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Gestures can play a facilitative role in the interpretation of structural ambiguities (Guellaiï, Langus, & Nespor, 2014; Prieto, Borràs-Comes, Tubau, & Espinal, 2013; Tubau, González-Fuente, Prieto, & Espinal, 2015) and are associated with spoken expression of negation (Calbris, 2011; Harrison, 2014a; Kendon, 2002, 2004). This study examines gestural forms and timing patterns with specific interpretations intended by speakers in a context of negation in English where the presence of quantification (all/most/many) yields scope ambiguities, for example, All the students didn’t go = (1). Some number of the students went, but all is not the correct number (negation takes wide scope over the quantifier; not>all), versus (2) some number of the students didn’t go, and all is that number (negation takes narrow scope over the quantifier, all>not; see Horn, 2001, Jackendoff, 1972; Syrett, Simon, & Nisula, 2014b). Twenty-five native English speakers produced scopally ambiguous sentences. Analyses of 317 co-occurring gestures revealed a preponderance of head gestures and use of semantically congruent head shakes, alignment of gestures with the negator, and lengthening of gesture strokes where interpretations involved narrow-scope negation. Results are discussed with reference to scope of negation and gesture (Harrison, 2010, 2013, 2014a, 2014b) particularly in comparison to variable patterns found for prosody (Syrett, Simon, & Nisula, 2014a).
This is a copy of the slides presented at the meeting but not formally written up for the volume.
In order to characterize and control the adhesive behaviors of nanometer scaled stimuli-responsible gel particles designed for oral peptide delivery, their interaction with artificial mucin layer in the small intestinal solutions was determined by the colloid probe atomic force microscope method. The prepared nanometer scaled gel particles with a core-shell structure were designed to exhibit behaviors responsive to temperature and pH in solutions, consequently protect the incorporated peptide drug under harsh acidic conditions in the stomach, adhere and penetrate to the mucin layer in the small intestine, and thereafter release the drugs. Spherical agglomerates of the nano-gel particles with several micron meters in diameter were prepared by the spray freeze drying method and adhered on the top of tip of commercial atomic force microscope. The interaction between the artificial mucin layer and nano-gel surface with different molecular structure of shell determined by the colloid probe method depended on pH and counter-ion concentration of the solution. Based on the possible transition of the surface-microstructure of nano-gel particles following the pH change and the measured results from the colloid probe AFM method, the relationship between surface interaction and microstructure of nano-gel was discussed.
We aimed to examine missing data in FFQ and to assess the effects on estimating dietary intake by comparing between multiple imputation and zero imputation.
We used data from the Okazaki Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) study. A self-administered questionnaire including an FFQ was implemented at baseline (FFQ1) and 5-year follow-up (FFQ2). Missing values in FFQ2 were replaced by corresponding FFQ1 values, multiple imputation and zero imputation.
A methodological sub-study of the Okazaki J-MICC study.
Of a total of 7585 men and women aged 35–79 years at baseline, we analysed data for 5120 participants who answered all items in FFQ1 and at least 50% of items in FFQ2.
Among 5120 participants, the proportion of missing data was 3·7%. The increasing number of missing food items in FFQ2 varied with personal characteristics. Missing food items not eaten often in FFQ2 were likely to represent zero intake in FFQ1. Most food items showed that the observed proportion of zero intake was likely to be similar to the probability that the missing value is zero intake. Compared with FFQ1 values, multiple imputation had smaller differences of total energy and nutrient estimates, except for alcohol, than zero imputation.
Our results indicate that missing values due to zero intake, namely missing not at random, in FFQ can be predicted reasonably well from observed data. Multiple imputation performed better than zero imputation for most nutrients and may be applied to FFQ data when missing is low.
A point source of cosmic rays at δ = 0°, α = 5h 30m, was reported at the Mexico Meeting of IUPAP in September 1955 (Nature, Lond.177, 35, 1956). The existence of the point source was verified by further observation. This phenomenon suggests the possibility of a direct method of exploring interplanetary space.
The aim of this study is to examine the long-term association between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and mental and physical health, especially with conditions related to hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis dysfunction such as mood disorders, cardiovascular disorders, gastrointestinal disorders, pain disorders, and measures of frailty and functional mobility. In addition, we examined the impact of CSA on self-reported health and healthcare utilization.
Data from the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing were employed (N = 8,178). The effects of CSA on mental health, physical health, and healthcare utilization in old age population were estimated by ordinal least square, logistic regression, and Poisson regression, controlling for demographic factors, childhood adversities, and behavioral health.
Six percent of respondents reported CSA with little variation by gender. A significant association was found between CSA and mental health. Those who reported CSA were more likely to have depression, anxiety, worry, loneliness, and low quality of life. Poor self-reported health, lung disease, arthritis, peptic ulcer, chronic pain as well as high levels of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein were associated with CSA. Further, those who reported CSA were more likely to report doctor and hospital visits than those without a history of CSA.
Findings from the present study show that CSA has significant long-term mental and physical consequences, whereby early life events are linked to later life health outcomes.
Symmetry groups of Lie algebras and superalgebras constructed from (∈, δ)-Freudenthal-Kantor triple systems have been studied. In particular, for a special (ε, ε)-Freudenthal–Kantor triple, it is the SL(2) group. Also, the relationship between two constructions of Lie algebras from structurable algebras has been investigated.
This study elucidated the relationship-focused coping patterns of Japanese child-rearing couples. Participants were 101 Japanese couples with at least one pre-school child who was attending one of four daycare centres. Questionnaires included a Japanese version of the relationship-focused coping questionnaire, the Kansas Marital Satisfaction Scale, and the WHO-5 Well-Being Index. Cluster analysis revealed three relationship-focused coping patterns: ‘wife escapes/husband combines’, ‘mutual active relationship maintenance couples’, and ‘wife engages/husband combines’. Our study showed that relationship-focused coping has multidimensional aspects within couples. Furthermore, mutual active relationship maintenance after marital conflict within couples is important for their marital satisfaction.
A new kind of nontoxic, water-soluble copolymer consisting of isobutylene and maleic anhydride was used to gelcast alumina ceramics at room temperature in air. The polymer acts as both a dispersant and a gelling agent. The influence of the polymer on zeta potential, rheological and gelling behavior of the alumina slurry was studied. Copolymers with a lower molecular weight had greater dispersing ability. Copolymers with a larger molecular weight had greater gelling ability. Alumina slurries with solids loading up to 58 vol% were prepared by adding copolymer (0.3 wt%, relative to the powder) with both short and long molecular chains. Increasing solids loading from 50 to 58 vol% decreased the linear shrinkage from 4.63% to 1.50% after drying, and from 14.51% to 13.18% after sintering, respectively. A solids loading of 56 vol% was associated with the highest flexural strength, as high as 534 MPa.
The use of parasites as biological tags to discriminate among marine fish stocks has become a widely accepted method in fisheries management. Here, we first link this approach to its unstated ecological foundation, the decay in the similarity of the species composition of assemblages as a function of increasing distance between them, a phenomenon almost universal in nature. We explain how distance decay of similarity can influence the use of parasites as biological tags. Then, we perform a meta-analysis of 61 uses of parasites as tags of marine fish populations in multivariate discriminant analyses, obtained from 29 articles. Our main finding is that across all studies, the observed overall probability of correct classification of fish based on parasite data was about 71%. This corresponds to a two-fold improvement over the rate of correct classification expected by chance alone, and the average effect size (Zr = 0·463) computed from the original values was also indicative of a medium-to-large effect. However, none of the moderator variables included in the meta-analysis had a significant effect on the proportion of correct classification; these moderators included the total number of fish sampled, the number of parasite species used in the discriminant analysis, the number of localities from which fish were sampled, the minimum and maximum distance between any pair of sampling localities, etc. Therefore, there are no clear-cut situations in which the use of parasites as tags is more useful than others. Finally, we provide recommendations for the future usage of parasites as tags for stock discrimination, to ensure that future applications of the method achieve statistical rigour and a high discriminatory power.
Porous Al2O3 ceramics were fabricated using a rapid gelation to fix the foam structure after mechanical foaming. The slurry was made with deionized water, Al2O3 powder, a water-soluble copolymer of isobutylene and maleic anhydride, and a surfactant. The resultant gel formed at room temperature in air. The influence of the surfactant (EMAL TD) content on gelling behavior, pore structure (porosity, cell size), shrinkage behavior, and compressive strength of the resultant porous Al2O3 ceramics was evaluated. Porous Al2O3 ceramics were sintered in only one step without debinding because of the low concentration of additives (≤0.5 wt%). The porous Al2O3 ceramics had porosities from 20 to 89% and cell sizes from 60 to 220 μm. The compressive strength was 75 MPa when the porosity was 60%.
In May 2011, an outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 was reported from Yamagata Prefecture, Japan. Investigations, including a case-control study, revealed that the outbreak was linked to two varieties of rice cakes produced by a local manufacturer between 2 and 7 May. Active and passive surveillance identified 136 suspected cases, 142 confirmed cases, 26 asymptomatic cases, and 25 secondary cases. While no environmental samples taken from the manufacturing premises tested positive for STEC, other than a stool sample taken from one employee, on-site and epidemiological investigations indicated that STEC was introduced during the manufacturing process of rice cakes rather than through contamination of raw materials. This was the first reported outbreak of STEC associated with cakes and confectionery in Japan, which indicates that contamination and outbreaks of STEC can occur in any food unless proper precautions are taken.
Genetic epidemiology focuses on how genetic factors and their interactions with other risk factors increase vulnerability to, or protection against, disease. The investigations in genetic epidemiology are typically based on a combination of study designs including family, twin, and adoption studies. Migrant studies are perhaps the most powerful study design to identify environmental and cultural risk factors. This chapter presents a summary of relative risks derived from controlled family studies of selected psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, anxiety disorders, substance use disorders and mood disorders. Two factors which contribute to the complexity of the patterns of inheritance of psychiatric disorders are lack of validity of classification of psychiatric disorders and complexity of the pathways from genotypes to psychiatric phenotypes. The chapter reviews the role of the tools of epidemiology in ongoing and future studies designed to identify genes underlying mental disorders.