To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The purpose of this study is to present a historical review of the Bible translation of Baptist missionaries in China before the publication of the Chinese Union Version (CUV) in early twentieth century, especially the significance of the Baptist translations in this period. This study will also discuss the differences in translation approaches and practices of the Baptists from other denominations.
The history of Chinese Bible translation by the Baptists started when English Baptist missionary Joshua Marshman (1768–1837) and his Armenian helper Johannes Lassar (1781–1835?) published their translation of the whole Bible in 1822 in Serampore. In the 1840s, the Protestant missionaries from different countries and missions decided to translate the Bible into classical Chinese with standardised terminologies for the names and terms in the Bible. This version was known as the Delegates’ Version and was the most important project of common Bible before the CUV. However, it uncovered heavy hiccup and disputes in translating, especially the difficulties in translating religious terms into Chinese. Their biggest point of contention was which, Shen or Shangdi, was the suitable translation of the word “God.” Furthermore, the Baptists insisted Shen as well as Jin (which meant “immerse”) for baptism, while the others recommended Xi (which meant “wash”). In the end, the Baptists withdrew from the translation committee and translated several versions in classical Chinese only by themselves between the 1840s and the 1870s. Until the early twentieth century, Baptist missionaries dedicated themselves to translating the Bible into various Chinese dialects.
Although the Baptists had excellent achievements in the history of Bible translation, they had only played an insignificant role in the project of the CUV and shared the consequent of the CUV after its publication. This paper aims to investigate the work of the Baptists in several aspects, including their translation approaches and problems as well as their significance in the history of Chinese Bible translation.
Photoreceptors have high energy demands and densely packed mitochondria through which light passes before phototransduction. Old world primates including humans have three cone photoreceptor types mediating color vision with short (S blue), medium (M green), and long (L red) wavelength sensitivities. However, S-cones are enigmatic. They comprise <10% of the total cone population, their responses saturate early, and they are susceptible in aging and disease. Here, we show that primate S-cones actually have few mitochondria and are fueled by glycolysis, not by mitochondrial respiration. Glycolysis has a limited ability to sustain activity, potentially explaining early S-cone saturation. Mitochondria act as optical filters showing reduced light transmission at 400–450 nm where S-cones are most sensitive (420 nm). This absorbance is likely to arise in a mitochondrial porphyrin that absorbs strongly in the Soret band. Hence, reducing mitochondria will improve S-cone sensitivity but result in increased glycolysis as an alternative energy source, potentially increasing diabetic vulnerability due to restricted glucose access. Further, glycolysis carries a price resulting in premature functional decline as seen in aged S-cones. Soret band absorption may also impact on mitochondrial rich M and L cones by reducing sensitivity at the lower end of their spectral sensitivity range resulting in increased differentiation from S-cone responses. These data add to the list of unique characteristic of S-cones and may also explain aspects of their vulnerability.
This study explores whether children can learn a structural processing bias relevant to pronoun interpretation from brief training. Over three days, 42 five-year-olds were exposed to narratives exhibiting a first-mentioned tendency. Two characters were introduced, and the first-mentioned was later described engaging in a solo activity. In our primary condition of interest, the Gesture Training condition, the solo-activity sentence contained an ambiguous pronoun, but co-speech gesture clarified the referent. There were two comparison conditions. In the Gender Training condition the characters were different genders, thereby avoiding ambiguity. In the Name Training condition, the first-mentioned name was simply repeated. Ambiguous pronoun interpretation was tested pre- and post-training. Children in the Gesture condition were significantly more likely to interpret ambiguous pronouns as the first-mentioned character after training. Results from the comparison conditions were ambiguous: there was a small but non-significant effect of training, but also no significant differences between conditions.
Although Boyer & Petersen's (B&P's) target article provides an exciting framework for political communication studies of framing effects, I raise questions concerning the presumed importance of folk-economic beliefs, the relative utility of identifying such proximate (as opposed to more generalized) drivers of public opinion, and the extent to which their model can explain variability among individuals. I conclude with thoughts on the normative implications of the evolutionary cognitive model for democratic governance.
Vertically aligned nitrogen-doped nanocrystalline diamond nanorods are fabricated from nitrogen-doped nanocrystalline diamond films using reactive ion etching in oxygen plasma. These nanorods show enhanced thermionic electron emission (TEE) characteristics, viz., a high current density of 12.0 mA/cm2 and a work function value of 4.5 eV with an applied voltage of 3 V at 923 K. The enhanced TEE characteristics of these nanorods are ascribed to the induction of nanographitic phases at the grain boundaries and the field penetration effect through the local field enhancement from nanorods owing to a high aspect ratio and an excellent field enhancement factor.
In this study, we sought to extend the research on self-determination, future orientation, and personal identity construction by integrating the theories on self-determination and future orientation to provide a conceptual framework for understanding the relations between personal identity and the following individual characteristics: Hope, optimism, awareness of self, and perceived choice. 191 university students in China responded surveys in hardcopies on an individual basis. Our SEM results revealed that proximal future orientation influenced the mechanisms through which distal psychological traits affected identity construction. Specifically, hope mediated the effects of self-awareness on the participants’ personal identity ratings (b = .45, p < .05). Although optimism was related to both awareness of self and perceived choice, it was not significantly related to personal identity. This study suggested an extended framework through which we could understand how the interaction between future orientation and self-determination can predict personal identity. The findings have significant implications for interventions in educational settings.
We establish bounds for triple exponential sums with mixed exponential and linear terms. The method we use is by Shparlinski [‘Bilinear forms with Kloosterman and Gauss sums’, Preprint, 2016, arXiv:1608.06160] together with a bound for the additive energy from Roche-Newton et al. [‘New sum-product type estimates over finite fields’, Adv. Math.293 (2016), 589–605].
Introduction: Background: Studies in the US have demonstrated that many primary care staff and offices are inadequately prepared for paediatric emergencies. Although the Canadian Paediatric Society (CPS) recently reaffirmed their Guidelines for Paediatric Emergency Equipment and Supplies for a Physicians Office, no evaluation has been made regarding the impact of publishing these recommendations, or on the state of preparedness for paediatric emergencies in family physician offices. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate awareness and adherence of family physicians in Ontario to the CPS guidelines on preparedness for paediatric emergencies. Methods: We conducted a province-wide, cross-sectional survey of 749 randomly selected family physicians. Participants were asked to complete a 14-question survey regarding clinic characteristics, incidence of paediatric emergencies, and preparedness of the clinic in the case of a paediatric emergency. Ethics approval was obtained from the regional Ethics Review Board. Results: 104 physicians responded to our Ontario survey (response rate of 14.8%). 71.2% of respondents reported seeing more than 10 children per week, and 58.7% and had experienced at least one paediatric emergency in the past year. The proportion of physicians reporting paediatric emergencies within the last year increased with the number of children seen - 37.9% of physicians who saw fewer than 10 children per week reported an emergency, compared to 85.7% of those who saw more than 40 children per week. 85.6% of respondents reported that they were unaware of the CPS guidelines on paediatric emergency preparedness. Only 9.6% of respondents were aware of the guidelines, and even fewer, 3.8% had read them. Of the physicians who were unaware of the guidelines, 4.5% [CI=0.2, -0.09] engaged in mock code sessions, 29.2% [CI=0.2, 0.2] were up-to-date on Paediatric Advanced Life Support (PALS), 1.1% [CI=0.03, -0.01] had written protocols outlining safe transport of children to hospitals, and 50.6% [CI=0.4, 0.6] stocked half or more of the recommended supplies. In comparison, of the physicians who were aware of the guidelines, 14.3% [CI=0.3, -0.04] engaged in mock code sessions, 35.7% [CI=0.1, 0.6] were up-to-date on PALS, 7.1% [CI=0.2, -0.06] had written protocols, and 78.6% [CI=0.8, 0.8] stocked half or more of the recommended supplies. Conclusion: A large proportion of respondents had experienced at least one paediatric emergency in the past year, but were overall underprepared. The majority of respondents, 85.6%, were not aware of the guidelines, compared to 9.6% who were aware of them. However, offices with the latter were more adherent to the guidelines recommendations. It will be important for CPS to consider how to further advocate for paediatric emergency preparedness in clinics that see children regularly.
In recent years very massive single stars have been found to be upward of 90 M⊙. Massive contact binary systems have been found among the early-type systems, but their masses are far less than those reported for single stars. The most massive component found is about 60 M⊙.
It is generally believed that no late-type very massive stars have been detected (Humphreys and Davidson). This may be due to the large amount of mass loss from stellar wind. Recently, several extremely long-period late-type binary systems have been found to be contact systems. Two systems, UU Cnc and 5 Cet, have their primary components with masses exceeding 40 M⊙, and K spectra. This result tends to suggest that close or interacting binary stars may be able to preserve the mass loss from stellar wind within the binary systems.
The year 2016 will be remembered for its extraordinary events. It started on a promising note with the signing of the Trans Pacific Partnership (TPP) Agreement in February 2016, after prolonged years of negotiations. This was followed by the unexpected United Kingdom vote in favour of leaving the European Union (Brexit) in June and Donald Trump's stunning victory in the U.S. presidential election in November. The latter event has now cast doubt over whether the TPP will be ratified. In Southeast Asia the death of Thailand's revered King Bhumibol Adulyadej, the world's longest-reigning monarch, in October, also marked another historical moment. China's launching of the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) in January 2016 signalled a new era in global finance, as the new international bank is perceived to rival the U.S.-led World Bank. All ten economies in Southeast Asia have signed on to be members, although the ratification of Malaysia and the Philippines had not been completed at the time of writing.
Within the region there have been several changes that may affect its internal cohesiveness, as well as the region's economic and political relations with external powers. These include changes in political leadership in Laos, the Philippines, and Vietnam, while rising tensions over territorial disputes in the South China Sea have strained relations between China and some countries in the region. The signing of the TPP has also been perceived by some members of ASEAN as disruptive to ASEAN integration.
Amidst such changes, how did the Southeast Asian economies fare in 2016? The main objective of this chapter is to examine the growth of the ten Southeast Asian economies over the year and the main factors that have contributed to this growth. It also discusses the issues that have the potential to affect economic growth of these countries in 2017 and beyond.
Economic Performance in 2016
Overall Growth Performance
Global growth is projected to fall from 2015 to 2016 due to the uncertainties associated with Brexit and the global impact of the U.S. election results of November 2016. Even in the Asia Pacific, the growth rate for the region is forecast to stagnate from 2015 to 2016. Five of the Southeast Asian economies are expected to have slower growth in 2016 compared to 2015 (Table 1).
Outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) from developing countries has progressively attracted research attention due to its increasing share in world outward flows. According to UNCTAD (2006a), only six developing and transition economies reported outward stocks of more than US$5 billion in 1990. By 2005, 25 developing and transition economies have exceeded that threshold, while contributing to 17 per cent of world outward flows. Malaysia is one of the contributors to this phenomenon. In 1980, Malaysia was ranked 11 in the top 15 developing and transition economies in terms of stocks of OFDI, but it moved up to the tenth position by 2013 (UNCTADSTAT 2014). OFDI in terms of flows surpassed inward flows after 2007, and Malaysia became a net capital exporter.
These changes inevitably lead to comparisons between OFDI from developed and developing economies. Based on the investment development path (IDP) theory, there are five stages of development whereby a country transits from being a net recipient of investment flows to becoming a net source of foreign direct investment (FDI). The first stage is characterized by little inflows and outflows as the country may not have acquired the necessary location-specific advantages to attract inflows, except for given endowments such as natural resources. The firms in the country are also at a nascent stage of development and therefore do not have as yet the firm-specific advantages and resources for investing abroad. In the second stage, inflows start to emerge with the development of location-specific advantages such as increases in per capita income. By the third stage, however, inward flows may start to decline due to erosion of some location-specific advantages such as low labour costs and the increasing competitiveness of local firms as they move up their learning path and acquire firm-specific advantages. Outward stock of FDI may equal or exceed inward stock by the fourth stage, while in the fifth stage, the net investment position hovers around zero with inward and outward stocks tending to be of the same magnitude.
In this paper, an ultra-wideband (UWB) filter with a notch band using T-shaped step impedance resonator loaded with cross-shaped open stubs has been presented. The notch band is formed by utilizing intrinsic zero. The characteristics of the new quad-mode resonator have been analyzed using odd-even mode analysis method. It can be shown that it is the intrinsic zero that generates the notch band. In addition, wide tunable notch band form 5–9.3 GHz can be achieved. A UWB filter with a notch band centered at 6.25 GHz using the proposed quad-mode resonator has been designed, fabricated, and tested. Experiment results show that the attenuation in notch frequency is >22 dB while the return loss of the simulation and measurement results are 22 dB/20 dB and 14.5 dB/11.2 dB in the lower and upper passband, respectively, which illustrate that the simulation and measurement results are in agreement.
Studies on the relationship between bookreading and language development typically lack data about which books are actually read to children. This paper reports on an Internet survey designed to address this data gap. The resulting dataset (the Infant Bookreading Database or IBDb) includes responses from 1,107 caregivers of children aged 0–36 months who answered questions about the English-language books they most commonly read to their children. The inclusion of demographic information enables analysis of subsets of data based on age, sex, or caregivers’ education level. A comparison between our dataset and those used in previous analyses reveals that there is relatively little overlap between booklists gathered from proxies such as bestseller lists and the books caregivers reported reading to children in our survey. The IBDb is available for download for use by researchers at <http://linguistics.ubc.ca/ubc-ibdb/>.
Life satisfaction is an important indicator of wellbeing and successful ageing, while boosting life satisfaction in later life has long been a policy and service challenge. Based on a questionnaire survey with 415 Chinese older adults aged 60 years and over in Hong Kong, this study examined how older adults' travel motivations influenced their travel actions and how the travel affected their life satisfaction using structural equation modelling. A proposed ‘travel motivation–action–life satisfaction’ model showed an acceptable fit with the data. It was found that travel motivations stimulated older adults' travel actions, while their travels further contributed to greater life satisfaction. The findings of this study indicated the need for improved knowledge and understanding of older adults' travel preferences and requirements, and highlight the importance of enhancing awareness among professionals and service providers about the benefit of travelling in enhancing life satisfaction of older adults.
In this paper the optimal dividend (subject to transaction costs) and reinsurance (with two reinsurers) problem is studied in the limit diffusion setting. It is assumed that transaction costs and taxes are required when dividends occur, and that the premiums charged by two reinsurers are calculated according to the exponential premium principle with different parameters, which makes the stochastic control problem nonlinear. The objective of the insurer is to determine the optimal reinsurance and dividend policy so as to maximize the expected discounted dividends until ruin. The problem is formulated as a mixed classical-impulse stochastic control problem. Explicit expressions for the value function and the corresponding optimal strategy are obtained. Finally, a numerical example is presented to illustrate the impact of the parameters associated with the two reinsurers' premium principle on the optimal reinsurance strategy.
We establish lower bounds for (i) the numbers of positive and negative terms and (ii) the number of sign changes in the sequence of Fourier coefficients at squarefree integers of a half-integral weight modular Hecke eigenform.