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Growth, which is intrinsically linked to environmental conditions including temperature and food availability are highly variable both temporally and spatially. Estimates of growth rates of the Southern Ocean euphausiid Thysanoessa macrura are currently restricted to limited studies which rely upon repeated sampling and length-frequency analysis to quantify growth rates. The instantaneous growth method (IGR) was used to measure the growth rate of T. macrura successfully in the southern Kerulen Plateau region during summer, providing the first IGR parameters for the Southern Ocean euphausiid species. Results of the four-day IGR incubation indicate a period of low somatic growth for adult T. macrura. Males had a longer intermoult period (IMP) (62 days) than females (42 days), but the sexes exhibited similar daily growth rates of 0.011 mm day−1 and 0.012 mm day−1 respectively. Juveniles exhibited the fastest growth, with an IMP of 13 days and daily growth rate of 0.055 mm day−1 indicating a prolonged growth season, similar to the Antarctic krill E. superba. Consequently, we highlight the usability of the IGR method and strongly encourage its use in developing a comprehensive understanding of spatial and seasonal growth patterns of T. macrura.
To improve the uniformity of type-II GaAsSb/InAs nanowires (NWs) grown on GaAs substrate using the position-controlled vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) method, the insertion of GaAs NW segments was investigated. In conventional InAs NWs grown directly on patterned GaAs substrate at 430°C, anomalous growth occurred in some pattern holes, and the proportion of holes having anomalous growth was in particular pronounced when a large Au catalyst diameter (80 nm) was employed, which indicates that the strain coming from the lattice-mismatched system affected the NW growth. With the insertion of GaAs segments, the yield of vertical NWs drastically improved for all pattern conditions. The uniformity of NWs was maintained after the growth of p-GaAsSb segments, and well-organized, two-dimensional arrays of type-II GaAsSb/InAs diode NWs were obtained. Moreover, the formation of p-n junctions at the GaAsSb/InAs interface was clearly observed using scanning capacitive microscopy. These results show that the investigated growth strategy is promising for the development of high-performance NW tunnel diodes.
Lattice Boltzmann direct numerical simulation of turbulent open-channel flows over randomly distributed hemispheres at
is carried out to reveal the influence of roughness parameters related to a probability density function of rough-surface elevation on turbulence by analysing the spatial and Reynolds- (double-) averaged Navier–Stokes equation. This study specifically concentrates on the influence of the root-mean-square roughness and the skewness, and profiles of turbulence statistics are compared by introducing an effective wall-normal distance defined as a wall-normal integrated plane porosity. The effective distance can completely collapse the total shear stress outside the roughness sublayer, and thus the similarity of the streamwise mean velocity is clearer by introducing the effective distance. In order to examine the influence of the root-mean-square roughness and the skewness on dynamical effects that contribute to an increase in the skin friction coefficient, the triple-integrated double-averaged Navier–Stokes equation is analysed. The main contributors to the skin friction coefficient are found to be turbulence and drag force. The turbulence contribution increases with the root-mean-square roughness and/or the skewness. The drag force contribution, on the other hand, increases in particular with the root-mean-square roughness whereas an increase in the skewness does not increase the drag force contribution because it does not necessarily increase the surface area of the roughness elements. The contribution of the mean velocity dispersion induced by spatial inhomogeneity of the rough surfaces substantially increases with the root-mean-square roughness. A linear correlation is confirmed between the root-mean-square roughness and the equivalent roughness while the equivalent roughness monotonically increases with the skewness. A new correlation function based on the root-mean-square roughness and the skewness is developed with the available experimental and direct numerical simulation data, and it is confirmed that the developed correlation reasonably predicts the equivalent roughness of various types of real rough surfaces.
Air bubbles trapped near the surface of an ice sheet are transformed into air hydrates below a certain depth Their volume and number varies partly with environment and climate. Air bubbles and hydrates at 120-2200 m depth in the Dome Fuji (Dome F) ice core were examined with a microscope. This depth range covers the Holocene/Last Glacial/Last Interglacial/Previous Glacial periods. No air bubbles were seen below about 1100 m depth, and air hydrates began to appear from about 600 m. The observed number of air bubbles and hydrates was similar to that found in the Vostok ice core. For the ice covering the Last Glacial Maximum period, however the hydrate concentration in the Dome F core is about half that of the Vostok core. Reference to snow metamorphism and packing does not explain this finding.
The effect of the superluminal motion of 3C273b was observed on the fringe amplitudes obtained in VLBI experiments which have been conducted on the baselines between Japan and United States since 1984 under the Crustal Dynamics Project. The speed was 0.7 mas/year and the direction was −83 degrees in the position angle. It was also confirmed as the apparent right ascention shift of the source.
The right ascension of 3C273B has been a reference of the celestial VLBI coordinate system. However it seems that 3C273B is inadequate for the reference because 3C273B has the jet component which was detected on long baselines in our experiments. We present the best reference source for celestial coordinate system. Next we estimated the source positions, taking the new reference radio source. The nutation and plate motion were considered in our analysis. We show the change of 3C273B position. The estimated source positions are compared with those given in GSFC source catalog (1985).
An antenna in geostationary orbit was used for VLBI observations at 2.3 GHz, in combination with ground antennas in Australia and Japan. 23 of the 25 observed sources were detected on orbiter-ground baselines, with baseline lengths as large as 2.15 earth diameters. Brightness temperatures between 1012 K and 4 × 1012 K were measured for 10 sources.
In this work, we developed an X-ray powder diffractometer system equipped with six solid-state detectors and used it to perform ab initio structure determination from the powder diffraction pattern data obtained for a caffeine–oxalic acid co-crystal. The crystal structure obtained from the powder diffraction data was consistent with the previously solved single-crystal structure (Trask reference), although slightly larger (by about 2%). The co-crystallization of pharmaceutically active molecules can modulate their physical properties such as solubility, stability, and bioavailability. For the investigation of pharmaceutical complexes, the ability to visualize molecular interactions such as hydrogen bonding would be very helpful toward understanding their physical properties. Given the rate at which the high-throughput screening of pharmaceutical complexes has grown, an analogous high-volume, high-resolution X-ray powder diffraction technique with high-throughput data collection ability would be useful. We also solved the crystal structures of an inorganic complex and metal organic framework, zinc acetate dihydrate and CPL-1, in order to demonstrate the performance of our new diffractometer system.
Effects of drifting snow are examined from measurements of radiation fluxes at Mizuho Station in the katabatic wind zone, Antarctica. A good correlation is found between the difference of downward longwave fluxes measured at two heights and wind speed used as an index of drifting snow. The wind increases the downward flux at a rate of 2 W m-2/m s-2 when wind speed is higher than 13 m/s. Drifting snow suppresses the net longwave cooling at the surface. Direct solar radiation is depleted greatly by the drifting snow; however, the global flux decreases only slightly, compensated by the large increase of the diffuse flux, at a rate of about 1% for each 1 m/s increase in wind speed. At Mizuho Station, the effect on longwave radiation prevails throughout the year. The relation between snow drift content and wind speed is obtained from shortwave optical depth measurements as a function of wind speed. A simple parameterization of radiative properties is given.
Each component of the heat balance equation was obtained independently for 24 days in winter and 8 days in summer in 1980 at Mizuho station, East Antarctica. In winter, net radiation QNR was -37.6W/m-2 , QS; +36.7W/m-2 and QC; +2.5W/m2 QL was three orders less than QS. In the summer, QNR; +l9.9W/m-2 QC;-7.4W/m’, QL ; -.SW/m-2 and Q C; .2W/m-2. In the winter cloud amount was an important factor determining the variation in heat balance components, but also variation in the strength of the katabatic wind had effect. Condensation of water vapor occurred in winter and sublimation in summer: summer sublimation had a significant effect on the heat balance. The small condensation may be due to the structure of the temperature inversion at Mizuho which is related to the katabatic wind. The present results show that at Mizuho, the radiation loss Q NR and Q S which compensate it is larger than at any other site on the continent excluding the coastal stations.
Radiation budget measurements were made at Mizuho station (70°42'S, 44"20'E, 2 230 m a. s.1.), East Antarctica, in 1979, within the framework of the Japanese POLEX-South programme. Global, and reflected short-wave and downward and upward long-wave radiat i on fluxes were measured at the snow surface and at the top of a 30 m tower. Direct solar radiation was also measured at the snow surface.
Seasonal variations of net radiation and net short-wave and net long-wave radiation are presented. Daily variation of net radiation is also presented with the daily value of meteorological elements. The monthly amounts of net radiation in winter months had very large negative values of about -80 MJ m−2 month−1. (-2 kly month−1). Daily totals of net radiation for clear skies were negative even i n summer, and were always smaller than those for cloudy skies. Monthly amounts of net radiation in summer months (about -1 MJ m−2 month−1 in December) were the smallest among the several Antarctic stations compared, and whether the balance was negative or positive depended on the ratio of clear and cloudy days. Comparison of seasonal variations of radiation components was made and the dominant cause of the radiation balance was discussed.
We present recent observation results of Sgr A* at millimeter obtained with VLBI arrays in Korea and Japan.
7 mm monitoring of Sgr A* is part of our AGN large project. The results at 7 epochs during 2013-2014, including high resolution maps, flux density and two-dimensional size measurements are presented. The source shows no significant variation in flux and structure related to the G2 encounter in 2014. According to recent MHD simulations by kawashima et al., flux and magnetic field energy can be expected to increase several years after the encounter; We will keep our monitoring in order to test this prediction.
Astrometric observations of Sgr A* were performed in 2015 at 7 and 3.5 millimeter simultaneously. Source-frequency phase referencing was applied and a combined ”core-shift” of Sgr A* and a nearby calibrator was measured. Future observations and analysis are necessary to determine the core-shift in each source.
Aperiodic optical variability is a common property of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), though its physical origin is still open to question. We have compared light curves among the following two models and observation of quasar 0957+561A,B (Kundić et al. 1997) in terms of structure function analysis (§2).
A number of monitoring observations of continuum emission from Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) have been made in optical-X-ray bands. The results obtained so far show (i) random up and down on timescales longer than decades, (ii) no typical timescales of variability on shorter timescales and (iii) decreasing amplitudes as timescales become shorter. The second feature indicates that any successful model must produce a wide variety of shot-amplitudes and -durations over a few orders in their light curves. In this sense, we conclude that the disk instability model is favored over the starburst model, since fluctuations on days are hard to produce by the latter model.
Inter-band correlations and time lags also impose great constraints on models. Thus, constructing wavelength and time dependent models remains as future work.
On February 12, 1997 the world’s first dedicated VLBI spacecraft, HALCA, was successfully launched as the space borne element of the VSOP mission. This paper describes the calibration observations that have been undertaken so far with this spacecraft.
The preliminary results of an mm-VLBI survey of spectral index on active galactic nuclei (AGN) are presented which suggest that their activities are only in the central regions. The difference in central activities may correspond to their different stages of evolution. We found a strong concentration to α = 0 for quasar and a spread distribution for HPQ.
VLBI observations of millimeter wavelengths can probe the broad line emission and jet forming regions of quasars, and the scale of an accretion disk around massive black holes in nearby active galaxies, which are self-absorbed at longer wavelengths. Therefore, the extension of the mm-VLBI network is timely and urgent problem. We are now planning to move Nobeyama 6 m mm VLBI telescope to Kagoshima. The telescope will be placed at Kinkohwan park in Kagoshima City in late 1992 and will be operated in 1993. The frequencies for VLBI observations will range from 22 GHz to 100 GHz.
To date, there are two mm-VLBI facilities in Japan: Nobeyama 45 m and Kashima 34 m, However, the longest baseline is only about 200km EW which provides a fringe separation of 17 mas. This is not sufficient for high resolution mapping. A 10 m telescope which is under construction at Mizusawa, 400 km north from Kashima which will be usable up to 43 GHz and will add a north-south baseline, which is very important for astrometrie measurement.
A high performance VLBI recorder project using advanced digital technology started in 1995. TOSHIBA GBR 1000 and VLBI interface define 32 parallel, 32 MHz clock standard digital interface and support transparent recording/play-back to extremely high-speed digital bit stream. This is the formatter independent scientific recording bind the UTC to observed data. This highly reliable, low-bit-error-rate (10−16) recording system is also expected to be used in other scientific field. For the first example to examine the recorder performance in VLBI, we had been prepared 1024 Mbps sampler (256/512/1024 MSps, 2 bit, 4/2/1 ch). And here, an experimental giga-bit correlator specification for these VLBI acquisition system is introduced.