is an emerging consensus in developmental psychopathology that irritable youth are at risk for developing internalizing problems later in life. The current study explored if irritability in youth is multifactorial and the impact of irritability dimensions on psychopathology outcomes in adulthood.
We conducted exploratory factor analysis on irritability symptom items from a semi-structured diagnostic interview administered to a community sample of adolescents (ages 14–19; 42.7% male; 89.1% white). The analysis identified two factors corresponding to items from the mood disorders v. the oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) (Leibenluft and Stoddard) sections of the interview. These factors were then entered together into regression models predicting psychopathology assessed at age 24 (N = 941) and again at age 30 (N = 816). All models controlled for concurrent psychopathology in youth.
The two irritability dimensions demonstrated different patterns of prospective relationships, with items from the ODD section primarily predicting externalizing psychopathology, items from the mood disorder sections predicting depression at age 24 but not 30, and both dimensions predicting borderline personality disorder symptoms.
These results suggest that the current standard of extracting and compositing irritability symptom items from diagnostic interviews masks distinct dimensions of irritability with different psychopathological outcomes. Additionally, these findings add nuance to the prevailing notion that irritability in youth is specifically linked to later internalizing problems. Further investigation using more sensitive and multifaceted measures of irritability are needed to parse the meaning and clinical implications of these dimensions.
Classic conceptual frameworks explaining the relationship of personality traits to depression include the precursor and predisposition models. The former hypothesizes that depression is predicted by traits alone whereas the latter hypothesizes that stress, together with personality, predicts depression. Dynamic vulnerability models (DVM) expand on these perspectives by incorporating fluctuations in personality over time. The stress generation model provides an alternative view, positing that depression generates stress, creating a self-perpetuating cycle. However, these conceptual models are rarely directly compared.
We tested these models, focusing on neuroticism and stressful life events that the participant may have contributed to, using path analysis in a sample of 550 never-depressed, adolescent females assessed five times over 3 years.
A dynamic precursor model with stress generation was best supported. For the precursor component, neuroticism predicted subsequent depression across four assessment intervals. For the dynamic trait component, stressful life events predicted subsequent neuroticism at three of four intervals. Finally, in line with stress generation, depression consistently predicted subsequent stressful life events, and life events then predicted depression.
Finding support for the DVM is noteworthy, as this is the first comprehensive test of this model. Moreover, results supported integrating stress generation with trait vulnerability. Continued use of integrated approaches and refining the statistical implementation of these theories is necessary to advance understanding of the development of depression.
This paper presents a novel way to obtain reinforced pores by the dissociation of mixed carbides during sintering. Porous materials have a wide range of applications such as dampeners, light structures, etc. But usually pores act as points of stress concentration and crack nucleation, harming the mechanical properties of these materials. Methods have been developed to control the shape and size of pores but, until now, there are no techniques that allow reinforcing the material around the pores. To address this, steels were prepared by adding 1, 3 and 5 wt.% of Mo1.5Cr0.5C mixed carbide particles to a iron matrix by metal injection moulding. The results showed that during sintering, the dissociation of the carbide followed by the dissolution of the elements in the matrix generated rounded secondary pores with a reinforced vicinity, which increased the mechanical strength of the materials. The presence of rounded pores encircled by an enriched vicinity can allow the production of porous materials with exceptional fatigue strength and fracture toughness.
Laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) is a nozzle-free printing technology that can be used for two- and three-dimensional printing. In LIFT, a laser pulse creates an impulse inside a thin film of material that results in the formation of a liquid jet. We experimentally study LIFT of viscoplastic materials by visualizing the process of jetting with high-speed imaging. The shape of the jet depends on the laser energy, focal height, surface tension and material rheology. We theoretically identify the characteristic jetting velocity and how it depends on the control parameters, and define non-dimensional groups to classify the regimes of jetting. Based on the results, we propose the optimal conditions for printing with LIFT technology.
The 'Austrian' tradition is well-known for its definitive contributions to economics in the twentieth century. However, Austrian economics also offers an exciting research agenda outside the traditional boundaries of economics, especially in the management disciplines. This Element examines how Austrian ideas play a key role in expanding the understanding of fields like entrepreneurship, strategy, and organization. It focuses especially on the vital role that entrepreneurs play in guiding economic progress by shaping firms and their strategic behavior. In doing so, it explains a wide range of contributions that Austrian economics makes to the understanding of key problems in management, while also highlighting many directions for future work in this inspiring tradition.
Sarcopenia is a progressive and generalised skeletal muscle disorder associated with adverse outcomes. Ageing causes primary sarcopenia, while secondary causes include chronic kidney disease (CKD), long-term use of glucocorticoids and obesity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of sarcopenia using guidelines recommended by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP, 2010; EWGSOP2, 2018) and the Foundation of the National Institutes of Health (FNIH) and analyse the relationship between sarcopenia and body adiposity in adult renal transplant recipients (RTR). This was a cross-sectional study of adult RTR (BMI ≥ 18·5 kg/m2). Body composition was evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and anthropometry. Glomerular filtration rate was estimated (eGFR) by CKD-Epidemiology Collaboration equation. The prevalence of sarcopenia in adult RTR (n 185; 57 % men, 50 (se 0·82) years and eGFR 55·80 (se 1·52) ml/min) was 7 % (FNIH), 11 % (EWGSOP2) and 17 % (EWGSOP). Low muscle mass, muscle function and physical performance affected, respectively, up to 28, 46 and 10 % of the participants. According to EWGSOP and EWGSOP2, body adiposity evaluated by anthropometry and DXA (percentage trunk fat) was lower in participants with sarcopenia. Conversely, according to the FNIH criteria, RTR with sarcopenia presented higher waist:height ratio. The present study suggests that adult RTR sarcopenia prevalence varies according to the diagnostic criteria; low muscle mass, low muscle function and low physical performance are common conditions; the association of body adiposity and sarcopenia depends on the criteria used to define this syndrome; and the FNIH criteria detected higher adiposity in individuals with sarcopenia.
This article sets out two case studies to examine the evolving reality of ‘boat migration’ and the intersecting legal frameworks at play. Our analysis takes a systemic integration approach to reflect on the complex dynamics underpinning responses to the phenomenon in Australia and the Central Mediterranean. The regime that governments purport to act under in any given instance reflects the way they choose to frame incidents and possibly exploit legal gaps in, or contested interpretations of, the relevant rules. The ‘closed ports’ strategy adopted by Italy and Malta against the MV Lifeline and the detention-at-sea policy pursued by Australia are investigated from the competing perspectives of what we call the ‘security lens’ and the ‘humanitarian lens’ to demonstrate how a good faith interpretation of the applicable (if apparently conflicting and overlapping) norms can (and should) be mobilized to save lives, and how that goal is unduly undercut when security concerns trump humanitarian interests.
Mia Couto is among the most prominent of contemporary Mozambican writers. Yet he has also enjoyed a career as an environmental biologist and ecologist, having expressed much interest in interrogating the border between what is human and not human through his scientific practice. In this essay I locate the nexus of Couto’s literary and ecological careers in his concern with recovering forms of proximity among humans, environments, and other species. Through an analysis of some of Couto’s recently translated novels, I argue that his work reconceives of the relations between humans and animals through the concept of biosemiotics, an approach attuned to languages conveyed semiotically through embodied and skillful engagement with the larger-than-human world. Couto’s work in turn grounds biosemiotics in segments of African life that find their basis in forms of animism, thus implicating the concept in the postcolonial work of cultural recuperation and decolonization.
Most studies examining predictors of the onset of depression focus on variable centered regression methods that focus on the effects of multiple predictors. In contrast, person-centered approaches develop profiles of factors and these profiles can be examined as predictors of onset. Here, we developed profiles of adolescent psychosocial and clinical functioning among adolescents without a history of major depression.
Data come from a subsample of participants from the Oregon Adolescent Depression Project who completed self-report measures of functioning in adolescence and completed diagnostic and self-report measures at follow-up assessments up to approximately 15 years after baseline.
We identified four profiles of psychosocial and clinical functioning: Thriving; Average Functioning; Externalizing Vulnerability and Family Stress and Internalizing Vulnerability at the baseline assessment of participants without a history of depression at the initial assessment in mid-adolescence. Classes differed in the likelihood of onset and course of depressive disorders, experience of later anxiety and substance use disorders, and psychosocial functioning in adulthood. Moreover, the predictive utility of these classes was maintained when controlling for multiple other established risk factors for depressive disorders.
This work highlights the utility of examining multiple factors simultaneously to understand risk for depression.
Turbulence is commonly observed in nearly collisionless heliospheric plasmas, including the solar wind and corona and the Earth’s magnetosphere. Understanding the collisionless mechanisms responsible for the energy transfer from the turbulent fluctuations to the particles is a frontier in kinetic turbulence research. Collisionless energy transfer from the turbulence to the particles can take place reversibly, resulting in non-thermal energy in the particle velocity distribution functions (VDFs) before eventual collisional thermalization is realized. Exploiting the information contained in the fluctuations in the VDFs is valuable. Here we apply a recently developed method based on VDFs, the field–particle correlation technique, to a
, solar-wind-like, low-frequency Alfvénic turbulence simulation with well-resolved phase space to identify the field–particle energy transfer in velocity space. The field–particle correlations reveal that the energy transfer, mediated by the parallel electric field, results in significant structuring of the VDF in the direction parallel to the magnetic field. Fourier modes representing the length scales between the ion and electron gyroradii show that energy transfer is resonant in nature, localized in velocity space to the Landau resonances for each Fourier mode. The energy transfer closely follows the Landau resonant velocities with varying perpendicular wavenumber
. This resonant signature, consistent with Landau damping, is observed in all diagnosed Fourier modes that cover the dissipation range of the simulation.
High Voltage Engineering Europa (HVE) has designed a vacuum-insulated tandem accelerator dedicated to radiocarbon (14C) analysis. A unique feature of the design is a magnetic charge state selector that is incorporated in the high voltage terminal, which reduces the primary source of background that originates from the injection of 13CH− to negligible levels. As a result, background levels in the low 10−16 regimes are anticipated, thus supporting the most stringent 14C dating applications. Another feature of the system is the incorporation of several slit feedback loops for stabilization of the position of the ion beam throughout the system, which avoids drift and ensures stable, long-term operation. Finally, this article presents measurements and quantitative analysis of background contributions from 13CH−.
Reward processing deficits have been implicated in the etiology of depression. A blunted reward positivity (RewP), an event-related potential elicited by feedback to monetary gain relative to loss, predicts new onsets and increases in depression symptoms. Etiological models of depression also highlight stressful life events. However, no studies have examined whether stressful life events moderate the effect of the RewP on subsequent depression symptoms. We examined this question during the key developmental transition from childhood to adolescence.
A community sample of 369 children (mean age of 9) completed a self-report measure of depression symptoms. The RewP to winning v. losing was elicited using a monetary reward task. Three years later, we assessed stressful life events occurring in the year prior to the follow-up. Youth depressive symptoms were rated by the children and their parents at baseline and follow-up.
Stressful life events moderated the effect of the RewP on depression symptoms at follow-up such that a blunted RewP predicted higher depression symptoms in individuals with higher levels of stressful life events. This effect was also evident when events that were independent of the youth's behavior were examined separately.
These results suggest that the RewP reflects a vulnerability for depression that is activated by stress.
By applying data analytics to product usage information (PUI) from combinations of different channels, companies can get a more complete picture of their products’ and services’ Mid-Of-Life. All data, which is gathered within the usage phase of a product and which relates to a more comprehensive understanding of the usability of the product itself, can become valuable input. Nevertheless, an efficient use of such knowledge requires to setup related analysis capabilities enabling users not only to visualize relevant data, but providing development related knowledge e.g. to predict product behaviours not yet reflected by initial requirements.
The paper elaborates on explorations to support product development with analytics to improve anticipation of future usage of products and related services. The discussed descriptive, predictive and prescriptive analytics in given research context share the idea and overarching process of getting knowledge out of PUI data. By implementation of corresponding features into an open software platform, the application of advanced analytics for white goods product development has been explored as a reference scenario for PUI exploitation.