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This analysis investigates changing mobilization at the ILO in response to the labour and social rights shock created by EU and IMF demands in the EU sovereign debt crisis (Crisis Europe or euro-crisis). Mobilization means the purposeful use of legal norms and institutions by social movements and civil society groups to advance identified policy goals. It can be contrasted with the use of legal norms and institutions by individuals or entities to settle disputes affecting them. After introducing relevant features of euro-crisis and the ILO, the article develops an analysis that measures changing mobilization at the ILO during euro-crisis. It then shows how such an analysis makes two key contributions: first, to our understanding of the ILO and, second, to how we approach mobilization. First, by viewing the ILO as a rights mobilization structure, it shows the vitality and interest of doubted or neglected ILO supervision and complaints mechanisms. Five elements are underlined: the ILO is more than existing literature assumes; it questions the depiction of the ILO as a ‘toothless tiger’; the sharp divide between unions and NGOs is overstated; certain institutional design features make the ILO a good venue for transnational mobilization; the ILO is not transparent in terms of access to documents relevant to mobilization and compares poorly in this respect with UN Human Rights Treaty Bodies. Second, by setting it against existing literature, it is shown how measuring mobilization is distinctive within the broader human rights mobilization scholarship. The most important insights it introduces are: rejecting the assumption that mobilization inevitably follows a significant rights shock such as euro-crisis; addressing the puzzles of union ‘mobilization’ and motivation; operationalizing measurement of mobilization against the backdrop of venue choices; considering how to deal with an international organization which is both a mobilization venue and an engaged actor.
Surgical site infections (SSIs) portend high patient morbidity and mortality. Although evidence-based clinical interventions can reduce SSIs, they are not reliably delivered in practice, and data are limited on the best approach to improve adherence.
To summarize implementation strategies aimed at improving adherence to evidence-based interventions that reduce SSIs.
We searched PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, the WHO Regional databases, AFROLIB, and Africa-Wide for studies published between January 1990 and December 2015. The Effective Practice and Organization Care (EPOC) criteria were used to identify an acceptable-quality study design. We used structured forms to extract data on implementation strategies and grouped them into an implementation model called the “Four Es” framework (ie, engage, educate, execute, and evaluate).
In total, 125 studies met our inclusion criteria, but only 8 studies met the EPOC criteria, which limited our ability to identify best practices. Most studies used multifaceted strategies to improve adherence with evidence-based interventions. Engagement strategies included multidisciplinary work and strong leadership involvement. Education strategies included various approaches to introduce evidence-based practices to clinicians and patients. Execution strategies standardized the interventions into simple tasks to facilitate uptake. Evaluation strategies assessed adherence with evidence-based interventions and patient outcomes, providing feedback of performance to providers.
Multifaceted implementation strategies represent the most common approach to facilitating the adoption of evidence-based practices. We believe that this summary of implementation strategies complements existing clinical guidelines and may accelerate efforts to reduce SSIs.
Most current models of nonnative speech perception (e.g., extended perceptual assimilation model, PAM-L2, Best & Tyler, 2007; speech learning model, Flege, 1995; native language magnet model, Kuhl, 1993) base their predictions on the native/nonnative status of individual phonetic/phonological segments. This paper demonstrates that the phonotactic properties of Japanese influence the perception of natively contrasting consonants and suggests that phonotactic influence must be formally incorporated in these models. We first propose that by extending the perceptual categories outlined in PAM-L2 to incorporate sequences of sounds, we can account for the effects of differences in native and nonnative phonotactics on nonnative and cross-language segmental perception. In addition, we test predictions based on such an extension in two perceptual experiments. In Experiment 1, Japanese listeners categorized and rated vowel–consonant–vowel strings in combinations that either obeyed or violated Japanese phonotactics. The participants categorized phonotactically illegal strings to the perceptually nearest (legal) categories. In Experiment 2, participants discriminated the same strings in AXB discrimination tests. Our results show that Japanese listeners are more accurate and have faster response times when discriminating between legal strings than between legal and illegal strings. These findings expose serious shortcomings in currently accepted nonnative perception models, which offer no framework for the influence of native language phonotactics.
An experiment was carried out to examine the effects of offering beef cattle five silage diets. These were perennial ryegrass silage (PRGS) as the sole forage, tall fescue/perennial ryegrass silage (FGS) as the sole forage, PRGS in a 50:50 ratio on a dry matter (DM) basis with lupin/triticale silage (LTS), lupin/wheat silage (LWS) and pea/oat silage (POS). Each of the five silage diets was supplemented with 4 and 7 kg of concentrates/head/day in a five silages × two concentrate intakes factorial design. A total of 90 cattle were used in the 121-day experiment. The grass silages were of medium digestibility and were well preserved. The legume/cereal silages had high ammonia N, high acetic acid, low lactic acid, low butyric acid and low digestible organic matter concentrations (542, 562 and 502 g/kg DM for LTS, LWS and POS, respectively). Silage treatment did not significantly affect liveweight gain, carcass gain, carcass characteristics, the instrumental assessment of meat quality or fatty acid composition of the M. longissimus dorsi muscle. In view of the low yields of the legume/cereal crops, it is concluded that the inclusion of spring-sown legume/cereal silages in the diets of beef cattle is unlikely to be advantageous.
An experiment was carried out to examine the effects of offering beef steers grass silage (GS) as the sole forage, lupins/triticale silage (LTS) as the sole forage, a mixture of LTS and GS at a ratio of 70:30 on a dry matter (DM) basis, vetch/barley silage (VBS) as the sole forage, a mixture of VBS and GS at a ratio of 70:30 on a DM basis, giving a total of five silage diets. Each of the five silage diets was supplemented with 2 and 5 kg of concentrates/head/day in a 5 × 2 factorial design to evaluate the five silages at two levels of concentrate intake and to examine possible interactions between silage type and concentrate intake. A total of 80 beef steers were used in the 122-day experiment. The GS was well preserved while the whole crop cereal/legume silages had high ammonia-nitrogen (N) concentrations, low lactic acid concentrations and low butyric acid concentrations For GS, LTS, LTS/GS, VBS and VBS/GS, respectively, silage DM intakes were 6.5, 7.0, 7.2, 6.1 and 6.6 (s.e.d. 0.55) kg/day and live weight gains were 0.94, 0.72, 0.63, 0.65 and 0.73 (s.e.d. 0.076) kg/day. Silage type did not affect carcass fatness, the colour or tenderness of meat or the fatty acid composition of the intramuscular fat in the longissimus dorsi muscle.
Introduction: Continued smoking by cancer patients causes adverse cancer treatment outcomes, but few patients receive evidence-based smoking cessation as a standard of care.
Aim: To evaluate practical strategies to promote wide-scale dissemination and implementation of evidence-based tobacco cessation services within state cancer centers.
Methods: A Collaborative Learning Model (CLM) for Quality Improvement was evaluated with three community oncology practices to identify barriers and facilitate practice change to deliver evidence-based smoking cessation treatments to cancer patients using standardized assessments and referrals to statewide smoking cessation resources. Patients were enrolled and tracked through an automated data system and received follow-up cessation support post-enrollment. Monthly quantitative reports and qualitative data gathered through interviews and collaborative learning sessions were used to evaluate meaningful quality improvement changes in each cancer center.
Results: Baseline practice evaluation for the CLM identified the lack of tobacco use documentation, awareness of cessation guidelines, and awareness of services for patients as common barriers. Implementation of a structured assessment and referral process demonstrated that of 1,632 newly registered cancer patients,1,581 (97%) were screened for tobacco use. Among those screened, 283 (18%) were found to be tobacco users. Of identified tobacco users, 207 (73%) were advised to quit. Referral of new patients who reported using tobacco to an evidence-based cessation program increased from 0% at baseline across all three cancer centers to 64% (range = 30%–89%) during the project period.
Conclusions: Implementation of quality improvement learning collaborative models can dramatically improve delivery of guideline-based tobacco cessation treatments to cancer patients.
Reducing the phosphorus (P) content of dairy cow diets has the potential to help reduce P losses. However, P is an essential nutrient, and has many roles within the body, while in addition, rumen microbes have a requirement for P (NRC, 2001). Thus, if dietary P levels are inadequate, this could have a negative effect on rumen function, nutrient utilisation and energy metabolism. An experiment was undertaken to examine the effect on energy metabolism and P utilisation of offering dairy cows diets containing reduced levels of dietary P.
It is widely accepted that the intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the human diet should increase, in particular the long chain n-3 PUFAs such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3). Diet has a significant effect on the fatty acid profile of lamb muscle. Meat from concentrate-fed lambs generally has the highest ratio of n-6:n-3 PUFAs, although supplementation with fish oil has been used to enrich the 22:6n-3 content of lamb (Wachira et al., 2002). Lambs finished off grass, a rich source of α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) tend to have the lowest n6:n3 ratios. However the 18:3n-3 content of grass decreases with advancing maturity and exposure to shading (reviewed by Dewhurst et al., 2006). With a large proportion of UK lambs finished during late autumn when pasture may have a low nutritional value, the health benefits of late season lamb could be reduced. The aims of the current trial were to investigate the effects of lamb finishing system and fish oil supplementation on the fatty acid profile of sheep meat, produced during autumn and winter finishing.
Currently 53 and 47% of prime beef production in Northern Ireland originates from beef and dairy herds, respectively. The beef herd comprises of a diverse range of genotypes which result in major variability in carcass weights, conformation and fat classification. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of genotype, carcass weight and fat classification, and pelvic hanging technique on meat quality.
Continued improvements in lamb carcass quality are important to the successful development of the UK sheep industry. A previous study at this Institute has shown that 50% Texel or Rouge de l'Ouest genes can be included in a traditional lowland crossbred ewe type without reducing lamb output. This present study was designed to provide information on the effects of using these continental genes in ewes on lamb carcass quality.
The current upward trend in cereal prices will have a negative impact on the economics of intensive beef finishing systems. Patterson et al (1994) concluded that continental bulls could perform at a high level on diets which were relatively low in concentrates and predominantly based on grass silage. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of forage:concentrate ratio and weight at slaughter on the meat quality of ¾ or more continental bulls.
There is increasing environmental pressure to reduce phosphorus (P) inputs to agricultural systems, including dairy systems. In a recent study (Ferris et al., 2007) dairy cow performance (milk yield, milk composition, food intake and fertility) was found to be unaffected when dairy cows were offered diets containing reduced levels of dietary phosphorus over a four-year period. However, if cows are offered diets containing inadequate dietary P levels for an extended period, bone P reserves may become depleted. The aim of this experiment was to examine the effect of reducing dietary P level on bone composition. Bone samples were collected from cows culled/removed from the study described by Ferris et al. (2007).
Beef production is the most important farm enterprise on Northern Ireland farms, accounting for 32.5% of Gross Agricultural Output. In beef production the end saleable product is carcass rather than live weight. When undertaking nutrition studies with beef cattle, it is essential to evaluate effects on carcass characteristics, as improvement in live weight may not transfer to improvements in carcass weight and characteristics due to change in gut fill effects. Undertaking carcass assessments in beef production studies increases experimental costs. To determine carcass gains it is essential to slaughter a representative batch of cattle pre-experimentally in order to develop a relationship between initial live weight and initial carcass weight. Slaughtering store cattle further adds to the costs of beef experimentation. The present study was undertaken to develop a relationship between live weight and carcass weight of beef cattle offered grass silage-based diets to facilitate the determination of initial carcass weight of store beef cattle at the point of initiation of nutritional studies.
Cost effective performance from birth to slaughter must be achieved in order for beef producers to maximise income and survive in a subsidy-free, market led environment. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of gender, plane of nutrition during the growing and finishing indoor feeding periods, and stocking rate and concentrate supplementation from weaning to finishing on meat quality.
A considerable proportion of beef produced in the UK is a byproduct of the dairy industry. Young animals from this source are generally regarded as low in quality and meat from animals of this type is usually destined for the commodity minced beef market. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of slaughter weight on sensory characteristics of meat from Holstein-Friesian bulls and steers offered a cereal-based ration.
Post Mid Term Review of the Common Agricultural Policy, beef production must survive in a subsidy-free, market led environment. It is essential that producers increase final carcass value by achieving cost effective performance from birth to slaughter. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of plane of nutrition during the growing and finishing indoor feeding periods, and stocking rate and concentrate supplementation at pasture on the performance of steers and heifers from weaning to finishing.