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The transition from adolescent to adult mental health services (AMHS) is associated with disengagement, poor continuity of care and patient dissatisfaction. The aim of this retrospective and descriptive study was to describe the ‘care pathways’ in an independent mental health service when adolescents reach age 18 and to investigate the level of engagement of those who transitioned to independent AMHS.
This is a retrospective, naturalistic and descriptive study in design. All patients discharged from the St Patrick’s Adolescent Mental Health Service aged 17 years and 6 months and older, during a 3-year period between January 2014 and December 2016, were included. Electronic records were used to collect socio-demographic and clinical details and to determine engagement rates in adolescents who transferred to independent adult services.
A total of 180 patients aged over 17 years and 6 months were discharged from the adolescent service. Of these, 45.6% were discharged to their GP, 28.9% to public mental health services and 25.6% to independent mental health services. The majority who transitioned to independent AMHS went to a Young Adult Service, which had high engagement rates at 3 and 12 months post-transition.
In this independent mental health service, less than half of adolescents who reach the transition age are referred onto AMHS. Engagement rates were found to be high among those referred on to a specialised young adult service.
This innovative book sets itself at the crossroads of several rapidly developing areas of research in legal and global studies related to social computing, specifically in the context of how public emergency responders appropriate content on social media platforms for emergency and disaster management. The book - a collaboration between computer scientists, ethicists, legal scholars and practitioners - should be read by anyone concerned with the ongoing debate over the corporatization and commodification of user-generated content on social media and the extent to which this content can be legally and ethically harnessed for emergency and disaster management. The collaboration was made possible by EU's FP 7 Project Slandail (# 607691, 2014–17).
Pakistan is at the verge of polio eradication but isolation of non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) from acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases may result in serious or even fatal outcome. Many enteroviruses share similar symptoms and epidemiology as is the case with poliovirus and coxsackievirus (CV). The present study was designed to genetically characterize coxsackievirus B (CV-B) serotypes isolated from non-polio acute flaccid paralytic children, as well as to understand their probable role in paralysis. A total of 63 (20·1%) out of 313 stool samples during 2013 were found positive for NPEVs in rhabdomyosarcoma cells. Only 24 (38·0%) NPEVs were typed as CV-B by microneutralization assay and were further characterized by sequencing of the viral protein 1 (VP1) gene. Molecular phylogenetic analyses classified the study strains into six coxsackievirus B serotypes (coxsackievirus B1 to B6) with their respective prototype strains with evidence of epidemiological linkage and distinct clusters. Moreover, four major differences were found within the amino acid sequences of BC-loop in VP1 of CV-B strains. In conclusion, this study presented the molecular evolutionary genetic overview and distinct phylogenetic pattern of CV-B isolates from AFP cases in Pakistan, and explored the possible link between CV-B infections and AFP cases. Furthermore, our data reveal that these viruses might contribute to the incidence of paralysis in population and there is need of time to establish an enterovirus surveillance system for better understanding of epidemiological and virological characteristics of NPEV infections associated with AFP cases in the country.
Although the common carotid artery is the second most common site for extracranial carotid artery stenosis, complete symptomatic occlusion in the absence of devastating stroke is rare. We present a case of complete common carotid artery occlusion failing medical management and requiring endovascular intervention. The clinical presentation, diagnostic investigations, and management of complete carotid artery occlusions are discussed.
Thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke is usually performed in comprehensive stroke centres. Lack of stroke expertise in remote small hospitals may preclude thrombolysis. Telemedicine allows such management opportunities in distant hospitals.
We report our experience in managing acute stroke over a two-year time period with telestroke. The University of Alberta Hospital acted as the ‘hub’ and seven remote hospitals as ‘spoke’. The neurologist at the ‘hub’ provided stroke expertise to the local physician using either a two-way video link or telephone. Cranial CT scans were transmitted to ‘hub’. Education sessions were held before the initiation of the program.
Of 210 patients 44 (21%) received thrombolysis at the ‘spoke’ sites. In 34/44 (77%) two-way video link was available while in 10/44 (23%) telephone was used. Five (11.4%) patients experienced intracranial hemorrhage after thrombolysis, 2 (4.5%) were symptomatic. Favorable (mRS=0-1) outcome at three months was 16/40 (40%) and mortality was 9/40 (22.5%). Four patients were lost to follow-up. There was no significant three months outcome difference between two-way video link and telephone consultation (P = 0.689). Over two years the number of acute stroke transfers decreased from 144 to 15 at one of the ‘spoke’ sites, a 92.5% decline.
It is possible to successfully treat patients with acute ischemic stroke at remote sites through videoconferencing or telephone consultation. Telestroke can also lead to a significant reduction in the number of patients requiring transfer to a tertiary care centre.
The manufacture of garments is the main industry in Bangladesh and employs 1·6 million female workers. Due to the indoor lifestyle and low dietary intake of calcium, we hypothesised that they are at risk of low vitamin D and bone mineral status. Two hundred female garment workers (aged 18–36 years) were randomly selected. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25OHD), serum intact parathyroid hormone (S-iPTH), serum calcium (S-Ca), serum phosphate (S-P) concentration and serum alkaline phosphatase activity (S-ALP) were measured from fasting samples. Bone indexes of hip and spine were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The mean S-25OHD (36·7 nmol/l) was low compared to that recommended for vitamin D sufficiency. About 16 % of the subjects were found to be vitamin D-deficient (S-25OHD < 25 nmol/l). We observed a high prevalence (88·5 %) of vitamin D insufficiency (S-25OHD < 50 nmol/l) as well as a significant inverse relationship between S-25OHD and S-iPTH (r − 0·25, P ≤ 0·001). A decrease in S-25OHD ( < 38 nmol/l) and an increase in S-iPTH (>21 ng/l) was associated with progressive reduction in bone mineral density at the femoral neck and lumbar spine. According to the WHO criteria, the mean T-score of the femoral neck and lumbar spine of the subjects were within osteopenic range. We observed that subjects with a bone mineral density T-score < − 2·5 had a trend of lower values of BMI, waist–hip circumference, mid-upper-arm circumference, S-25OHD and higher S-iPTH and S-ALP. The high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D and low bone mineral density among these subjects are indicative of higher risk for osteomalacia or osteoporosis and fracture.