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This study sought to conduct a comprehensive search for genetic risk of cognitive decline in the context of geriatric depression.
A genome-wide association study (GWAS) analysis in the Neurocognitive Outcomes of Depression in the Elderly (NCODE) study.
Longitudinal, naturalistic follow-up study.
Older depressed adults, both outpatients and inpatients, receiving care at an academic medical center.
The Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease (CERAD) neuropsychological battery was administered to the study participants at baseline and a minimum of twice within a subsequent 3-year period in order to measure cognitive decline. A GWAS analysis was conducted to identify genetic variation that is associated with baseline and change in the CERAD Total Score (CERAD-TS) in NCODE.
The GWAS of baseline CERAD-TS revealed a significant association with an intergenic single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on chromosome 6, rs17662598, that surpassed adjustment for multiple testing (p = 3.7 × 10−7; false discovery rate q = 0.0371). For each additional G allele, average baseline CERAD-TS decreased by 8.656 points. The most significant SNP that lies within a gene was rs11666579 in SLC27A1 (p = 1.1 × 10−5). Each additional copy of the G allele was associated with an average decrease of baseline CERAD-TS of 4.829 points. SLC27A1 is involved with processing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an endogenous neuroprotective compound in the brain. Decreased levels of DHA have been associated with the development of Alzheimer’s disease. The most significant SNP associated with CERAD-TS decline over time was rs73240021 in GRXCR1 (p = 1.1 × 10−6), a gene previously linked with deafness. However, none of the associations within genes survived adjustment for multiple testing.
Our GWAS of cognitive function and decline among individuals with late-life depression (LLD) has identified promising candidate genes that, upon replication in other cohorts of LLD, may be potential biomarkers for cognitive decline and suggests DHA supplementation as a possible therapy of interest.
The process of forming a lamp filament from 218 tungsten wire involves coiling the wire around a mandrel. The coil on the mandrel is then annealed at 1550 C to "set" the coil, that is, to keep it from uncoiling. As result of this process, the structure and properties of the wire in the coil are changed from what they were in the as-drawn condition. If lamp filament behavior is to be related to properties and structure of the wire, these must be determined for coiled wire and for coils which have been subjected to various flashing treatments. Preparation of thin foils from very small diameter coil wire becomes even more difficult since in addition to the restrictions on specimen diameter, the wires are very brittle as a result of annealing at temperatures high enough to cause polygonization. Thus, a technique of increasing the wire diameter by depositing tungsten on the coil was devised.
The generalized gradient approximation (GGA) often fails to correctly describe the electronic structure and thermochemistry of transition metal oxides and is commonly improved using an inexpensive correction term with a scaling parameter U. The authors tune U to reproduce experimental vanadium oxide redox energetics with a localized basis and a GGA functional. The value for U is found to be significantly lower than what is generally reported with plane-wave bases, with the uncorrected GGA results being already in reasonable agreement with experiments. This computational set-up is used to calculate interstitial and substitutional insertion energies of main group metals in vanadium pentoxide and interstitial doping is found to be thermodynamically favored.
When comparing the efficay of antipsychotics in clinical studies it would be of high practical relevance to know which doses of the respective drugs would result in equivalent blocking of dopamine-D2-receptors. This study aimed to find clinically applicable dose equivalents for haloperidol, risperidone and olanzapine.
As the occurrence of EPS correlates closely with a blockade of about 80% or more of dopamin-D2-receptors the proportion of patients developing EPS in relation to various doses of either Haloperidol (n=5252), risperidone (n=5017) or olanzapine (n =5029) was calculated. This retrospective, observational study included 20.252 inpatients from 20 hospitals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and related disorders (ICD10 F20-25). The prescription of anticholinergic medication was utilized as surrogate parameter for the occurrence of EPS. OR, RR and NNH under different doses of AP were calculated and data entered into a probit model to predict the risk of EPS over a continuous dose range. For filtering the data ToscanaJ (FBA) was used.
1.) Same doses of risperidone and haloperidol induced the same proportion of EPS, reflected in a constant dose ratio of both drugs of ∼ 1:1 over the whole dose range.
2.) Over the whole dose range there was no linear relation between olanzapine on one hand and haloperidol and risperidone on the other hand.
3.) The results were corroborated by the probit analysis.
Previous clinical trials comparing olanzapine, risperidone and haloperidol found higher risks of EPS for Haloperidol. We propose a new model to calculate dose equivalents.
Serum-antibodies against an organ specific CNS antigen as well as against serotonin and gangliosides (Gm 1) were analysed by ELISA in 34 patients with schizophrenia, ten patients with schizoaffective psychosis and 13 patients with major depressive disorder. Sixty-two patients with various rheumatic disorders and 32 blood donors were included in the study as controls. Sixty-two percent of the 13 patients with major depressive disorder had antibodies to serotonin and 69% to gangliosides, whereas antibody positive sera was only found in 38% of the 34 patients with schizophrenia. The same antibodies were found in only 6% (antibodies to serotonin) and 13% (antibodies to gangliosides) of the 32 blood donors and in a similar frequency in patients with schizoaffective psychosis. Organ specific antibodies to CNS-antigen could not be detected in the psychiatric patient group at any significant level. It is speculated that auto-immune reactions towards a serotonin receptor may be involved in the etiopathogenesis of major depressive disorder.
Internet Addiction (IA) is discussed as a serious health problem. Epidemiologic investigations show prevalence rates of 3% of internet users that fulfil criteria for IA. Reported symptoms like tolerance, withdrawal, and craving resemble those of substance-related disorders. Although there is no final agreement on the classification of IA, it has often been referred to as a non-substance-related addiction fostering current issues on the next revision of DSM (Holden, 2010).
Although IA has been investigated in epidemiologic studies there is no research of its prevalence in patients in treatment because of a substance-related disorder. Regarding similarities between IA and substance-related disorders, theories suggest increased prevalence of comorbid IA in these patients.
This study focused on the identification of prevalence of comorbid IA among patients with a primary substance-related disorder in different in-patient clinics across Germany.
Sponsored by the German Federal Ministry of Health 1826 patients were screened with a diagnostic inventory for IA. For further description additional questionnaires were given assessing aspects of personality (NEO-FFI) and psychopathology (SCL-90R, BDI-II).
4.1% of the patients fulfilled criteria of IA. In these most common primary diagnoses were pathological gambling and dependency of cannabis. Concerning personality IA-subsample showed increased neuroticism and introversion. Highest symptom burden was found in depression and social insecurity.
Among patients with substance-related disorder prevalence of IA is more common than in healthy samples. Results recommend separate screening for IA in inpatient clinics for substance-related disorders to guarantee full psychological care for patients with IA.
Surface based MRI methods are a promising approach for the identification of cerebral shape alterations in schizophrenia . In particular, investigating gyrification might offer important evidence for disturbed neurodevelopmental mechanisms in schizophrenia.
The present study is the first to compare on a vertex - wise basis mean curvature as a sensitive parameter for the identification of local gyrification changes in first episode schizophrenia.
54 patients with first-episode schizophrenia and 54 healthy control subjects underwent high-resolution T1-weighted MRI scans. Surface extraction and mean curvature calculation was performed using the Freesurfer Software package. Statistical cortical maps were created to estimate gyrification differences between groups.
A significantly increased gyrification was detected in patients relative to controls in a large right parahippocampal-lingual cortex area. A further analysis of cortical thickness of this cluster revealed concurrent significant reduced cortical thickness in patients.
This is the first study to reveal an aberrant gyrification of the medial surface in first episode schizophrenia on basis of a vertex - wise analysis of local gyrification changes of the entire cortex. Both affected areas, the parahippocampal and the lingual cortex, are of high pathophysiological relevance for schizophrenia. Thus, our data provided new in vivo evidence for an early maturational deficit of these cortical areas in schizophrenia .
Depressive disorders are highly prevalent in the general population while there are marked diagnostic and therapeutic deficits resulting in direct and socioeconomic costs. Pharmacists represent important community facilitators in primary health care but their role in counselling and monitoring of depressed patients has rarely been investigated.
In order to improve knowledge about depressive disorders and practical skills, nationwide seminars were held for staff members [N=102] of German public pharmacies followed by an evaluation of personal views and seminar.
Personal estimates of proportion of depressed customers reached an extremely wide range from 1-70%. This view and further beliefs (regarding depression as an illness like any other; confidence in counselling) of pharmaceutical staff were correlated with age and years of practise rather than with professional position. Comprehensive education and specific training programmes (e.g. communication skills), especially in the younger and less experienced staff, may promote successful counselling of depressive individuals.
Mental health care systems need to more implement personnel of public pharmacies by training programmes to increase identification and treatment outcome of depression and reduction of health care expenses.
In a representative nationwide survey, the Psychiatry and Migration Working Group of the German Federal Conference of Psychiatric Hospital Directors (Bundesdirektorenkonferenz) examined the use of inpatient psychiatric and psychotherapeutic services in Germany by patients of immigrant origin. Questionnaires were sent to a total of 350 general hospital psychiatric clinics throughout Germany, and 131 clinics responded. As shown by the 2005 Microcensus , almost one-fifth (18.6%) of the German population is of immigrant origin. In our study, persons of immigrant origin comprised 17% of patients in the responding facilities. This indicates that the percentage of inpatient psychiatric services used by patients of immigrant origin is almost proportionate to these patients’ percentage of the general population. The largest group of immigrant patients in our study were those of Russian heritage, followed by patients of Turkish, Arabic, or other origin. Almost two-thirds of the immigrant patients were born in Germany, and a considerably larger percentage were German citizens (74%). Sixty-two per cent of all patients of immigrant origin spoke a language other than German (e.g. Russian, Turkish, Polish) at home. Patients of immigrant origin were significantly more likely to receive an ICD-10 F2 diagnosis, and it was precisely patients with this diagnosis who were observed to experience difficulties in communication with caregivers.
The aim of this study was to evaluate a case-mix system to classify inpatients with mental disorders in Germany by means of self-report and expert-rated instruments. The use of case-mix systems enhances the transparency of performance and cost structure and can thus improve the quality of mental health care. We analysed a consecutive sample of 1677 inpatients with mental disorders from 11 hospitals using regression tree analysis. The model assigns patients to 17 groups, accounting for 17% of the variance for duration of stay. Patients with eating disorders had a longer duration of stay than patients with anxiety disorder, duration of mental illness of less than 3–5 years, lower levels of interpersonal problems and higher occupational position. The results showed that besides diagnosis, variables such as duration of illness and interpersonal problems are important for classifying inpatients with mental disorders. The results of the study should be critically reviewed regarding the empirical results of other studies and the appropriateness of case group concepts for inpatients with mental disorders.