To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
After the devastating Union defeat at Fredericksburg in December 1862, both the Army of the Potomac and the Army of Northern Virginia repaired to seasonal camps, licked their wounds, and remained wary of their enemy. Major General Ambrose Burnside, still in command, decided to locate the Federal corps around Falmouth, Virginia (just north of Fredericksburg), in a large cluster, guarded to the west by the cavalry. The Confederate camps, hugging the southern bank of the Rappahannock, stretched from Port Royal to the south up to Banks and US fords to the north, with Major General J. E. B. Stuart’s cavalry guarding the westernmost approaches to the Fredericksburg area and posting videttes above the river. As the troops of both armies settled into winter quarters, they were treated to unusually pleasant weather. Christmas Day, 1862, dawned mild and bright. At his headquarters at Moss Neck, on the Corbin Estate grounds, Lieutenant General Stonewall Jackson entertained General Robert E. Lee, Brigadier General William Nelson Pendleton, Stuart, and their staffs, in a rare display of conviviality that underlay his stern, Presbyterian scruples. The turkeys, homemade biscuits, and other culinary delicacies the Rebel high command enjoyed that day belied the gnawing problem of adequate supply for the rank and file, who, as the winter wore onward, would find themselves reduced to half-rations. Two railroads, both only partially reliable and prone to breakdowns, supplied the Confederate army, ensuring that Lee would be vexed by logistical problems in the months leading up to the spring campaign. They grew so chronic that he was obliged to detach most of his artillery to pastures close to Guiney’s Station, about 20 miles distant, and send Lieutenant General James Longstreet with George Pickett’s and John Hood’s divisions on a supply-gathering mission to south-side Virginia and eastern North Carolina in February. Once there, they also became involved in a siege of Suffolk and could not be extracted in time to return to the main army at Fredericksburg, ensuring Lee would engage his Federal opponent with only three-quarters of his effective numbers.
Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and traumatic brain injury (TBI) history have high rates of performance validity test (PVT) failure. The study aimed to determine whether those with scores in the invalid versus valid range on PVTs show similar benefit from psychotherapy and if psychotherapy improves PVT performance.
Veterans (N = 100) with PTSD, mild-to-moderate TBI history, and cognitive complaints underwent neuropsychological testing at baseline, post-treatment, and 3-month post-treatment. Veterans were randomly assigned to cognitive processing therapy (CPT) or a novel hybrid intervention integrating CPT with TBI psychoeducation and cognitive rehabilitation strategies from Cognitive Symptom Management and Rehabilitation Therapy (CogSMART). Performance below standard cutoffs on any PVT trial across three different PVT measures was considered invalid (PVT-Fail), whereas performance above cutoffs on all measures was considered valid (PVT-Pass).
Although both PVT groups exhibited clinically significant improvement in PTSD symptoms, the PVT-Pass group demonstrated greater symptom reduction than the PVT-Fail group. Measures of post-concussive and depressive symptoms improved to a similar degree across groups. Treatment condition did not moderate these results. Rate of valid test performance increased from baseline to follow-up across conditions, with a stronger effect in the SMART-CPT compared to CPT condition.
Both PVT groups experienced improved psychological symptoms following treatment. Veterans who failed PVTs at baseline demonstrated better test engagement following treatment, resulting in higher rates of valid PVTs at follow-up. Veterans with invalid PVTs should be enrolled in trauma-focused treatment and may benefit from neuropsychological assessment after, rather than before, treatment.
Edible devices are an emergent technology and in this paper the simplicity and efficacy that poly(acrylic acid)/calcium hydroxide possess in creating a pH sensitive ingestible actuator which responds to acidic environments such as gastric fluid is demonstrated. It was found that poly(acrylic acid)/calcium hydroxide hydrogels exhibit reversible actuation upon submerging in 0.1 M sodium citrate for 2 hours. Our results show that these hydrogels can restore their compressive stress to 0.19 ± 0.06 MPa, swelling ratio to 26 ± 2 and volume to 56% ± 3% of its original volume. This work offers new possibilities for developments in a variety of fields such as drug delivery, 4D printed materials, soft robotics and edible devices.
Attention impairment is an under-investigated feature and diagnostic criterion of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) that is associated with poorer outcomes. Despite increasing knowledge regarding mechanisms of attention in healthy adults, we lack a detailed characterization of attention impairments and their neural signatures in MDD.
Here, we focus on selective attention and advance a deep multi-modal characterization of these impairments in MDD, using data acquired from n = 1008 patients and n = 336 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Selective attention impairments were operationalized and anchored in a behavioral performance measure, assessed within a battery of cognitive tests. We sought to establish the accompanying neural signature using independent measures of functional magnetic resonance imaging (15% of the sample) and electroencephalographic recordings of oscillatory neural activity.
Greater impairment on the behavioral measure of selective attention was associated with intrinsic hypo-connectivity of the fronto-parietal attention network. Not only was this relationship specific to the fronto-parietal network unlike other large-scale networks; this hypo-connectivity was also specific to selective attention performance unlike other measures of cognition. Selective attention impairment was also associated with lower posterior alpha (8–13 Hz) power at rest and was related to more severe negative bias (frequent misidentifications of neutral faces as sad and lingering attention on sad faces), relevant to clinical features of negative attributions and brooding. Selective attention impairments were independent of overall depression severity and of worrying or sleep problems.
These results provide a foundation for the clinical translational development of objective markers and targeted therapeutics for attention impairment in MDD.
We introduce variance-optimal semi-static hedging strategies for a given contingent claim. To obtain a tractable formula for the expected squared hedging error and the optimal hedging strategy we use a Fourier approach in a multidimensional factor model. We apply the theory to set up a variance-optimal semi-static hedging strategy for a variance swap in the Heston model, which is affine, in the 3/2 model, which is not, and in a market model including jumps.
This article draws on an international assemblage of sources to recover the history of the involvement of the Organization of American States (OAS) and the United Nations (UN) in the Cuban missile crisis. It argues that, through the mechanisms of the OAS and the UN, Latin American citizens and officials helped shape the peaceful outcome of the crisis. This article challenges dismissive portrayals of both Latin American countries and multilateral organisations and, in so doing, joins the growing literature on how supposedly weak Latin American countries have used international organisations to influence world affairs.
The Women's Decade has had a substantial impact in Zambia. Before 1975 there was virtually no discussion about the economic and political situation of the nation's women. Since 1985, however, many of the issues raised during the Decade have been made specific to the Zambian situation by a small national women's movement. Professional women active in the movement have focused on changes in policy making and planning processes to improve women's economic situation, rather than on political mobilization and participation.
Surface sulfurization of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) absorbers is a commonly applied technique to improve the conversion efficiency of the corresponding solar cells, via increasing the bandgap towards the heterojunction. However, the resulting device performance is understood to be highly dependent on the thermodynamic stability of the chalcogenide structure at the upper region of the absorber. The present investigation provides a high-resolution chemical analysis, using energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and laser-pulsed atom probe tomography, to determine the sulfur incorporation and chemical re-distribution in the absorber material. The post-sulfurization treatment was performed by exposing the CIGSe surface to elemental sulfur vapor for 20 min at 500°C. Two distinct sulfur-rich phases were found at the surface of the absorber exhibiting a layered structure showing In-rich and Ga-rich zones, respectively. Furthermore, sulfur atoms were found to segregate at the absorber grain boundaries showing concentrations up to ~7 at% with traces of diffusion outwards into the grain interior.