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This team created a manual to train clinics in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) to effectively respond to disasters. This study is a follow-up to a prior study evaluating disaster response. The team returned to previously trained clinics to evaluate retention and performance in a disaster simulation.
Local clinics are the first stop for patients when disaster strikes LMICs. They are often under-resourced and under-prepared to respond to patient needs. Further effort is required to prepare these crucial institutions to respond effectively using the Incident Command System (ICS) framework.
Two clinics in the North East Region of Haiti were trained through a disaster manual created to help clinics in LMICs respond effectively to disasters. This study measured the clinic staff’s response to a disaster drill using the ICS and compared the results to prior responses.
Using the prior study’s evaluation scale, clinics were evaluated on their ability to set up an ICS. During the mock disaster, staff was evaluated on a three-point scale in 13 different metrics, grading their ability to mitigate, prepare, respond, and recover in a disaster. By this scale, both clinics were effective (36/39; 92%) in responding to a disaster.
The clinics retained much prior training, and after repeat training, the clinics improved their disaster response. Future study will evaluate the clinics’ ability to integrate disaster response with country-wide health resources to enable an effective outcome for patients.
Although apps are increasingly being used to support the diagnosis, treatment and management of mental illness, there is no single means through which costs associated with mental apps are being reimbursed. Furthermore, different apps are amenable to different means of reimbursement as not all apps generate value in the same way.
To provide insights into how apps are currently generating value and being reimbursed across the world, with a particular focus on the situation in the USA.
An international team performed secondary research on how apps are being used and on common pathways to remuneration.
The uses of apps today and in the future are reviewed, the nature of the value delivered by apps is summarised and an overview of app reimbursement in the USA and other countries is provided. Recommendations regarding how payments might be made for apps in the future are discussed.
Currently, apps are being reimbursed through channels with other original purposes. There may be a need to develop an app-specific channel for reimbursement which is analogous to the channels used for devices, drugs and laboratory tests.
In New York City, a multi-disciplinary Mass Casualty Consultation team is proposed to support prioritization of patients for coordinated inter-facility transfer after a large-scale mass casualty event. This study examines factors that influence consultation team prioritization decisions.
As part of a multi-hospital functional exercise, 2 teams prioritized the same set of 69 patient profiles. Prioritization decisions were compared between teams. Agreement between teams was assessed based on patient profile demographics and injury severity. An investigator interviewed team leaders to determine reasons for discordant transfer decisions.
The 2 teams differed significantly in the total number of transfers recommended (49 vs 36; P = 0.003). However, there was substantial agreement when recommending transfer to burn centers, with 85.5% agreement and inter-rater reliability of 0.67 (confidence interval: 0.49–0.85). There was better agreement for patients with a higher acuity of injuries. Based on interviews, the most common reason for discordance was insider knowledge of the local community hospital and its capabilities.
A multi-disciplinary Mass Casualty Consultation team was able to rapidly prioritize patients for coordinated secondary transfer using limited clinical information. Training for consultation teams should emphasize guidelines for transfer based on existing services at sending and receiving hospitals, as knowledge of local community hospital capabilities influence physician decision-making.
How are intelligence and creativity related? Given the dynamic and complex nature of both constructs, this question is a nuanced one. This chapter first discusses how creativity is represented in intelligence theories (such as Guilford’s Structure of Intellect, CHC, and successful intelligence, and how intelligence is represented in creativity theories (such as systems and componential theories, domain-based theories, and cognitive theories). Next, empirical studies are reviewed. The threshold theory, which proposes that intelligence and creativity are related but only up to about an IQ of 120, has received mixed support. More recent studies using sophisticated statistical analyses have found more evidence. A reliance on measures of divergent thinking and g as the sole tests of creativity and intelligence may also limit much existing research.
From an evolutionary perspective, psychological factors that bear on reproductive success are of particular importance as such factors directly pertain to Darwin’s bottom line. The psychology surrounding human mating, then, is particularly important from a Darwinian perspective. Mating intelligence is a construct that integrates work on mating psychology with work on intelligence. This broad construct is divided into two general sets of abilities: cognitive mating mechanisms (such as the ability to detect romantic interest on the part of a potential mate) and mental fitness indicators (which are outward behavioral displays of intelligence that facilitate successful courtship).
Psychometrics is the science of psychological measurement. For an intelligence test to be considered valid, it must be evaluated using the principles and methods of psychometrics. In this chapter we introduce basic psychometric techniques such as factor analysis and review the evolution of psychometric theories of intelligence, with emphasis on the Cattell-Horn-Carroll theory of cognitive abilities.
These lecture notes were presented by Allan N. Kaufman in his graduate plasma theory course and a follow-on special topics course (Physics 242A, B, C and Physics 250 at the University of California Berkeley). The notes follow the order of the lectures. The equations and derivations are as Kaufman presented, but the text is a reconstruction of Kaufman’s discussion and commentary. The notes were transcribed by Bruce I. Cohen in 1971 and 1972, and word processed, edited and illustrations added by Cohen in 2017 and 2018. The series of lectures is divided into four major parts: (i) collisionless Vlasov plasmas (linear theory of waves and instabilities with and without an applied magnetic field, Vlasov–Poisson and Vlasov–Maxwell systems, Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin–Jeffreys (WKBJ) eikonal theory of wave propagation); (ii) nonlinear Vlasov plasmas and miscellaneous topics (the plasma dispersion function, singular solutions of the Vlasov–Poisson system, pulse-response solutions for initial-value problems, Gardner’s stability theorem, gyroresonant effects, nonlinear waves, particle trapping in waves, quasilinear theory, nonlinear three-wave interactions); (iii) plasma collisional and discreteness phenomena (test-particle theory of dynamic friction and wave emission, classical resistivity, extension of test-particle theory to many-particle phenomena and the derivation of the Boltzmann and Lenard–Balescu equations, the Fokker–Planck collision operator, a general scattering theory, nonlinear Landau damping, radiation transport and Dupree’s theory of clumps); (iv) non-uniform plasmas (adiabatic invariance, guiding-centre drifts, hydromagnetic theory, introduction to drift-wave stability theory).
The concept of the Tommotian Regional Stage of the Siberian Platform has been closely linked to the idea of the ‘Cambrian Explosion’ of animals and protists when the entire Earth system shifted rapidly into Phanerozoic mode. We conducted a multidisciplinary study of an informal ‘synstratotype’ of the lower Tommotian boundary in the upper Mattaia Formation, Kessyusa Group in the Olenek Uplift, NE of the Siberian Platform. The Mattaia Formation characterizes an upper shoreface to inner-shelf depositional setting and provides important faunal ties and correlation with carbonate-dominated and aliminosiliciclastic open-shelf areas. A section of the upper Mattaia Formation at Boroulakh, Olenek River is suggested here as a model for the Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point for the base of the Cambrian Stage 2. This level contains the lowermost occurrence of the cosmopolitan fossil helcionelloid mollusc Aldanella attleborensis. Section global markers near the base of the stage include a positive excursion of δ13C values reaching +5.4‰, a U–Pb zircon date of 529.7 ± 0.3 Ma, massive appearance of diverse small skeletal fossils (including Watsonella crosbyi), a sudden increase in diversity and abundance of trace fossils, as well as a conspicuous increase in depth and intensity of bioturbation. Coincidently, it is this level that has always been regarded as the lower Tommotian boundary on the Olenek Uplift.
This chapter examines the history of efforts to ensure gender equity in education. Special attention is paid to the provisions, case law, and enforcement actions of Title IX of the Eduational Act of 1972. Key precedents are examined, including Grove City, Cannon, Gebser, and Davis. The chapter also examines the use of the Equal Protection Clause to create equal educational opportunities for women - most notably exemplified by Justice Ginsburg’s majority opinion in United States v. Virginia. The chapter compares the disparate approaches to Title IX enforcement taken by the Obama and Trump adminstrations, contrasting the standards, emphases, and procedures outlined in their respective regulatory documents. Finally, the chapter examines the ongoing prevalence of gender discrimination in American education and American society at large. The tenets of social constructivism promise to help mitigate both harmful tendencies.
This chapter traces the development of education in America from the end of Reconstruction to World War II. The industrialization that characterized this period gave rise to a system of “scientific” management which prized efficiency and competition above all other factors. This in turn influenced the philosophy of behaviorism, which remains a pillar of American education. The chapter exposes the faulty premises of behaviorism and its unfortunate effects when applied in schools. In addition, the chapter examines sources as varied as the Founders’ writings and the latest neuroscientific research to critique behaviorism and endorse social constructivist pedagogy. The chapter also features a brief discussion of the outer limits imposed by the Supreme Court on the government’s ability to regulate education. The discussion includes an examination of three seminal cases: Pierce, Meyer, and Yoder.
This chapter illuminates the many deficiencies of contemporary educational reform movements. Most notable among these movements are “accountability,” privatization, vouchers, and charter schools. All of these impulses prove, under closer examination, to be inimical to the tenets of social constructivism, the vision of the Founders, and the project of democracy. Many of these “reforms” have even tacitly adopted the language and principles of behaviorism. The chapter concludes by proposing social constructivist pedagogy and early childhood intervention as the best way to educate a democratic citizenry.
The Introduction notes that the language of the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution would, if fully embraced by courts, result in a jurisprudence more dedicated to equal educational opportunity. It argues that the disparities in opportunity currently in existence are inimical to a participatory democracy. The best tool to fight these disparities is social constructivism. The introduction previews the specific categories of educational injustice that the book intends to examine.
This chapter explores the efforts of the Founders to harness the power of education to create a citizenry capable of self-government. It emphasizes that while the Founders built a Constitution premised upon a cautious view of human nature, they saw education in a more optimistic light. Specifically, they viewed its role as helping to create a body of citizens capable of forming and maintaining meaningful relationships. In fact, they saw this as an indispensible task. Additionally, the chapter recounts the efforts of individuals such as Benjamin Rush and Horace Mann to expand educational access The chapter concludes with a critical analysis of Reconstruction, highlighting the missed opportunities and faulty historiography that continue to deny many citizens an equal chance to obtain an education. Though intended as a “re-founding” of the nation, Reconstruction in practice failed to live up to the Founders’ vision. The early promise of the “Civil War Amendments” and similar legislation went largely unfulfilled due to an adverse Supreme Court ruling and lack of political will.
This chapter tells the story of the long struggle to overturn Plessy v. Ferguson and desegregate American schools - culminating with the Supreme Court’s unanimous opinion Brown v. Board of Education. The chapter then examines the application of Brown, detailing how subsequent rulings purporting to stem from Brown have, in fact, failed to carry out its central command to desegregate all American schools. Much of this checkered legal history arose due to the Court’s insistence on delineating between de jure (legally mandated) and de facto (arising incidentally as a result of non-legally mandated conduct) segregation This distinction led to the 2007 PICS ruling, which dramatically circumscribes the use of race to achieve a desegregated educational environment for districts which experience de facto rather than de jure discrimination. The chapter concludes with an analysis of the growing “resegregation” of American schools, tracing its deleterious effects on all students.
Chapter 8 surveys the landscape of special education in America. It emphasizes the centrality of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) as well as the protections of the statute’s centerpiece: the Individualized Education Program (IEP). The chapter recounts the major precedents in this area of the law: namely, Rowley, Honig, and Endrew F. It traces the slow but steady path toward inclusion of all students in the learning environment. The chapter concludes with a celebration of the emerging concept of neurodiversity and the possibilities that a pedagogy informed by social constructivist tenets holds for general education and special education students alike.
Chapter 6 exposes the Supreme Court’s acceptance of inequality in educational opportunity as a result of its opinion in San Antonio Independent School District v. Rodriguez. The chapter begins with a detailed examination of Justice Powell’s majority opinion in Rodriguez, which rejected arguments for protecting education as a fundamental right and applying the language of the Equal Protection Clause to treat impoverished Americans as a discrete group. Against this framework, the chapter juxtaposes Justice Marshall’s comprehensive dissent. Later, the chapter examines Plyler, which prohibits the absolute denial of educational access to a discrete group that is covered by the Equal Protection Clause. In addition, the chapter surveys the widespread and growing inequities in funding across school districts - inequities exacerbated by the 2001 No Child Left Behind Act. It also recounts a number of decisions at the state level in which advocates convinced state courts to recognize education as a fundamental right under the constitution of their state, and summarizes the most promising legal routes available to advocates for educational equity.
Chapter 9 evaluates the legal precedents and practices surrounding student discipline. It begins with an analysis of the key Supreme Court cases dealing with student due process rights: Goss and T.L.O. Both establish deference to educators as the cornerstone of student discipline. Coupled with a reaction to numerous violent incidents in schools, this has resulted in an overreliance on exclusionary discipline. The balance of the chapter examines the tension between exclusionary discipline and the stated aspirations of policymakers. When scrutinized, it becomes clear that despite lofty rhetoric, exclusionary discipline is tacitly accepted. This tendency was confirmed in the recommendations of the Federal Commission on School Safety convened by President Trump. The chapter concludes by investigating the rise of the school-to-prison pipeline, and links the troubling racial disparities that have arisen in student discipline with many of the themes discussed earlier in the book. Finally, it proposes a combination of trauma-informed pedagogy and restorative justice as a more effective, constructive, and inclusive approach that will properly educate a democratic citizenry.
This chapter examines the various philosophies of education familiar to the Founders. Specifically, it traces the influence of classical theorists like Plato and Aristotle as well as Enlightenment thinkers including Locke, Rousseau, and Montesquieu. It reveals the Founders’ unique synthesis of these two strands of thought. In addition, the chapter surveys the state of education in Colonial America. It recounts the context in which the Founders themselves were educated, and notes the effect this context had on Thomas Jefferson’s early advocacy for a more accessible educational system in Virginia.
Chapter 5 examines the shifting landscape of the legal precedents controlling the use of race-conscious admissions policies in higher education. It begins with an in-depth examination of Bakke, which allowed such admissions policies for the sole purpose of pursuing the educational benefits of diversity. The chapter then traces the applications of Justice Powell’s framework announced in Bakke, and includes analyses of Grutter, Gratz, Fisher I, and Fisher II. Taken together, these cases reveal a tenuous adoption of Justice Powell’s approach which serves to prevent a robust pursuit of diversity and racial equity in higher education. The chapter features a discussion of recent ballot measures banning the use of race-conscious admisssions policies in certain states. The Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of these measures in Schutte. The chapter concludes with an examination of Justice Sotomayor’s thought-provoking dissent in Schutte as well as a summary of the proven neuroscientific benefits of a diverse learning environment.