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There are many ways of being Māori. Ethnicity in New Zealand historically has been based on biology and a caste system, but has now moved to a more contemporary approach that assumes ethnicity is not static and predetermined. Instead, ethnicity and culture are viewed as intertwined aspects of a person's identity that are influenced by our social environment and therefore can change as we mature and our context shifts (Cormack, 2010; Kukutai & Didham, 2009). This means that any combination of physical features and cultural beliefs can be found in people who self-identify as Māori. In short, it is not possible to assume that someone is Māori or non-Māori based on her or his appearance or lifestyle. Asking the tangata whai i te ora (person on his or her recovery journey) is the only way to be certain about someone's ethnicity, and is a vital part of the first assessment.
For Māori, health and culture are intricately linked, so when a person identifies as Māori there are vital aspects of te ao Māori (the Māori worldview) that must be incorporated into her or his mental health experiences in order to provide safe and effective care. In this chapter we discuss how practitioners from all cultural backgrounds can develop practices that engage with tangata whai i te ora and whānau in mental health and addiction settings. The chapter will be helpful for people practising in the New Zealand context, as well as those who encounter people of Māori background and culture in Australia. It will also assist practitioners to consider how institutional racism might influence their ability to care for Māori, and will encourage the exploration of personal cultural beliefs to transcend this. The Tidal Model's Ten Commitments (Buchanan-Barker & Barker, 2006) will be presented as a framework for developing culturally safe practice.
I recall during one of my admissions being told by a Māori nurse that I had no right to talk about culture. She spoke to me in Māori and demanded that I translate it. I turned to her and said ‘You know I wasn't bought up in a Māori environment; I don't have to speak te reo to feel Māori’.
Infants with CHD often experience growth failure. Ensuring optimal growth before surgery is associated with improved outcomes and has emerged as a significant cause of parental stress. Parents have reported a perceived lack of accessible feeding information for infants with CHD. To address this gap, the aim of this study was to develop feeding information to better support parents.
Materials and methods:
A search for existing material on six electronic databases and an internet search for unpublished (grey) literature on feeding information for infants with CHD were carried out. Following the development of feeding information, semi-structured interview(s) with parents/health-care professionals were completed, focusing on whether the information was easy to understand, relevant, provided sufficient information around feeding/feeding difficulties, and whether there were any information gaps. Iterative changes were made to the information following each interview. The process was completed until thematic saturation was achieved.
A total of 23 unique articles were identified of which 5 studies were included. From the grey literature, four web pages were reviewed. A total of 22 parents and 25 health-care professionals were interviewed. All parents/health-care professionals felt that the feeding information developed provided sufficient information; however, many wanted information on how to introduce complementary food, particularly if weaning was delayed.
This study describes the development of feeding information for infants with CHD. From parent interviews, gaps identified focused on the introduction of complementary foods and uncertainty regarding the feeding journey beyond surgery.
This article argues for a cross-culturally pluralistic conception of spiritual exemplarity. Three main modes of exemplarity are identified, distinguished by their underlying aspirations, which I label ‘allegiance’, ‘enlightened insight’, and ‘emulation’. After challenging some attempts to privilege the modes of exemplarity characteristic of theistic religions, I argue that perhaps the fullest example of the aspiration to emulation is the form of Daoism presented in The Book of Zhuāngzǐ. I conclude that what one finds across different cultures and traditions is a plurality of modes of spiritual exemplarity that should be acknowledge and explored, rather than given more reductive analyses that narrow our sense of the variety of ways of living a spiritual life.
Tombs and cairns present a dating challenge when the human remains are unstratified, incomplete and dispersed. By considering the distribution of time intervals between deaths as a possible a priori condition of multiple burials of select groups, a Bayesian model is suggested that may constrain the uncertainty date range of the group. The method may also address the wide uncertainties seen in radiocarbon calibration on a calibration curve plateau. The mathematical justification for the choice of Log Normal intervals, between death events, is first presented, followed by worked examples that compare the treatment of groups of 22 dates using Phase then Sequence with interval gaps. Finally, scenarios of potential Select Groups are examined, to demonstrate the efficacy of this alternative heuristic model to current model treatments.