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The motivation of the patient may affect response to treatment and prognosis.
The objective of this study was to compare the various types of application of patients in terms of their motivation and sociodemographic variables.
To demonstrate that patients who apply for treatment themselves have greater motivation and less depression and anxiety.
Patients who applied or were referred for treatment of addiction to the Elazig Hospital for Mental Disorders were included in this study. Patients diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria, giving written informed consent and who did not have severe comorbid psychopathology were enrolled. Beck Depression and Anxiety Scales, and Motivation for Treatment Scale (MfT) were used in evaluation. p was set at 0.05.
Forty five male patients with a mean age of 37.9 (S.D. 11.2) were enrolled in the study. The mean scores for Beck Depression and Anxiety Scales and the Motivation for Treatment Scale were 27.7 (S.D. 12.8), 25.2 (S.D. 15.2) and 67.4 (S.D. 11.4); respectively. When the socio-demographic and clinical variables of the patients who applied voluntarily and those who were referred for treatment involuntarily were compared by Mann-Whitney U test, only the total score on the Motivation for Treatment Scale as well as those of its subscales for seeking help and being ready for treatment differed betwen groups (p: 0.01, 0.05 and 0.01; respectively).
Types of application for treatment may affect levels of motivation in patients for treatment. Techniques for motivational interview may especially be important for patients applying involuntarily.
The chemical evolution of the Universe is governed by the nucleosynthesis contribution from stars, which in turn is determined primarily by the initial stellar mass. The heaviest elements are primarily produced through neutron capture nucleosynthesis. Two main neutron capture processes identified are the slow and rapid neutron capture processes (s and r processes, respectively). The sites of the r and s-process are discussed, along with recent progress and their associated uncertainties. This review is mostly focused on the s-process which occurs in low and intermediate-mass stars which have masses up to about 8 solar masses (M⊙). We also discuss the intermediate-neutron capture process (or i-process), which may occur in AGB stars, accreting white dwarfs, and massive stars. The contribution of the i-process to the chemical evolution of elements in galaxies is as yet uncertain.
We explore the circumstellar effects on the Li and Ca abundances determination in a complete sample of massive Galactic AGB stars. The Li abundance is an indicator of the hot bottom burning (HBB) activation, while the total Ca abundance could be affected by overproduction of the short-lived radionuclide 41Ca by the s-process. Li abundances were previously studied with hydrostatic models, while Ca abundances are determined here for the first time. The pseudo-dynamical abundances of Li and Ca are very similar to the hydrostatic ones, indicating that circumstellar effects are almost negligible. The new Li abundances confirm the (super-)Li-rich character of the sample Li-detected stars, supporting the HBB activation in massive Galactic AGB stars. Most sample stars display nearly solar Ca abundances that are consistent with predictions from the s-process nucleosynthesis models. A minority of the sample stars show a significant Ca depletion. Possible reasons for their (unexpected) low Ca content are given.
Using abundances from the available largest, homogeneous sample of high resolution Barium (Ba) star spectra we calculated the ratios of different hs-like to ls-like elemental ratios and compared to different AGB nucleosynthesis models. The Ba star data show an incontestable increase of the hs-type/ls-type element ratio (for example, [Ce/Y]) with decreasing metallicity. This trend in the Ba star observations is predicted by low mass, non-rotating AGB models where 13C is the main neutron source and is in agreement with Kepler asteroseismology observations.
In this work, we present results of long slit spectrophotometric emission line flux observations of selected planetary nebulae (PNe). We have measured absolute fluxes and equivalent widths (EW) of all observable emission lines. In addition to these observations, electron temperatures (Te), densities (Ne), and chemical abundances were also calculated. The main purpose of this work is to fill the gaps in emission line flux standards for the northern hemisphere. It is expected that the measured fluxes would be used as standard data set for further photometric and spectrometric measurements of HII regions, supernova remnants etc.
The detection of new binary central stars of planetary nebulae is crucial to definitively determine the importance of binary interactions in the nebular morphology. In this context, we are working on a project that aims to increase the low number of binary central stars detected so far. For that, we are first analyzing public archival data in order to discover potential candidates of binary central stars. These candidates will be subsequently followed-up in order to confirm and characterize them. Here we present our ongoing search and some preliminary results.
One in 5 PN are ejected from common envelope binary interactions but Kepler results are already showing this proportion to be larger. Their properties, such as abundances can be starkly different from those of the general population, so they should be considered separately when using PN as chemical or population probes. Unfortunately post-common envelope PN cannot be discerned using only their morphologies, but this will change once we couple our new common envelope simulations with PN formation models.
We present a model that solves the abundance discrepancy problem for NGC 6210. The model proposes a high abundance of CNONe elements that lowers the temperature of the central parts of the nebula. The colder gas model reproduces the observed intensity of the strong [N ii] and [O iii] emission lines, and increases the predicted weak recombination lines towards their observed values. We examine how the usual nebular diagnostic line ratios depend on model abundances.
The planetary nebulae (PNe) of M 31 are receiving considerable attention as probes of its structure and chemical evolution in a galactic environment that is putatively similar to the Milky Way. We have obtained deep spectra for about 30 luminous PNe in M 31’s inner disk and beyond (Rgal < 105 kpc). The entire ensemble of PNe exhibit O/H ~ 2/3 solar with no discernible radial gradient, in stark contrast to the H ii regions of M 31. This suggests that the outer PNe in M 31 formed from a common O-rich ISM at least 5 GY ago. We infer that the outer PNe and the underlying stellar population have little common history in M 31, and that the formation of the O-rich PNe preceded any putative encounter with M 33 ~2–3 Gy ago.
Despite years of effort, the impact of central star binarity on planetary nebula formation and shaping remains unclear. This is hampered by the fact that detecting central star binarity is inherently difficult, and requires very precise observations. The fraction of planetary nebulae with binary central stars therefore remains elusive. This work presents initial results of central star analysis using data from the VST Hα Survey of the Southern Galactic Plane and Bulge (VPHAS+). The true central star of PN Hf 38 has been revealed, and it exhibits a 0.465±0.334 i band magnitude excess, indicative of a M0V companion.
We determined individual distances to a small number of rather round, quite regularly shaped planetary nebulae by combining their angular expansion in the plane of the sky with a spectroscopically measured expansion along the line of sight. For this goal, we combined up to three epochs of Hubble Space Telescope imaging data and determined the respective proper motions of rim and shell edges, and of other features as well. Ground-based radial velocities are assigned separately to the nebular rims and shells and used to determine individual distances, thereby assuming that the expansions in the line-of-sight and in the plane of sky are equal. We employed 1D radiation-hydrodynamics simulations of planetary nebulae evolution to correct for the difference between the spectroscopically measured expansion velocities of rim and shell and the expansion speeds of their respective shock fronts.
The study of planetary nebulae started more than a century ago. Since then the understanding of these exciting objects has advanced extraordinarily. I present a personal selection of topics to reflect on some developments of PNe research.
The fast stellar winds can blow bubbles in the circumstellar material ejected from previous phases of stellar evolution. These are found at different scales, from planetary nebulae (PNe) around stars evolving to the white dwarf stage, to Wolf-Rayet (WR) bubbles and up to large-scale bubbles around massive star clusters. In all cases, the fast stellar wind is shock-heated and a hot bubble is produced. Processes of mass evaporation and mixing of nebular material and heat conduction occurring at the mixing layer between the hot bubble and the optical nebula are key to determine the thermal structure of these bubbles and their evolution. In this contribution we review our current understanding of the X-ray observations of hot bubbles in PNe and present the first spatially-resolved study of a mixing layer in a PN.
In this work, we report physical parameters and abundances derived for a sample of 15 high extinction planetary nebulae located in the inner 2° of the Galactic bulge, based on low dispersion spectroscopy secured at the SOAR telescope using the Goodman spectrograph. The new data allow us to extend our database including older, weaker objects that are at the faint end of the planetary nebulae luminosity function. The data provide chemical compositions for PNe located in this region of the bulge to explore the chemical enrichment history of the central region of the Galactic bulge. The results show that the abundances of our sample are skewed to higher metallicities than previous data in the outer regions of the bulge. This can indicate a faster chemical enrichment taking place at the Galactic centre.
Binary stars can interact via mass transfer when one member (the primary) ascends onto a giant branch. The amount of gas ejected by the binary and the amount of gas accreted by the secondary over the lifetime of the primary influence the subsequent binary phenomenology. Some of the gas ejected by the binary will remain gravitationally bound and its distribution will be closely related to the formation of planetary nebulae. We investigate the nature of mass transfer in binary systems containing an AGB star by adding radiative transfer to the AstroBEAR AMR Hydro/MHD code.
We have performed 3D hydrodynamic simulations of a symmetrical jet ejection following previous works (Raga et al. 2009, Riera et al. 2014, Velázquez et al. 2014). The jet is emitted from a binary system in elliptical orbit, and its direction changes describing a precession cone. We have considered that the jet has a time-dependence density ejection or a time-dependence velocity ejection, in order to propose an alternative model to explain the morphology of PPNe’s. Also in our description we have included the effect of the photoionization of the central source. From numerical results, synthetic Hα maps were obtained, and a proper motion study were carried out. We found that the photoionization has an important effect on the case with variation density resulting in a increse in the Hα emission.
Bulk outflow or global expansion velocities are presented for a large number of planetary nebulae (PNe) that span a wide range of evolutionary stages and different stellar populations. The sample comprises 133 PNe from the Galactic bulge, 100 mature and highly evolved PNe from the disk, 11 PNe from the Galactic halo and 15 PNe with very low central star masses and low metallicities, for a total of 259 PNe. These results reveal from a statistical perspective the kinematic evolution of the expansion velocities of PNe in relation to changing characteristics of the central star’s wind and ionizing luminosity and as a function of the evolutionary rate determined by the central (CS) mass. The large number of PNe utilized in this work for each group of PNe under study and the homogeneity of the data provide for the first time a solid benchmark form observations for model predictions, as has been described by López et al. (2016).
We searched the first Gaia data release for Galactic central stars of planetary nebulae (CSPNe) for parallaxes in order to determine the distances of the hosting PNe. For the small sample of PNe for which a comparison is available, we show that distances derived from Gaia parallaxes agree, within the uncertainties, with the individual PN distances derived by other reliable methods. While Gaia parallaxes available for Galactic CSPNe are still few, and with high uncertainties, we studied the possibility of building a PN distance scale by using the Gaia distances as calibrators. We found that a scale built on the relation between the linear nebular radius and its surface brightness has promising future applications.