To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Recent years, although silica aerogel is expected to be the material for energy savings, the lack of the strength prevents from commercial usages such as heat-insulating windows. To improve mechanical properties, methyltrimethoxysilane is used as a precursor of aerogels because the network becomes flexible due to the relatively low cross-linking density and to the unreacted methyl groups. Because of the strong hydrophobicity of MTMS-derived condensates, uniform and homogeneous gel networks are hardly attained. In this study, we employed surfactant n-hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) in starting compositions to control phase separation during a 2-step acid/base sol-gel reaction. By changing the starting composition, properties of aerogels such as bulk density and light transmittance are affected. With increasing amount of CTAC, the gel networks became denser and less transparent. Highly transparent aerogels were obtained when the amount of urea was increased.
Candida auris is an emerging fungal pathogen that is often resistant to major classes of antifungal drugs. It is considered a serious global health threat because it can cause severe infections with frequent mortality in more than a dozen countries. It can survive on healthcare environmental surfaces for at least 7 days and can cause outbreaks in healthcare facilities. Clearly, infection prevention strategies, such as surface disinfection, will be essential to controlling Candida transmission. Unfortunately, data on the activity of antiseptics and disinfectants used in healthcare to inactivate this pathogen are limited.1–5 In this study, we investigated 12 different disinfectants (ie, 8 low- and intermediate-level disinfectants in 2 dilutions of sodium hypochlorite and 5 high-level disinfectants/chemical sterilants) and 9 antiseptics commonly used in healthcare facilities for their antimicrobial activity against C. auris and C. albicans.
We evaluated the ability of high-intensity visible violet light with a peak output of 405 nm to kill epidemiologically important pathogens. The high irradiant light significantly reduced both vegetative bacteria and spores at some time points over a 72-hour exposure period.
In this prospective study, we monitored 4 epidemiologically important pathogens (EIPs): methicillin-resistane Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), Clostridium difficile, and multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter to assess the effectiveness of 3 enhanced disinfection strategies for terminal room disinfection against standard practice. Our data demonstrated that a decrease in room contamination with EIPs of 94% was associated with a 35% decrease in subsequent patient colonization and/or infection.
An updated compilation of published and new data of major-ion (Ca, Cl, K, Mg, Na, NO3, SO4) and methylsulfonate (MS) concentrations in snow from 520 Antarctic sites is provided by the national ITASE (International Trans-Antarctic Scientific Expedition) programmes of Australia, Brazil, China, Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, New Zealand, Norway, the United Kingdom, the United States and the national Antarctic programme of Finland. The comparison shows that snow chemistry concentrations vary by up to four orders of magnitude across Antarctica and exhibit distinct geographical patterns. The Antarctic-wide comparison of glaciochemical records provides a unique opportunity to improve our understanding of the fundamental factors that ultimately control the chemistry of snow or ice samples. This paper aims to initiate data compilation and administration in order to provide a framework for facilitation of Antarctic-wide snow chemistry discussions across all ITASE nations and other contributing groups. The data are made available through the ITASE web page (http://www2.umaine.edu/itase/content/syngroups/snowchem.html) and will be updated with new data as they are provided. In addition, recommendations for future research efforts are summarized.
We recorded the burial times of temperature sensors mounted on a specially constructed tower to determine snow accumulation during individual storms in the summit caldera of Mount Wrangell, Alaska, USA, (62° N, 144° W; 4100 m a.s.l.) during the accumulation year June 2005 to June 2006. The experiment showed most of the accumulation occurred in episodic large storms, and half of the total accumulation was delivered in late summer. The timing of individual events correlated well with storms recorded upwind, at Cordova, the closest Pacific coastal weather station (200 km south-southeast), although the magnitude of events showed only poor correlation. Hence, snow accumulation at Mount Wrangell appears to be a reflection of synoptic-scale regional weather systems. The accumulation at Mount Wrangell’s summit (>2.5 m w.e.) exceeded the precipitation at Cordova. Although the direct relationship between accumulation of individual storms at the summit of Mount Wrangell and precipitation events at Cordova may be unique in the region, it is useful for interpreting ice cores obtained on Mount Wrangell. This is especially the case here because the high rate of accumulation allows high time resolution within the core.
The European sea squirt, Ascidiella aspersa was first found as an alien species in 2008 from Funka Bay, Hokkaido, northern Japan, causing serious damage to the scallop aquaculture industry. We investigated A. aspersa on cultured scallops and larval occurrence from July 2010 to June 2014 to clarify life history traits and population dynamics, and consider the relation between the life history of A. aspersa and the process of scallop aquaculture. Larvae of A. aspersa were found from June to December, and recruitment on cultured scallops occurred mainly between July and October. The ascidians grew well and their weights increased until February. We found that 60–80% of A. aspersa that had settled in summer had eggs or sperm in autumn, and 90–100% of A. aspersa matured early the following summer. Maturity size in September was 17–20 mm as male, 22–24 mm as female. Scallops in Funka Bay are hung in the spring and harvested from winter to the next spring. Ascidiella aspersa settle as larvae in early summer, and grow well until winter, resulting in overgrowth on scallops in the harvest season. The linking of the process of scallop aquaculture and the life history of A. aspersa explains why this invasive ascidian has caused serious damage to the aquaculture industry in the bay. In comparison to the earlier descriptions of the native population, A. aspersa in Funka Bay has longer reproductive and growth periods, earlier initiation of reproduction, and possibly smaller maturity size.
Legislative actions and advanced technologies, particularly dissemination of safety-engineered devices, have aided in protecting healthcare personnel from occupational blood and body fluid exposures (BBFE).
To investigate the trends in BBFE among healthcare personnel over 15 years and the impact of safety-engineered devices on the incidence of percutaneous injuries as well as features of injuries associated with these devices.
Retrospective cohort study at University of North Carolina Hospitals, a tertiary care academic facility. Data on BBFE in healthcare personnel were extracted from Occupational Health Service records (2000–2014). Exposures associated with safety-engineered and conventional devices were compared. Generalized linear models were applied to measure the annual incidence rate difference by exposure type over time.
A total of 4,300 BBFE, including 3,318 percutaneous injuries (77%), were reported. The incidence rate for overall BBFE was significantly reduced during 2000–2014 (incidence rate difference, 1.72; P=.0003). The incidence rate for percutaneous injuries was also dramatically reduced during 2001–2006 (incidence rate difference, 1.37; P=.0079) but was less changed during 2006–2014. Percutaneous injuries associated with safety-engineered devices accounted for 27% of all BBFE. BBFE was most commonly due to injecting through skin, placing intravenous catheters, and blood drawing.
Our study revealed significant overall reduction in BBFE and percutaneous injuries likely due in part to the impact of safety-engineered devices but also identified that a considerable proportion of percutaneous injuries is now associated with these devices. Additional prevention strategies are needed to further reduce percutaneous injuries and improve design of safety-engineered devices.
Targeted surveillance has focused on device-associated infections and surgical site infections (SSIs) and is often limited to healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in high-risk areas. Longitudinal trends in all HAIs, including other types of HAIs, and HAIs outside of intensive care units (ICUs) remain unclear. We examined the incidences of all HAIs using comprehensive hospital-wide surveillance over a 12-year period (2001–2012).
This retrospective observational study was conducted at the University of North Carolina (UNC) Hospitals, a tertiary care academic facility. All HAIs, including 5 major infections with 14 specific infection sites as defined using CDC criteria, were ascertained through comprehensive hospital-wide surveillance. Generalized linear models were used to examine the incidence rate difference by infection type over time.
A total of 16,579 HAIs included 6,397 cases in ICUs and 10,182 cases outside ICUs. The incidence of overall HAIs decreased significantly hospital-wide (−3.4 infections per 1,000 patient days), in ICUs (−8.4 infections per 1,000 patient days), and in non-ICU settings (−1.9 infections per 1,000 patient days). The incidences of bloodstream infection, urinary tract infection, and pneumonia in hospital-wide settings decreased significantly, but the incidences of SSI and lower respiratory tract infection remained unchanged. The incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) increased remarkably. The outcomes were estimated to include 700 overall HAIs prevented, 40 lives saved, and cost savings in excess of $10 million.
We demonstrated success in reducing overall HAIs over a 12-year period. Our data underscore the necessity for surveillance and infection prevention interventions outside of the ICUs, for non–device-associated HAIs, and for CDI.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2015;36(10):1139–1147
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) only contaminated the environmental surfaces of rooms housing CRE colonized/infected patients infrequently (8.4%) and at low levels (average, 5.1 colony-forming units [CFU]/120 cm2 per contaminated surface). Three species of CRE (Klebsiella, Enterobacter, and Escherichia) survived poorly (>85% die-off in 24 hours) when ~2 log10 CFU were inoculated onto 5 different environmental surfaces.
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has been extensively described in healthcare settings; however, risk factors associated with community-acquired (CA) CDI remain uncertain. This study aimed to synthesize the current evidence for an association between commonly prescribed medications and comorbidities with CA-CDI.
A systematic search was conducted in 5 electronic databases for epidemiologic studies that examined the association between the presence of comorbidities and exposure to medications with the risk of CA-CDI. Pooled odds ratios were estimated using 3 meta-analytic methods. Subgroup analyses by location of studies and by life stages were conducted.
Twelve publications (n=56,776 patients) met inclusion criteria. Antimicrobial (odds ratio, 6.18; 95% CI, 3.80–10.04) and corticosteroid (1.81; 1.15–2.84) exposure were associated with increased risk of CA-CDI. Among the comorbidities, inflammatory bowel disease (odds ratio, 3.72; 95% CI, 1.52–9.12), renal failure (2.64; 1.23–5.68), hematologic cancer (1.75; 1.02–5.68), and diabetes mellitus (1.15; 1.05–1.27) were associated with CA-CDI. By location, antimicrobial exposure was associated with a higher risk of CA-CDI in the United States, whereas proton-pump inhibitor exposure was associated with a higher risk in Europe. By life stages, the risk of CA-CDI associated with antimicrobial exposure greatly increased in adults older than 65 years.
Antimicrobial exposure was the strongest risk factor associated with CA-CDI. Further studies are required to investigate the risk of CA-CDI associated with medications commonly prescribed in the community. Patients with diarrhea who have inflammatory bowel disease, renal failure, hematologic cancer, or diabetes are appropriate populations for interventional studies of screening.
In this article, monolithic porous silsesquioxane materials, which are derived by sol–gel from trialkoxysilanes with substituent groups such as trimethoxysilane (HTMS), methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS), and vinyltrimethoxysilane (VTMS), are reviewed with a special emphasis on our recent works. Careful controls over fundamental synthetic parameters such as pH, amounts of water and solvent, and kind of solvent and additives play a crucial role in the formation of monolithic gels based on random polysiloxane networks. Crystalline/amorphous precipitation is otherwise observed when the formation of isolated species including polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes dominates or if phase separation of the hydrophobic networks in aqueous media is not adequately controlled. In the successfully controlled system, pore size can be varied from a few tens of nanometers to a few tens of micrometers; porous materials such as transparent aerogels and hierarchically porous monoliths have been explored. In addition, unique properties derived from trialkoxysilanes such as reactivity of the pore surface and flexible mechanical properties are demonstrated. Possibilities in the silsesquioxane materials with controlled pore structures are discussed.
Paul Erdős (26 March 1913—20 September 1996) was a mathematician par excellence whose results and initiatives have had a large impact and made a strong imprint on the doing of and thinking about mathematics. A mathematician of alacrity, detail, and collaboration, Erdős in his six decades of work moved and thought quickly, entertained increasingly many parameters, and wrote over 1500 articles, the majority with others. His modus operandi was to drive mathematics through cycles of problem, proof, and conjecture, ceaselessly progressing and ever reaching, and his modus vivendi was to be itinerant in the world, stimulating and interacting about mathematics at every port and capital.
In this book we described a new approach to machine learning based on densityratio estimation. This density-ratio approach offers a novel research paradigm in the field of machine learning and data mining from theory and algorithms to application.
In Part II, various methods for density-ratio estimation were described, including methods based on separate estimations of numerator and denominator densities (Chapter 2), moment matching between numerator and denominator samples (Chapter 3), probabilistic classifications of numerator and denominator samples (Chapter 4), density fitting between numerator and denominator densities (Chapter 5), and direct fitting of a density-ratio model to the true densityratio (Chapter 6). We also gave a unified framework of density-ratio estimation in Chapter 7, which accommodates the various methods described above and is substantially more general – as an example, a robust density-ratio estimator was derived. Finally, in Chapter 8, we described methods that combine density-ratio estimation with dimensionality reduction. Among various density-ratio estimators, the unconstrained least-squares importance fitting (uLSIF) method described in Chapter 6 would be most useful practically because of its high computational efficiency by an analytic-form solution, the availability of cross-validation for model selection, its wide applicability to various machine learning tasks (Part III), and its superior convergence and numerical properties (Part IV).
In Part III we covered the usage of density-ratio estimators in various machine learning tasks that were categorized into four groups. In Chapter 9 we described applications of density ratios to importance sampling tasks such as non-stationarity/domain adaptation and multi-task learning.