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This new edition provides a much-needed reference book to accommodate emerging and expanding knowledge in fertility preservation, the rapidly growing field of reproductive medicine associated with advances in oncology. Written by a team of world-leading experts in the field and comprehensive in its scope, the book covers the full range of techniques and scientific concepts in detail. It opens with an introduction to fertility preservation in both cancer and non-cancer patients, followed by fertility preservation strategies in males and females, including medical/surgical procedures, ART, cryopreservation and transplantation of ovarian tissue, and in-vitro follicle culture. Concluding chapters address new technologies, as well as ethical, legal and religious issues. The book has been thoroughly updated, includes additional contributors, and now provides greater focus on practical and clinically relevant issues. Richly illustrated throughout, this is a key resource for clinicians specializing in reproductive medicine, gynecology, oncology, hematology, endocrinology and infertility.
Magical realism can lay claim to being one of most recognizable genres of prose writing. It mingles the probable and improbable, the real and the fantastic, and it provided the late-twentieth century novel with an infusion of creative energy in Latin America, Africa, Asia, and beyond. Writers such as Alejo Carpentier, Gabriel García Márquez, Isabel Allende, Salman Rushdie, Ben Okri, and many others harnessed the resources of narrative realism to the representation of folklore, belief, and fantasy. This book sheds new light on magical realism, exploring in detail its global origins and development. It offers new perspectives of the history of the ideas behind this literary tradition, including magic, realism, otherness, primitivism, ethnography, indigeneity, and space and time.
Do your students struggle to see the point in learning a language other than English? Do you teach in an English-dominant setting? If so, this book is a 'must-read'. It offers international perspectives on CLIL, a revolutionary teaching approach where students study subjects, for example physics or history, in a language which is not their own. Informed by research carried out by the authors, it addresses the issues of developing CLIL in Anglophone contexts and shows how to implement this method of language learning successfully in the reality of the classroom. Through three key themes, sustainability, pedagogy and social justice, each author explores CLIL as a means of addressing the high levels of cultural diversity and socio-economic disparity in Anglophone-dominant settings. Authored by experts in the field, it offers a set of flexible teaching tools, which serve to combine language and content, ultimately enhancing the learning experience of students.
Women are still underrepresented as public-sector organizational leaders, despite comprising half of the United States public-sector workforce. To explore the factors driving gender imbalance, this Element employs a problem-driven approach to examine gender imbalance in local government management. We use multiple methods, inductive and deductive research, and different theoretical frames for exploring why so few women are city or county managers. Our interviews, resume analysis and secondary data analysis suggesting that women in local government management face a complex puzzle of gendered experiences, career paths and appointment circumstances that lend insights into gender imbalanced leadership in this domain.
Forensic pathologists are increasingly faced with challenges when it comes to geriatric cases, due to an aging population and increased co-morbidities in the elderly. This text provides an up-to-date guide to all facets of geriatric forensic pathology, with contributions from experts from a variety of disciplines. Packed with color illustrations and case examples, chapters cover inflicted, self-inflicted and accidental trauma, as well as natural conditions leading to unexpected death. In addition, specific chapters cover a wide range of difficult and topical areas, from elder abuse, dementias and nutrition to pharmacology and toxicology issues, long-term care facilities and scene investigation. Topics such as euthanasia are also explored to provide the reader with a rich, contemporary understanding of medicolegal issues. This is an invaluable resource not only for pathologists, but also for medical practitioners and lawyers dealing with geriatric cases. The book comes packaged with online access to the text and high-resolution images. This book provides access to an online version on Cambridge Core, which can be accessed via the code printed on the inside of the cover.
To evaluate the prevalence of food and beverage marketing on Twitch.tv (Twitch), a social media platform where individuals broadcast live audiovisual material to millions of daily users.
Observational analysis of the prevalence of 238 food and beverage brands in five distinct categories (processed snacks; food delivery services and restaurants; candies, energy drinks/coffees/teas; and sodas and other sugar-sweetened beverages) over the course of 18 months.
Twitch streamer profiles and stream titles between January 2018 and July 2019. Twitch chat room messages during July 2019.
There was a significant increase in brand exposure on Twitch both in stream titles (sodas and candies, P < 0·05) and on streamer profiles (sodas, restaurants/food delivery services, candies, and energy drinks/coffees/teas, P < 0·05) over the 18-month study period. Energy drinks, coffees and teas had the most exposure with 1·08 billion exposure hours from profiles and 83 million exposure hours from titles. Restaurants/food delivery services and sugar-sweetened beverages were the most frequently mentioned products in chat rooms with 1·24 million messages and 1·10 million messages, respectively.
This study is the first to demonstrate the extent by which food and beverage brands garner millions of hours of exposure on Twitch. Future studies should evaluate the impact that this level of exposure to nutrient-poor, energy-dense products may have on behavioural and health outcomes.
This study compares the investigated water vapor diffusion coefficient in the neat polyurethane (PU) membrane, the silica–PU nanocomposite membrane, and two surface-modified silica–PU nanocomposite membranes. The silane first surface modifier is with an amine functional group known as N-[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]ethylenediamine, while the second one is with an aniline functional group known as N-[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]aniline. The enhancement of water vapor diffusivity values through the polymer nanocomposite is desirable for the membrane air dehumidification application. The diffusivities were calculated via molecular dynamics simulations at the temperature of 298.15 K. The Einstein's relationship known as the mean square displacement method was used to obtain the diffusivity for the membranes. The results showed a significant effect on the diffusivity of water vapor for the surface-modified silica–PU nanocomposite membrane as compared with the neat PU and the unmodified silica–PU nanocomposite membranes. For the amine-modified silica, the diffusion coefficient increased by 80.3% compared with the unmodified silica–PU nanocomposite membrane. On the other hand, the aniline-modified silica outperformed the amine-modified one in terms of the diffusion coefficient by 22.4%.
This chapter restores the play Hypsipyle to a central place in discussions of female agency in tragedy by demonstrating how the intricacies of its plot result from a series of interconnected decisions made by women. At critical junctures both before and within the timeframe of the play itself, it is the female characters Hypsipyle, Eurydice and Eriphyle whose actions determine the course of the plot and have far-reaching implications for each other. The analysis in this chapter shows how the play’s happy ending – which sees Hypsipyle finally re-united with her twin sons – is made possible only because of a long series of choices enacted by these three women. In particular, Eurydice’s decision to exercise forgiveness and spare Hypsipyle, whose neglect of her son Opheltes has led to his death, marks a powerful departure from the vengeful mothers that we find in other tragedies. Through these characters, Euripides articulates a view of women’s experience and subjectivity that is no less rich and engaging than the male world of the unfolding expedition against Thebes, which forms this play’s backdrop.
Mee-Soo was a good student in North Korea. She came to South Korea in her early teens, and South Korean state policy for North Korean defectors enabled her to gain entry into a decent university in Seoul. She majored in Business Management and, when she had to choose her sub-major, she chose Accounting over Marketing and Human Resources because she thought she could avoid English. Achieving CPA (Certified Public Accountant) status was the goal for Accounting majors. Passing a score of 700 in the Test of English for International Communication (TOEIC) was a requirement to take the CPA exam. Mee-Soo worked hard studying for TOEIC and took the test ten times. Her score rose from the 400s to the 600s, but she could not pass the 700 threshold and was left behind while other South Korean students passed the English requirement. She could not even begin to study for the CPA exam itself. She once sighed and told me (one of the authors), ‘I wish I could have a life without English.’ I responded, ‘I didn't think English would be so important to North Koreans in South Korea.’ To this, Mee-Soo exclaimed, ‘It is a matter of survival.’
Given there have now been over 70 years of separation between North and South Korea since the Korean War, it is unquestionable that North Korean migrants face and struggle with a variety of troubles in their attempts to settle into South Korean society. In this context, why does English constitute a ‘matter of survival’ for North Koreans when there are so many other critical issues for these individuals, who crossed several borders at the risk of their lives? This phenomena, that ‘English’ represents a major difficulty for North Korean defectors in their process of settling in South Korea (Jung & Lim, 2009), constitutes an interesting linguistic phenomena in an intra-ethnic contact. However, by itself, this statement somewhat simplifies how English actually affects the migrant group. Instead, its influence works in a surprisingly diverse number of ways across different ranges and layers within the North Korean population, depending on their regional and social background, age, time of migration, and possibly many other factors. A meaningful pattern we discuss here is the changing relations between English and North Korean migrants according to age; it is the North Korean young adults who seem to be particularly affected by English and disproportionately in need of English teaching. We also note, though, that this pattern itself is changing, as we are seeing the recent increase of children of North Korean migrants born and educated in South Korea or in China.
Korea is probably one of the few countries, if not the only one, that observes a holiday in honor of the national language's alphabet. Hangulnal, which falls on October 9, is the Korean Alphabet Day. Each year, the government hosts events to celebrate one of the most prized possessions of the country, Hangul – the writing system of the national language. Created by King Sejong and his Royal Academy Scholars in the 15th century, Hangul is recognized as one of ‘the world's most scientific writing systems ever created by man’ (Sohn, 2001: 13). To outsiders, such pride may appear somewhat overblown, but Koreans do take great pride in Hangul.
The ultimate goal of artificial intelligence (AI) is to develop technologies that are best able to serve humanity. This will require advancements that go beyond the basic components of general intelligence. The term “intelligence” does not best represent the technological needs of advancing society, because it is “wisdom”, rather than intelligence, that is associated with greater well-being, happiness, health, and perhaps even longevity of the individual and the society. Thus, the future need in technology is for artificial wisdom (AW).
We examine the constructs of human intelligence and human wisdom in terms of their basic components, neurobiology, and relationship to aging, based on published empirical literature. We review the development of AI as inspired and driven by the model of human intelligence, and consider possible governing principles for AW that would enable humans to develop computers which can operationally utilize wise principles and result in wise acts. We review relevant examples of current efforts to develop such wise technologies.
AW systems will be based on developmental models of the neurobiology of human wisdom. These AW systems need to be able to a) learn from experience and self-correct; b) exhibit compassionate, unbiased, and ethical behaviors; and c) discern human emotions and help the human users to regulate their emotions and make wise decisions.
A close collaboration among computer scientists, neuroscientists, mental health experts, and ethicists is necessary for developing AW technologies, which will emulate the qualities of wise humans and thus serve the greatest benefit to humanity. Just as human intelligence and AI have helped further the understanding and usefulness of each other, human wisdom and AW can aid in promoting each other’s growth
The disruptive potential of additive manufacturing (AM) relies on its ability to make customized products with considerable weight savings through geometries that are difficult or impossible to produce by conventional methods. Despite its versatility, applications of AM have been restricted due to the formation of columnar grains, resulting in solidification defects and anisotropy in properties. To achieve fine equiaxed grains in AM, alloy design and solidification conditions have been optimized in various alloy systems. In this review paper, the microstructure of high-entropy alloy (HEA) parts produced by selective laser melting and powder-based directed energy deposition is investigated. Solidification maps based on laser process parameters (as opposed to most commonly used solidification velocity and temperature gradient) are constructed by compiling available literature for single-phase face-centered cubic, body-centered cubic, and multiphase HEAs. These maps could guide printing of HEAs and provide an insight into the design of novel HEAs for AM.
Bovine respiratory diseases cause serious economic loses and present diagnostic difficulties due to the variety of etiologic agents, predisposing conditions, parasites, viruses, bacteria and mycoplasma, and may be multiple or complicated. Several agents which have been isolated from the abnormal lungs are still the subject of controversy and uncertainty. These include adenoviruses, rhinoviruses, syncytial viruses, herpesviruses, picornaviruses, mycoplasma, chlamydiae and Haemophilus somnus.
Previously, we have studied four typical cases of bovine pneumonia obtained from the Michigan State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory to elucidate this complex syndrome by electron microscopy. More recently, additional cases examined reveal electron opaque immune deposits which were demonstrable on the alveolar capillary walls, laminae of alveolar capillaries, subenthothelium and interstitium in four out of 10 cases. In other tissue collected, unlike other previous studies, bacterial organisms have been found in association with acute suppurative bronchopneumonia.
While Perron and Wada (2009) maximum likelihood estimation approach suggests that postwar US real GDP follows a trend stationary process (TSP), our Bayesian approach based on the same model and the same sample suggests that it follows a difference stationary process (DSP). We first show that the results based on the approach should be interpreted with caution, as they are relatively more subject to the ‘pile-up problem’ than those based on the Bayesian approach. We then directly estimate and compare the two competing TSP and DSP models of real GDP within the Bayesian framework. Our empirical results suggest that a DSP model is preferred to a TSP model both in terms of in-sample fits and out-of-sample forecasts.
Proliferative ileitis in hamsters is one of the unique diseases characterized by dehydration, diarrhea, and emaciation. It has been repeatedly found as a major obstacle by those making use of this species in long term research projects. Intensive light microscopic studies have already been conducted; cellular hyperplasia, along with goblet cell hypoplasia and inflammatory changes were observed. Even though non-specific viral agents and other bacterial organisms have been recovered, the overall etiology still remains unknown.
Since ultrastructural studies of this problem had not been made, we have examined the ileum of two sick hamsters in hopes of elucidating the etiology and other accompanying ultrastructural changes. The control preparation was found to have numerous, tall microvilli of uniform height and size (Fig. 1). Cytoplasmic organelles, as well as the junctional complexes and desmosomes, were clear and distinct. Numerous mitochondria of various size and shape were found in the underlying region of the brush border (Fig. 2).
What are the consequences of being the victim of crime for political participation? Previous studies report mixed results with respect to voter turnout, in contrast to the positive effects found for other indicators of political engagement. However, previous turnout studies have failed to differentiate between violent and non-violent crime, and have relied on cross-sectional survey data that is prone to measurement biases and selection effects. This article addresses these shortcomings via a panel analysis of official registry data from Denmark recording individual-level turnout in two municipal elections (in 2009 and 2013) and victimization from violent and non-violent crime. It identifies the effect of victimization by comparing changes in turnout between the two elections for victims and two different counterfactual groups: non-victims in the general population, and individuals who were victimized after the 2013 election. The results show that victimization from violent crime increases turnout by 2 to 3 percentage points. The study further demonstrates a large negative between-individual effect of victimization, suggesting that previous studies have been marred by severe selection bias.
A new species of chionelasmatid sessile vent barnacle, Eochionelasmus coreana sp. nov., is described and illustrated on the basis of specimens collected from the Solitaire hydrothermal vent field in the Central Indian Ridge of the Indian Ocean. This new species is morphologically very similar to E. ohtai, the type species of the genus Eochionelasmus. However, it differs from E. ohtai in its distribution, the status of the notch on the maxillule, and the positions of rl1 and cl1 on whorls of the imbricating plates. In addition, a molecular phylogenetic tree indicated that the chionelasmatid Eochionelasmus was closely related to the waikalasmatid Waikalasma with high supporting values rather than the other chionelasmatid Chionelasmus. The new species is not only the first record of a sessile vent barnacle from outside of the Pacific Ocean, but is also the first sessile barnacle from the Indian Ocean.
We propose a new nonparametric test of stochastic monotonicity which adapts to the unknown smoothness of the conditional distribution of interest, possesses desirable asymptotic properties, is conceptually easy to implement, and computationally attractive. In particular, we show that the test asymptotically controls size at a polynomial rate, is nonconservative, and detects certain smooth local alternatives that converge to the null with the fastest possible rate. Our test is based on a data-driven bandwidth value and the critical value for the test takes this randomness into account. Monte Carlo simulations indicate that the test performs well in finite samples. In particular, the simulations show that the test controls size and, under some alternatives, is significantly more powerful than existing procedures.
To date, research on sex differentials in lifespan variation and life expectancy has mainly been conducted in Western countries and there is a dearth of data from South Korea. This study aimed to further the understanding of mortality transition and life expectancy in South Korea, and the associated trajectories of age-at-death variation, through an analysis of life disparity by gender. Using complete life tables for South Korea for 1970–2015, sex differentials (female–male differences) in life disparity and life expectancy at birth were estimated, and sex differentials in life expectancy were decomposed by age and cause of death. The results showed that sex differentials in life expectancy at birth have not reduced significantly in the last 45 years (1970: 7.1 years; 2015: 6.2 years). Life disparity has reduced more rapidly for females than males, and the difference increased from −0.1 year in 1981 to −1.6 years in 2015. Sex differentials in life expectancy and life disparity in South Korea were higher during 1970–2015 than in several Western countries with high life expectancy. The elderly age group (60 and above) contributed 50% of the total sex difference in life expectancy at birth in 1970, and this increased to 70% in 2015. The contribution of the age group 15–59 years reduced significantly over the period. Decomposition of life expectancy at birth by cause revealed that diseases of the circulatory system (2.2 years), followed by external causes (1.3 years), were the most important causes of the sex differences in life expectancy at birth in 1983, and in 2015 neoplasms (2.2 years) and external causes (1.1 years) explained half of the total sex differences. There has been a significant shift in the age-specific pattern of the contribution towards each cause of death. Overall, sex differentials in life disparity and life expectancy at birth have remained significant in South Korea in the last 45 years.