To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Short-term peripheral venous catheter–related bloodstream infection (PVCR-BSI) rates have not been systematically studied in resource-limited countries, and data on their incidence by number of device days are not available.
Prospective, surveillance study on PVCR-BSI conducted from September 1, 2013, to May 31, 2019, in 727 intensive care units (ICUs), by members of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC), from 268 hospitals in 141 cities of 42 countries of Africa, the Americas, Eastern Mediterranean, Europe, South East Asia, and Western Pacific regions. For this research, we applied definition and criteria of the CDC NHSN, methodology of the INICC, and software named INICC Surveillance Online System.
We followed 149,609 ICU patients for 731,135 bed days and 743,508 short-term peripheral venous catheter (PVC) days. We identified 1,789 PVCR-BSIs for an overall rate of 2.41 per 1,000 PVC days. Mortality in patients with PVC but without PVCR-BSI was 6.67%, and mortality was 18% in patients with PVC and PVCR-BSI. The length of stay of patients with PVC but without PVCR-BSI was 4.83 days, and the length of stay was 9.85 days in patients with PVC and PVCR-BSI. Among these infections, the microorganism profile showed 58% gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli (16%), Klebsiella spp (11%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6%), Enterobacter spp (4%), and others (20%) including Serratia marcescens. Staphylococcus aureus were the predominant gram-positive bacteria (12%).
PVCR-BSI rates in INICC ICUs were much higher than rates published from industrialized countries. Infection prevention programs must be implemented to reduce the incidence of PVCR-BSIs in resource-limited countries.
The emergence of advanced radiotherapy techniques, such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), brachytherapy, conformal radiotherapy, magnetic resonance-guided radiotherapy (MRgRT), stereotactic synchrotron radiotherapy (SSRT) and microbeam radiotherapy (MRT), has increased the importance of the verification of volumetric dose distribution. The verification of dose distribution is usually done by 2D films and 3D gel dosimeters, but PRESAGE® due to its affordability, reproducibility, precision, accuracy, unique dosimetric and physical properties is considered as an effective candidate in providing 3D dose data. PRESAGE® is insensitive to oxygen contamination, machinable and can be molded to a variety of shapes and sizes. It is absorbing rather than scattering light which facilitates high-accuracy readout by optical computed tomography (OP-CT). This review focuses on the feasibility of using PRESAGE® in various complicated radiotherapy techniques by comparing its measured doses with 2D films and treatment planning system (TPS) calculated doses.
This study provides an overview of the extent, nature and quality of reporting on mental health compared with physical health in Qatari newspapers. We analysed 1274 news reports from daily newspapers in Qatar. The majority of the articles provided general information and were either positive or neutral in tone, reporting purely on physical health matters. A small proportion made associations with violence or reported on suicide or substance use. Our results highlight the underrepresentation of mental health in Qatari newspapers. A collaboration between media and health professionals is recommended to improve reporting on mental health.
Adolescence is an important period for cognitive maturation and emotional regulation and this age group is particularly vulnerable to developing depression. Diets rich in fruits and vegetables have been associated with decreased risk of developing depressive disorders across the lifespan, an association that may be due to the high flavonoid content of these foods. Previously we have shown increases in transient positive affect in both children and young adults two hours after administration of a wild blueberry intervention. Here, using a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we investigated the effects of four weeks, daily wild blueberry supplementation (containing ~253mg anthocyanins) on transient and chronic mood in adolescents. Healthy 12-17-year old (N = 64, 35 females) were recruited and randomly assigned to receive either a wild blueberry or matched placebo supplementation. Depression and anxiety symptoms were assessed before and after the intervention period using the Mood and Feeling Questionnaire and Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale. Transient affect was assessed before, two weeks, and at four weeks using Positive and Negative Affects. Following the intervention period there were significantly fewer self-reported depression symptoms in participants who were supplemented with the wild blueberry intervention compared to those who received the matched placebo (p=0.02, 95% CI -6.71 to -5.35). There was no between group effect on anxiety symptoms or on transient affect. Further investigation is required to identify specific mechanisms that link flavonoids consumption and mood. If replicated, the observed effects of wild blueberry supplementation may be a potential prevention strategy for adolescent depression and may have benefits for public mental health.
Balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty is the treatment of choice for patients with moderate to severe pulmonary valve stenosis.
An observational retrospective cross-sectional study including neonates, small infants, and children who underwent balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty in the period from 2007 to 2016 in the cardiac catheterisation unit of the paediatric cardiology department in Cairo University. Multivariable models were built to report the predictors of the outcome of balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty and its complications.
A total of 1200 patients were included in the study and divided according to age into 3 groups: neonates and early infants (n = 282), infants (n = 362), and children (n = 556). Procedural success, defined as a drop pressure gradient across the pulmonary valve to less than or equal to 50% of the baseline measurements, was achieved in 82.7% of the patients. Multivariate analysis revealed that only infundibular pulmonary stenosis (p value 0.032), supravalvular in association with valvular pulmonary stenosis (p value <0.001), and pulmonary valve diameter by angiogram (p value <0.001) were significant predictors of success. The presence of supravalvular in association with valvular pulmonary stenosis (p value <0.001) was associated with a lower weight (p value 0.007) and higher right ventricular pressure before the intervention (p value <0.001), and a minor immediate drop in the pressure gradient post-intervention (p value <0.001) was found to be the most significant predictor of the occurrence of complications.
The absence of infundibular and supravalvular stenosis and a large pulmonary valve diameter were the most significant predictors of success.
Electrochemical reduction of CO2 to formic acid is a good strategy to address both environmental and energy issues. However, some drawbacks including low activity, selectivity, and stability of electrocatalysts must be overcome. We propose a method for tailoring Bi2O2CO3-coated carbon fiber electrodes with higher selectivity and stability for electrochemical CO2 reduction to formic acid. We evaluated the effect of Bi2O2CO3 and Nafion contents on the electrocatalysts performance for CO2 reduction reaction (CO2RR). All electrodes produced only HCOO− in the liquid phase with a maximum faradaic efficiency (FE) of 69%. The electrocatalysts were stable under 24 h of continuous CO2RR operation. The FE increased with the increasing electrolyte concentration and cation radius size, which indicates that the anion stabilization in solution is critical for adequate formate generation. The CO2RR mechanism was proposed with basis on the literature. The structural carbonate of Bi2O2CO3 acts as an intermediate species in the formate production from CO2.
The aim of this work was to study the acceptability of plans prepared for prostate patients treated by volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) with the vision to evaluate the quality of plans and test pre-treatment quality assurance (QA).
VMAT plans of 35 patients, planned on the Eclipse Treatment Planning System (Aria 15), were included in the study. Plan acceptability was checked using statistical analysis, which includes homogeneity index, radical and median homogeneity index, coverage and uniformity index. Dose–volume histograms (DVH) of the plans were also studied to check prescribed dose (PD), Dmax, Dmin, D5 and D95. Portal dosimetry was also done by gamma analysis using 3%/3 mm criterion. SD and mean SD error were also calculated and analysed.
Statistical analysis showed a mean HI of 1·054, coverage 0·959, UI 1·055, mDHI 0·962 and rDHI 0·866. SD of HI, coverage, UI, mDHI and rDHI was 0·019, 0·019, 0·014, 0·013 and 0·030, respectively. From the DVHs, mean of D5, D95, Dmin and Dmax was calculated at 6,252·9, 5,757·4, 6,413·3 and 5,657·7 cGy, respectively, with a prescribed dose of 6,000 cGy. According to gamma analysis, area gamma < 1 was 99·12% with a tolerance limit of 95%, maximum gamma was 1·466 with a tolerance limit of 3·5, average gamma was 0·388 with a tolerance limit of 0·5, area gamma > 1·2 was 0·242% with a tolerance limit of 0·5%, maximum dose difference was 0·6 with a tolerance limit of 1·0 and average dose difference was 0·029 with a tolerance limit of 0·2.
All three computations showed the results to be within acceptable limits. VMAT possesses a unique feature of delivering the whole treatment with only two rotations of the gantry. VMAT has an improved efficiency of delivery for equivalent dosimetric quality.
Stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is a devastating fungal disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The best economical technique for disease control is breeding for genetic resistance to stripe rust. To find resistance genes in landrace PI388222 from Pakistan, a segregating population was developed by a cross between PI388222 and susceptible Australian spring wheat line Avocet ‘S’. The F2:4 seeds were harvested and seeds were planted in the greenhouse of Washington State University Pullman, to grow F4:5 recombinant inbred lines (RIL). A variable set of seedling reactions were noted when a set of 136 F5 and parental lines were screened with four Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici races (PSTv-37, PSTv-40, PSTv-4 and PSTv-51). The great proportion of RILs showed resistant reaction displayed by the RILs was against PSTv-40, for which 85% of the RILs showed resistant reaction, while less resistance to the race PSTv-37 was detected against which the resistance was for only 49% of the RILs. The RIL population was further evaluated at two locations; Palouse Conservation Field Station (PCFS) and Mount Vernon (MV). In MV field, 76% of RILs displayed resistant reaction while 15% of RILs exhibited moderate reaction. About 53% of RILs exhibited resistant reaction to four P. tritici races that were used in glasshouse screening and they were also resistant in field environments at PCFS and MV. This study demonstrates that landrace comprises partial resistance in the range of resistant to moderately resistant lines.
This chapter addresses key questions about the basis of cancer susceptibility in African people, as well as the uniqueness of the population genetics and genotype–phenotype relationship that resulted during social transition. Social transition encompasses the change of lifestyle from a rural subsistence one into an urban market-oriented, technology dependent, and predominantly sedentary mode of life, as well as changes that occur in the population genetics as a result of changes from ethnically defined structured populations into panmictic populations of an urban nature, as currently seen in megacities. Although humans passed through several periods of transition in history, the current one is the most profound.
Drought stress negatively affects the cotton production all over the world. The negative impact of drought varies for different species due to some morphological and root attributes that help some species to better stand under drought. But the extent of disturbance varies for different cotton species. To find out such variation, two cotton species (Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium arboreum) were studied under normal and drought conditions for 2 years. Two genotypes for each species were included, i.e. PC-1 and COMILLA (G. arboreum) and IUB-13 and IUB-65 (G. hirsutum). The experiment was laid out under a completely randomized design following factorial arrangement. Genotype × treatment × year interaction of cotton genotypes was studied for different root, morphological, physiological and fibre-related traits. Traits such as above ground dry biomass, above ground fresh biomass, chlorophyll contents, leaf area, seed cotton yield, sympodial branches/plant, fibre strength and ginning out-turn were higher in G. hirsutum genotypes as compared to G. arboreum genotypes. However less reduction under drought in all above mentioned traits was recorded for G. arboreum, than G. hirsutum. Furthermore, root traits; primary root length, lateral root numbers, root fresh weight and root dry weight were enriched under drought condition in G. arboreum genotypes than in G. hirsutum genotypes, which is a clear manifestation of higher drought tolerance ability in G. arboreum genotypes transferrable to G. hirsutum genotypes through interspecific crossing or other means.
The main objective of this study is to assure the quality of cervical cancer treatment plans using an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) in RapidArc techniques.
Materials and Methods:
Fifteen cases of cervical cancer patients undergoing RapidArc technique were selected to evaluate the quality assurance (QA) of their treatment. The computed tomography (CT) of each patient was obtained with 3-mm-slice thickness and transferred to the Eclipse treatment planning system. The prescribed dose (PD) of 50·4 Gy with 1·8 Gy per fraction to planning target volume (PTV) was used for each patient. The aim of treatment planning was to achieve 95% of PD to cover 97%, and dose to the PTV should not receive 105% of the PD. All RapidArc plans were created using the AAA algorithm and treated on Varian DHX using 6 MV photon beam, with two full arcs. Gamma analysis was used to evaluate the quality of the treatment plans with accepting criteria of 95% at 3%/3 mm.
In this study, maximum and average gamma values were 2·53 ± 0·409 and 0·195 ± 0·059 showing very small deviation and indicating the smaller difference between both predicted and portal doses. Gamma Area changes from > 0·8 to > 1·2. SD increased to 5·4% and mean standard error increased to 4·67%.
On the basis of these outcomes, we can summarise that the EPID is a useful tool for QA in standardising and evaluating RapidArc treatment plans of cervical cancer in routine clinical practice.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Scavenger receptor (SR) surface proteins are highly conserved motifs and are implicated in the uptake of nanotherapies. Gold nanoparticles functionalized with DNAzymes (DzNP) represent a promising novel nanotherapy for lung diseases such as asthma, particularly because they can be delivered directly to the lung. Our lab has been studying the therapeutic potential of a DzNP targeting GATA-3, a master transcription factor regulating Th2 inflammation. Although nanoparticle uptake through scavenger receptors has been described in macrophages in other models, the role of SRs in DzNP uptake in the lung is poorly understood. We hypothesize that scavenger receptors mediate DzNP uptake in alveolar macrophages. To begin examining this hypothesis, we examined whether DzNP exposure and uptake regulates gene expression of MARCO and MSR1, two class A scavenger receptors. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Using a silver stain, we measured dose dependent DzNP uptake in murine alveolar macrophages (MH-S). Using qRT-PCR, we measured gene expression of scavenger receptors MSR1 and MARCO in murine alveolar macrophages (MH-S) and after 24 hour exposure to 2251 DzNP, a DzNP targeting GATA-3, and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS), a known SR-A blocker. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: 2251 DzNP uptake in alveolar macrophages is dose dependent. MARCO gene expression levels significantly increase in murine alveolar macrophages when cultured with increasing concentrations of 2251 DzNP (10 pM-2 nM) or DSS 25-200 ug/ml) for 24 hours. However, MSR1 gene expression levels have minimal change when exposed to low concentrations of 2251 DzNP and DSS. At higher concentrations of 2251 DzNP and DSS, MSR1 expression levels are decreased. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Alveolar macrophages exhibit a dose dependent increase in MARCO gene expression levels with increasing concentrations of 2251 DzNP and DSS, but MSR1 gene expression is not affected in a similar fashion. 2251 DzNP-induced increases in MARCO gene expression suggests that 2251 DzNP may facilitate its own uptake through MARCO. 2251 DzNP exposure negatively regulates MSR1 expression at higher doses and suggests that 2251 DzNP may inhibit its own uptake thought MSR1.
For a long time, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) was the only technique allowing impurity concentrations below 1 at% to be precisely measured in a sample with a depth resolution of few nanometers. For example, SIMS is the classical technique used in microelectronics to study dopant distribution in semiconductors and became, after radiotracers were forsaken, the principal tool used for atomic transport characterization (diffusion coefficient measurements). Due to the lack of other equivalent techniques, sometimes SIMS could be used erroneously, especially when the analyzed solute atoms formed clusters, or for interfacial concentration measurements (segregation coefficient measurements) for example. Today, concentration profiles measured by atom probe tomography (APT) can be compared to SIMS profiles and allow the accuracy of SIMS measurements to be better evaluated. However, APT measurements can also carry artifacts and limitations that can be investigated by SIMS. After a summary of SIMS and APT measurement advantages and disadvantages, the complementarity of these two techniques is discussed, particularly in the case of experiments aiming to measure diffusion and segregation coefficients.