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Effects of nitrogen impurity on ZnO crystal growth on Si substrates have been investigated. The quantitative analysis on the surface morphology deriving height-height correlation function indicates that adsorbed nitrogen atoms suppress the secondary nucleation and enhance adatom migration. The resultant films have smooth surface as well as large grain size up to 24 nm even for small thickness of 10 nm. ZnO films fabricated by using such films as buffer layers possess high crystal quality, where the full width at half maximum of (002) rocking curve is 0.68°, one-fourth of that for films fabricated without nitrogen.
We have recently developed a novel semiconductor, (ZnO)x(InN)1-x (abbreviated to ZION). In this study, we have succeeded in direct epitaxial growth of ZION films on 19–21%-lattice-mismatched c-plane sapphire by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that there is no epitaxial relationship between ZION films fabricated at room-temperature (RT) and the sapphire substrates, while the films fabricated at 450oC grow epitaxially on the sapphire substrates. From the analysis of time evolution of the surface morphology, the process for the epitaxial growth of ZION on sapphire is found to consist of three stages. They are (i) initial nucleation of ZION crystallites with crystal axis aligned to the sapphire substrate, (ii) island growth from the initially formed nuclei and subsequent nucleation (secondary nucleation) of ZION crystallites, and (iii) lateral growth of ZION islands originated from initially formed nuclei. On the other hand, non-epitaxial ZION films fabricated at RT just grow in 3D mode. From these results, we conclude that the substrate temperature is the key to control of nucleation and subsequent epitaxial growth of ZION films on the lattice-mismatched substrate.
This study explores the views of healthcare professionals regarding care and treatment goals in irreversible terminal delirium and their effect on patients and caregivers.
We conducted a qualitative interview study of healthcare professionals (palliative care physician, oncologist, psycho-oncologist, and clinical psychologist) engaged in the treatment of terminally ill cancer patients. We assessed the views of healthcare workers regarding treatment goals in terminal delirium and their effect on patients and their families.
Of the 21 eligible healthcare professionals, 20 agreed to participate in this study. Three of the professionals had experience with treating terminal delirium as family caregivers. We identified five important aspects of treatment goals in terminal delirium based on the views of healthcare professionals: (1) adequate management of symptoms/distress, (2) ability to communicate, (3) continuity of self, (4) provision of care and support to families, and (5) considering a balance (between symptom alleviation and maintaining communication; between symptom alleviation and family preparations for the death of patients; balance between specific treatment goals for delirium and general treatment goals).
Significance of results
According to the views of healthcare workers questioned in this study, goals of care and treatment in terminal delirium are multidimensional and extend beyond simply controlling patient symptoms.
Sexual differences in behaviours are often affected by the difference in individual interests between the sexes: growth in males and egg production in females. Some hermit crabs show sexual differences in shell use patterns during the reproductive season. In the non-reproductive season, however, when both sexes are focused on increasing growth, this sexual difference is expected to be reduced. In this study, we compared the pattern of shell use in the hermit crab Pagurus minutus between seasons, while focusing on the effects of shell shape on growth or egg production. As we predicted, sexual differences in shell use in P. minutus showed seasonal change. In the non-reproductive season, both sexes appeared to use shells well suited for growth. In the reproductive season, sexual differences became more evident, especially in larger solitary crabs and guarding pairs; males monopolized round-type shells such as those of Umbonium moniliferum, whereas more than 80% of females relied on high-spired Batillaria-type shells such as those of Batillaria zonalis. A lack of advantage for egg number in females using Batillaria-type shells suggests that female shell use is explained by factors other than maximizing clutch size. Both sexes can moult during the reproductive season, and larger body size is advantageous for reproduction. Given that Batillaria-type shells resulted in a lower growth increment and males have an advantage in shell fights in congeneric crabs, our findings suggest the importance of intersexual competition for shells and female compromise in determining the seasonal change of shell use patterns in P. minutus.
Recently, it has been found that the gut microbiota influences functions of the host brain by affecting monoamine metabolism. The present study focused on the relationship between the gut microbiota and the brain amino acids. Specific pathogen-free (SPF) and germ-free (GF) mice were used as experimental models. Plasma and brain regions were sampled from mice at 7 and 16 weeks of age, and analysed for free d- and l-amino acids, which are believed to affect many physiological functions. At 7 weeks of age, plasma concentrations of d-aspartic acid (d-Asp), l-alanine (l-Ala), l-glutamine (l-Gln) and taurine were higher in SPF mice than in GF mice, but no differences were found at 16 weeks of age. Similar patterns were observed for the concentrations of l-Asp in striatum, cerebral cortex and hippocampus, and l-arginine (l-Arg), l-Ala and l-valine (l-Val) in striatum. In addition, the concentrations of l-Asp, d-Ala, l-histidine, l-isoleucine (l-Ile), l-leucine (l-Leu), l-phenylalanine and l-Val were significantly higher in plasma of SPF mice when compared with those of GF mice. The concentrations of l-Arg, l-Gln, l-Ile and l-Leu were significantly higher in SPF than in GF mice, but those of d-Asp, d-serine and l-serine were higher in some brain regions of GF mice than in those of SPF mice. In conclusion, the concentration of amino acids in the host brain seems to be dependent on presence of the gut microbiota. Amino acid metabolism in the host brain may be modified by manipulating microbiota communities.
The multiple colliding laser pulse concept formulated by Bulanov et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 104, 2010b, 220404) is beneficial for achieving an extremely high amplitude of coherent electromagnetic field. Since the topology of electric and magnetic fields of multiple colliding laser pulses oscillating in time is far from trivial and the radiation friction effects are significant in the high field limit, the dynamics of charged particles interacting with the multiple colliding laser pulses demonstrates remarkable features corresponding to random walk trajectories, limit circles, attractors, regular patterns and Lévy flights. Under extremely high intensity conditions the nonlinear dissipation mechanism stabilizes the particle motion resulting in the charged particle trajectory being located within narrow regions and in the occurrence of a new class of regular patterns made by the particle ensembles.
We have produced plasma activated water (PAW) using air, O2, N2, He and Ar atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge plasma irradiation to deionized water. Then, PAW was kept for 1 hour or 1 day at room temperature to reduce concentrations of short lifetime reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species before supplying to plants. O2, air and N2 PAW induces growth enhancement of plants. For 1 hour PAW supply the longest seedling length after 3 days cultivation is 1.62, 1.38, 1.13, 1.12, and 1.04 times long for air, O2, He, N2, and Ar plasmas compared with the length for thecontrol, whereas for 1 day PAW supply it is 1.52, 1.28, 1.13, 1.10, and 1.08 times long for air, O2, He, N2 and Ar. Therefore, long lifetime reactive oxygen nitrogen species in PAW is effective for the growth enhancement.
We have fabricated ZnInON (ZION), which is a pseudo-binary alloy of wurtzite ZnO and wurtzite InN and has a tunable band gap over the entire visible spectrum and a high optical absorption coefficient of 105 cm-1. ZION films grow two dimensionally at Ts = room temperature (RT) and 150°C, whereas they grow three dimensionally at Ts = 250 and 450°C. These films at RT and 150°C show a step-terrace structure with the step height of 0.27 nm, which corresponds to the height of a single-atomic-layer step and the half length of the c-lattice parameter of ZION. ZION film has the same a-lattice parameter of 0.325 nm as ZnO and a longer c-lattice parameter of 0.536 nm, indicating the coherent growth of ZION films on ZnO templates. ZION film grown at RT shows blue (2.89 and 3.08 eV) photoluminescence at RT.
ZnO films were fabricated by RF magnetron sputtering with nitrogen mediated crystallization (NMC) under various gas pressures. X-ray diffraction measurements show that the NMC-ZnO films are highly crystalline regardless of the gas pressure, and the full width at half maximum values of the (0002) rocking curves range from 0.032 to 0.044°. In contrast, atomic force microscopy (AFM) reveals that the gas pressure plays an important role in determining the surface morphology of the films. The root-mean-square (RMS) roughness decreases monotonically from 1.05 to 0.60 nm with increasing pressure from 0.2 to 0.7 Pa. However, the RMS roughness increases with further increases in the pressure, reaching 2.15 nm at 2.1 Pa. The height distribution of the NMC-ZnO films derived from the AFM images is narrowest at 0.7 Pa, indicating that the smooth surface obtained at 0.7 Pa can be attributed to spatially uniform nucleation occurring in a short time period. These results indicate that the sputtering gas pressure is a key parameter for controlling the surface morphology of NMC-ZnO films.
Direct electrical measurement of single grain boundaries is performed for ZnO-based multilayer ceramic varistors with fine grains of 2 µm, using a nano-prober. The effect of ZnO grains on non-linearity is shown to be significant. The microstructure is comprised at least two non-linear types as good- and bad-junctions. The numerical ratio of good to bad is estimated to be about one (non-linearity exponent αmax ≥ 10) to two (<10), which is independent of microstructural development as grain growth. The grain control of twinning as well as crystal orientation and donor concentration is considered effective in the further improvement.
Enhancement of the quality of laser wake-field accelerated (LWFA) electron beams implies the improvement and controllability of the properties of the wake waves generated by ultra-short pulse lasers in underdense plasmas. In this work we present a compendium of useful formulas giving relations between the laser and plasma target parameters allowing one to obtain basic dependences, e.g. the energy scaling of the electrons accelerated by the wake field excited in inhomogeneous media including multi-stage LWFA accelerators. Consideration of the effects of using the chirped laser pulse driver allows us to find the regimes where the chirp enhances the wake field amplitude. We present an analysis of the three-dimensional effects on the electron beam loading and on the unlimited LWFA acceleration in inhomogeneous plasmas. Using the conditions of electron trapping to the wake-field acceleration phase we analyse the multi-equal stage and multiuneven stage LWFA configurations. In the first configuration the energy of fast electrons is a linear function of the number of stages, and in the second case, the accelerated electron energy grows exponentially with the number of stages. The results of the two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations presented here show the high quality electron acceleration in the triple stage injection–acceleration configuration.
SN 1987A has been observed with a combined high energy γ-ray (50-500 MeV) and hard X-ray (15-150 keV) payload during a balloon flight on 5 April 1988 from Alice Springs, Australia. The γ-ray observations, along with our earlier ones on 19 April 1987 are the only such observations of the supernova to date. The γ-ray detector characteristics are described. The preliminary results of the recent flight and their implications in terms of the known supernova parameters are discussed.
Asian victims of Japanese imperialism have filed lawsuits against the Japanese government and corporations since the 1990s, which became prime sites for redress decades after Japan's defeat in World War II. As this ethnography demonstrates, this process paradoxically exposes a legal lacuna within this emergent transnational legal space, with plaintiffs effectively caught between the law, instead of standing before the law. Exploring this absence of law, I map out a post‐imperial legal space, created through the erasure of imperial and colonial subjects in the legal framework after empire. Between the law is an optic that makes visible uneven legal terrains that embody temporal and spatial disjuncture, rupture, and asymmetry. The role of law in post‐imperial transitions remains underexplored in literatures on transnational law, legal imperialism, postcolonialism, and transitional justice. I demonstrate how, at the intersection of law and economy, post‐imperial reckoning is emerging as a new legal frontier, putting at stake law's imperial amnesia.
Prime Minister Shinzo Abe has highlighted Japan's commitment to Southeast Asia since his inauguration for his second term as Prime Minister in December 2012. His first year in office, 2013, represented a search for new initiatives to determine his administration's strategic objectives towards Southeast Asia under the fortieth anniversary of the ASEAN–Japan Friendship and Cooperation rubric. Unlike many of his predecessors, Abe visited all ten Southeast Asian states, and this diplomatic approach culminated in the “Vision Statement on ASEAN–Japan Friendship and Cooperation: Shared Vision, Shared Identity, Shared Future” and the Joint Statement, “Hand in Hand, Facing Regional and Global Challenges”, which endorsed comprehensive cooperation between ASEAN and Japan.
In 2014 Japan's efforts focused on the implementation of the 2013 Vision Statement, promoting cooperation on the four pillars — security, economics, sociocultural ties, and people-to-people interaction. In the face of increasing terrorist threats, Japan emphasized non-traditional security cooperation through the “ASEAN–Japan Joint Declaration for Cooperation to Combat Terrorism and Transnational Crime”.
Abe also constantly reassured Southeast Asia about Japan's changing security policy. Indeed, Abe aimed to relax constitutional and political constraints on Japan's security policy under the “Proactive Contribution to Peace” policy — such as its constitutional reinterpretation to enable Japan to exercise the right to collective self-defence — and Japan began to have more domestic political room to strengthen security cooperation with Southeast Asia. At the same time, Japan attempted to reassure ASEAN member states that it would maintain the line of the 1977 Fukuda Doctrine, comprising three principles — never becoming a military power, forging ties with ASEAN based on “heart to heart” understanding, and cooperating with ASEAN member states as equal partners. In this context, Japan's policy towards Southeast Asia in 2015 was characterized by “strategic coordination”, which focused on policy implementation with several new diplomatic initiatives.
The objective of strategic coordination is not only to continuously deepen Japan's comprehensive ties of friendship with Southeast Asian states and ASEAN, but also to shape China's behaviour in Southeast Asia and beyond through ASEANled institutions and Japan's bilateral ties with individual Southeast Asian states.
We have investigated plant growth response to atmospheric air plasma treatments of seeds on their growth for 5 plant speces; Radish sprout (Raphanus sativus L.), rice (Oryza Sativa), Zinnia, Arabidopsis L. Thaliana and Plumeri. The average length of Radish sprout, rice, Arabidopsis Thaliana, Plumeria and Zinnia, are 250%, 80%, 60%, 30% and 20% longer than those without plasma treatments, respectively. We have obtained correlation between the growth enhancement and O3 and NOx concentration. The optimum radical dose for the growth enhancement depends on plant species.
We study effects of deposition temperature on growth mode and surface morphology
of hetero-epitaxial (ZnO)x(InN)1-x (ZION) films on ZnO
templates. ZION films deposited at low temperature of RT-250oC grow
two dimensionally, whereas ZION films deposited at high temperature of
350-450oC grow three dimensionally. Growth mode is changed from
two-dimensional growth mode to three-dimensional one, because the critical
thickness where film strain begin to relax decreases with increasing the
deposition temperature. At high deposition temperatures, the number of point
defects in ZION films decreases because migration of adatoms on the growing
surface is enhanced. The strain energy in ZION films increases with increasing
the deposition temperature, since the strain energy is not released by point
defects. Therefore, lattice relaxation for the higher deposition temperature
begins at the smaller film thickness to release the strain energy. As a result,
ZION films with atomically-flat surface were obtained even at RT.
Nanoparticles have great potential for biomedical applications such as early detection, accurate diagnosis, and personalized treatment of cancer. Assessment of bio-compatibility and toxicity of nanoparticles body is an emerging topic for these applications. To study kinetics of nanoparticles in body, we synthesized indium, gold and platinum nanoparticles in aqueous suspension using pulsed electrical discharge plasmas in water. The average size of synthesized primary nanoparticles for indium, gold, and platinum are 6.2 nm, 6.7 nm, and 5.4 nm, whereas the average size of secondary nanoparticles for indium, gold, and platinum are 315 nm, 72.3 nm, and 151 nm, respectively. Synthesized indium nanoparticles are transported from subcutaneous to serum and brain. The indium content in serum for the synthesized nanoparticles is much higher than that for the In2O3 nanoparticles of 150 nm in primary size. For gold and platinum nanoparticles, preliminary examination of intratracheal administration revealed that administration of synthesized nanoparticles with 10 mg/kg BW (body weight) may cause bleedings and/or emphysema in lung.
This study describes the nonlinear characteristics of SrCoO3-doped ZnO varistors and multilayer ceramic varistors (MLCVs) with copper electrodes, both of which are sintered in a reducing atmosphere. Due to postannealing effects in air or N2 with low-oxygen concentration (0.02%), bulk disks can be sintered in a reducing atmosphere, with a usable V1 mA/mm (e.g., 1600 V for bulk bodies or 1200 V for Cu cofiring) and highly nonlinear indices (α10 μA = V1 mA/V10 μA < 1.3), regardless of whether cofiring with Cu electrodes on disk surfaces was conducted or not. On the basis of this procedure, Cu-MLCVs were successfully produced, without oxidation of Cu-internal electrodes or structural defects. They exhibited high stability as well as a useful nonlinearity of V1 mA = 10.4 V and α10 μA = 1.93. The resultant stability against electrostatic discharge (ESD) satisfies the highest standard of level 4 in IEC61000-4-2 (ESD stability test). This is the first report to show that MLCVs with base metals have practical properties, including stability.
The transport of relativistic electron beam in compressed cylindrical targets was studied from a numerical and experimental point of view. In the experiment, cylindrical targets were imploded using the Gekko XII laser facility of the Institute of Laser Engineering. Then the fast electron beam was created by shooting the LFEX laser beam. The penetration of fast electrons was studied by observing Kα emission from tracer layers in the target.