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A new 4-m millimeter wave telescope has been constructed at the Department of Physics and Astrophysics, of Nagoya University, mainly for the purpose of making rapid surveys of interstellar molecular lines. The observing site is located on the Higashiyama Campus of the University at an altitude of 70-m above sea level in Nagoya. Observations with this telescope started in December 1983.
Using the particle-mesh method with 1283 grids and 643 particles, we have carried out a number of N-body simulations of the large scale structure for the cosmological model proposed by Fukuyama et al.(1996): this model contains the matter(Ω0) as well as a scalar field(Φ) with a finite mass that couples non-minimally with the scalar curvature R through the form of 1/2ηΦ2R, where η(= −80) is the coupling constant.
For simplicity, we have adopted the same values as those employed by Fukuyama et al.(1996) for all the parameters other than Ω0, fo which we have varied from 0.001 to 0.15. In performing our simulation, we further assume that only the density of matter ρ spatially fluctuates. The initial condition is created by perturbing the homogeneous distribution of the particles by means of the random Gaussian Harrison-Zeldovich spectrum.
The two-point correlation function ξ(r) is then compputed for each of the resulting structures to compare with the observational data(Davis and Peebles, 1983). It is interesting to note that the structure formation appears to be achieved rather straightforwardly with the scalar field model. However, in order to yield an agreement between the theoretical and the observational two-point correlation functions, we seem to require the Ω0 value much larger than 0.01 adopted by Fukuyama et al.(1996).
Continuum observation of galaxies in millimeter-wave gives informations on dust emission from molecular clouds, free-free emission from HII region and synchrotron emission from SNR and diffuse component. The free-free emission can be observed only at millimeter-wave frequencies and their emission is optically thin, it can be a good indicator of their star-formation activities.
Time variability of Sgr A∗ at cm wavelengths is well known phenomenon and has been studied by several authors (e.g. Lo 1989; Zhao et al. 1992). On the other hand, variability at millimeter wavelengths is not well established. Wright & Backer (1993) reported significant flux variations at λ = 3.4mm in a month during the decay of a flare observed by the Very Large Array in 1990. However others found no variability at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths (Gwinn et al. 1991; Zylka et al. 1995). Emission from extended component surrounding Sgr A∗ is significant even at millimeter wavelengths (e.g. Tsuboi et al. 1988), thus it is important to observe with a narrower beam to isolate the compact component for accurate measurement of variability of Sgr A∗. Here we present some results from an on-going millimeter monitoring program of Sgr A∗ with the Nobeyama Millimeter Array (NMA).
Epsilon Aurigae has been observed during ingress and totality between 1982 and 1983 at Okayama. Analyses of profiles of Ha line and of radial velocities of neutral hydrogen and metals show that the secondary component consists of at least three parts in structure.
The gamma-ray spectrometer on Yohkoh has detected the positron annihilation line at 511 keV produced during the 1991 November 15 flare (X1.0/3B). The 511 keV line fluence, integrated over the time interval of 22:37:50-22:38:14 UT, is (6.7 ± 2.2) photons cm−2 . The time profile of 511 keV line exhibited long decay time compared with the electron bremsstrahlung and prompt gamma-ray line components. From the analysis of time profile of the 511 keV line, we come to the following conclusions: (1) the main source of positrons is deexcitation of 16O *6.052 by e+ – e- pair emisson. (2) β+ −emitting nuclei of 31S, 29P, 27Si, 26mAl, 25Al,23Mg, 19Ne, and 21Na are also important sources of positrons in the decay phase. (3) The density of the positron annihilation region in the photosphere is 1016 cm−3 . (4) Most likely interpretation of the time profile is that at least 50% of positrons annihilate in coronal flare loops with a density of 1012−1013 cm−3 and with a temperature of 106 −3 × 106 K.
We present preliminary results from the observations of the Galactic Center compact source, Sgr A* at 3 and 2 millimeter wavelengths using the Nobeyama Millimeter Array to monitor flux density variations on timescales shorter than a month. Such high spatial resolution observations at millimeter wavelengths are important to shed more light on the origin of the variability and the nature of this compact source. Our observations indicate the flux density varies at least by ~30% in one to two weeks at 3 mm.
We are constructing a fully automatic observation system named RIBOTS (RIken-Bisei Optical Transient Seeker). We aim to detect optical flashes and early afterglows of Gamma-ray bursts (GRB) with RIBOTS. We are constructing RIBOTS with a small telescope because a quick pointing to the burst is essential for our purpose. RIBOTS is linked to the GRB alert system provided by the HETE-2 satellite.
We are developing a new slit-less spectrograph for gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) at Bisei Astronomical Observatory. We can quickly point the 1-m telescope to the GRB coordinates provided by HETE-2 via the GRB Coordinates Network. The pointing is readjusted when the position is refined to 5” accuracy by the small optical telescope RIBOTS using the optical image of the GRB, and we then take an exposure immediately with the slit-less spectrograph.
We present gamma-ray observations of the 1991 October 27, November 15, and December 3 flares with the Yohkoh gamma-ray and hard X-ray spectrometers. The October 27 flare (X6.1 /3B) shows significant gamma-ray line emission, and the temporal evolution of the gamma-ray line-to-bremsstrahlung flux ratio indicates that protons and electrons were complicatedly accelerated during flare. The December 3 flare (X2.0/2B) shows a strong bremsstrahlung continuum extending to 10 MeV and indicates that electrons were preferentially accelerated to 10 MeV. A line feature at 420 keV was observed from the November 15 flare (X1.0/3B). This is most likely due to a compound of redshifted nuclear deexcitation lines of Be (429 keV) and Li (478 keV) resulting from He-He reactions. The spectral feature indicates that the accelerated He nuclei suffer strong pitch-angle scattering in the corona and form a downward-peaked distribution. Furthermore, the November 15 flare exhibits evidence of positron annihilation line at 511 keV. The positron production processes and the electron density of the annihilation region are discussed on the basis of the temporal characteristics of 511 keV line emission.
Various interpretations of the data of Epsilon Aurigae had been proposed before the recent eclipse. Every model explains the observations to a certain extent, but simultaneously disagrees with some other aspects of the nature of this system. During the 1982-84 eclipse, observations extending from far UV to IR have been carried out. A lot of data have been obtained and discussed in the workshop held at Arizona on this January. The spectroscopy and the photometry in visual region, however, are still important particularly to get informations about dynamical features of the components. In this review we present several interpretations mainly using new data obtained from ground-based spectroscopic observations including ours.
Recently, a number of possible young globular clusters (GCs) have been found in some merging/interacting galaxies or starburst galaxies. On the other hand, it is well known that GCs are numerous in giant elliptical galaxies many of which are thought to be formed via major merger of galaxies. These facts lead us to a thought that the formation process of GCs could accompany galaxy – galaxy interaction followed by starburst. The archetypical starburst galaxy M82 is an ideal target to study the relation between galaxy interaction, starburst, and GC formation.
The spectro-polarimeter in the Hinode Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) is one of the powerful instruments for the most accurate measurements of vector magnetic fields on the solar surface. The magnetic field configuration and possible candidates for flare trigger are briefly discussed with some SOT observations of solar flare events, which include X5.4/X1.3 flares on 7 March 2012, X1.2 flare on 7 January 2014 and two M-class flares on 2 February 2014. Especially, using an unique set of the Hinode and SDO data for the X5.4/X1.3 flares on 7 March 2012, we briefly reviewed remarkable properties observed in the spatial distribution of the photospheric magnetic flux, chromospheric flare ribbons, and the 3D coronal magnetic field structure inferred by non-linear force-free field modeling with the Hinode photospheric magnetic field data.
This short-term longitudinal study examined the associations between relational and physical victimization and depressive symptoms, and the moderating role of school-aged children's relational-interdependent self-construals in these associations. The participants were 387 children (51.8% boys) who were in the fifth grade (M = 10.48 years, SD = 0.55) in Taiwan and followed at two time points (a 6-month interval) during a calendar year. A multiple-informant approach was used where forms of peer victimization, depressive symptoms, and relational-interdependent self-construals were assessed via peer nominations, teacher reports, and child reports, respectively. All measures had favorable psychometric properties. The results of a multigroup cross-lagged model demonstrated that relational victimization (not physical victimization) was positively predictive of subsequent depressive symptoms, and the effect was evidenced for highly interdependent children only. The opposite link was also significant, such that depressive symptoms predicted subsequent relational victimization (not physical victimization) for children who exhibited low and high levels of relational-interdependent self-construals. In contrast, physical victimization predated a lower level of depressive symptoms for highly interdependent children. These effects were unaffected by the gender of the child. The findings, especially the interactive effects of relational victimization (as a contextual factor) and relational-interdependent self-construals (as an individual vulnerability) on depressive symptoms, are discussed from a developmental psychopathology perspective.
Temporal structural changes of protoplanetary disks surrounding T Tauri stars (TTSs) can cause magnitude variations of TTSs. On the other hand, variability is also expected due to cool spots and/or hot spots on the surface of the star, thus it is important to distinguish the causes of the observed variability. Our sample consists of 23 TTSs (22 classical T Tauri stars, 1 weak-lined T Tauri star) and 4 Herbig Ae/Be stars. The observations were performed over a period of about 3 months in the V, J, and KS band, simultaneously. We detected variability for all stars in the three bands (>0.05 mag in V, >0.09 mag in J, >0.09 mag in KS). Color-magnitude relations obtained between V, J, and KS bands suggest that stellar spots are not the only cause of variability for most of our targets. In addition, the data implies that six stellar systems contain larger grains than in the interstellar medium if the variability is only caused by extinction due to circumstellar matter.
Fetal lung maturity assessment in twin pregnancy has been discussed, but is still controversial. The purpose of this study is to predict the occurrence of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) using lamellar body count (LBC) and analyze the validity of LBC for fetal lung maturity assessment in twin pregnancy. Three-hundred two amniotic fluid samples were obtained at cesarean section from 29 to 38 weeks of gestation. Samples were analyzed immediately with no centrifugation and the number of lamellar bodies was counted using a platelet channel on the Sysmex SF-3000. There were 18 neonates (6.0%) suffering from RDS. An LBC cut-off value of 2.95 × 104/μL resulted in 91.5% sensitivity and 83.3% specificity for predicting RDS. This cut-off value for predicting RDS was the same as that in singleton pregnancy. Moreover, the median LBC value in RDS cases was significantly lower than in non-RDS cases (1.50 ± 1.1 × 104/μL vs. 10.6 ± 7.5 × 104/μL; p < .001). This is the first report on the validity of LBC in twin pregnancy and also the largest study on fetal lung maturity assessment in twin pregnancy. An LBC value of >2.95 × 104/μL means reassuring findings for RDS even in twin pregnancy. We believe the data in this study provide valuable, new information for the management of twin pregnancies.