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I make a Quinean case that Quine’s ontological relativity marked a wrong turn in his philosophy, that his fundamental commitments point toward the classical view of ontology that was worked out in most detail in his Word and Object (1960). This removes the impetus toward (a version of) structuralism in his later philosophy.
Caring for people in distress or illness is emotionally draining and physically demanding. This article focuses on the experiences and needs of health service staff as professional carers. It overviews the current circumstances in the UK and links readers to the findings of: the Stevenson/Farmer Review of 2017; the report of the General Medical Council on the state of medical education and practice of 2018; and the British Medical Association survey of doctors and medical students published in 2019. We review the sources of stress that affects healthcare practitioners and introduce the concepts of emotional labour, psychological safety and psychosocial resilience. We draw attention to the vital importance of social support and leadership to protecting healthcare staff. We conclude this review of the topic by outlining a stepped model for actions that aim to: develop staff of healthcare services and help them to thrive at work; support staff who are struggling at work; and intervene to care for staff who are distressed or unwell whether they are continuing to work or not.
After reading this article you will be able to:
•recognise the impact that healthcare staff's work has on them and their patients, and how stress may originate
•describe contemporary conceptual approaches to understanding the psychosocial experiences of healthcare staff and the components of good psychosocial care to mitigate their needs
•understand how lessons from research and experience might be used to improve employers' evidence-informed capabilities for caring for their staff.
John Locke held the post of censor in 1664. In 1695 he played a noteworthy part in ending pre-publication censorship in England. On the face of it, Locke's two censorship moments should connect, with implications for our understanding of the ‘philosopher of freedom’. However, although separately each has received some attention, together they appear to have had none. Locke's role as censor moralis philosophiae at his Oxford college seems incidental to his later works and perhaps to his 1664 writings on the law of nature; his later contribution to parliament's abandonment of the 1662 Printing Act, so consequential for press freedom, disappoints inquirers who find Locke's anti-censorship case mired in mundane book trade issues. There is a more obvious reason for neglect of a connection, however, which is less the three decades separating the events than the linguistic and conceptual shifts over the next three centuries which separate our sense of ‘censorship’ from that of Locke's lifetime. In our time, it fell to Mark Goldie quietly to correct an influential misapprehension, that in 1695 Locke countenanced a replacement ‘Licensing Act’ retaining some measure of ‘preprinting censorship’. Goldie affirmed that ‘Locke's claim is that there should be no pre-publication censorship’. As he was aware, this usage of ‘censorship’ is ours, not Locke's, a useful shorthand standardly deployed in writing about past press control. In projecting the term on to the past, the question for scholars has tended to be whether ‘censorship’ connotes only pre-publication restraints, ‘for licensing is only part of the story’, as Goldie remarks. Historians debate whether England in 1695 saw ‘the end of censorship’, but in that time and place neither press licensing nor post-publication punishments were known as ‘censorship’.
In Locke's England, the terminology and concept remained closely bound to its classical antecedent: the ancient Roman office of censor charged with assessing citizens and overseeing morals and manners. Application of the words ‘censorship’ or ‘censor’ to the press was rare; application of the terminology to offices like that of Locke at Christ Church was unusual (it still is) but apt in context. In late 1663, it was Locke who was given the title ‘censor’ whereas Roger L'Estrange, to historians the censor of Restoration England, was made ‘Surveyour and Licencer’ of the press.
This paper presents a scoping review of the literature on child participatory research in Australia published in academic journals between 2000 and 2018. The review focused on research designed to engage with children and young people in the development, implementation and evaluation of services. A total of 207 papers were identified and distributed across eight service sectors: child protection and family law, community, disability, education, health, housing and homelessness, juvenile justice and mental health. The papers were reviewed against Shier’s participation matrix, demonstrating that almost all of the identified papers included children only as participants who contributed data to adult researchers. Only a small number of papers involved children and young people in the other phases of research, such as designing research questions, analysis and dissemination. There is a clear interest in the engagement of children and young people in service design and decision-making in Australia. This paper is intended to serve as a catalyst for discussion on where there are gaps and where further Australian research is needed.
We present a broad study of linear, clustered, noble gas puffs irradiated with the frequency doubled (527 nm) Titan laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Pure Ar, Kr, and Xe clustered gas puffs, as well as two mixed-gas puffs consisting of KrAr and XeKrAr gases, make up the targets. Characterization experiments to determine gas-puff density show that varying the experimental parameter gas-delay timing (the delay between gas puff initialization and laser-gas-puff interaction) provides a simple control over the gas-puff density. X-ray emission (>1.4 keV) is studied as a function of gas composition, density, and delay timing. Xe gas puffs produce the strongest peak radiation in the several keV spectral region. The emitted radiation was found to be anisotropic, with smaller X-ray flux observed in the direction perpendicular to both laser beam propagation and polarization directions. The degree of anisotropy is independent of gas target type but increases with photon energy. X-ray spectroscopic measurements estimate plasma parameters and highlight their difference with previous studies. Electron beams with energy in excess of 72 keV are present in the noble gas-puff plasmas and results indicate that Ar plays a key role in their production. A drastic increase in harder X-ray emissions (X-ray flash effect) and multi-MeV electron-beam generation from Xe gas-puff plasma occurred when the laser beam was focused on the front edge of the linear gas puff.
At the core of this book is the importance to people’s wellbeing and health of their social connectedness, attachments and attachment capacities, and their social identities. It is clear that people crave society and that they gain support, meaning and a sense of control from their shared social identities that sustain them, day to day. Furthermore, their social connectedness and identities provide them with templates for how they respond, cope and are supported when they meet challenges and adversity.
But, turning the tables, what is it like to care for other people? While doing so may give much satisfaction and meaning to carers, that role is not without its own challenges. The focal matter in this chapter is that of how to encourage professional practitioners to engage fully in working compassionately for the people in their care while taking steps to reduce the potential burdens of so doing.
The purpose of this chapter is to serve as a bridge between the chapters in the previous three sections and those in this fourth section. Thus far, we have sought to analyse the social bases of mental and physical wellbeing. Now, we turn to the question of how the fruits of these analyses can be applied in practice. That is, we have been reporting and interpreting the way the world impacts individual people for long enough; it is time to consider how we might change the world in order to improve our wellbeing.
This chapter draws together a selection of the key themes that recur in Section 3 of this book. One of the features of this section is that the authors focus on occurrences that are, statistically, uncommon. In terms of risk, these events are relatively moderate to low in probability but high in psychosocial impact. Thus, each of the serious events and types of incident covered in this section of the book pose threats to people, their families and communities, and to whole societies.
Perhaps, then, it might appear odd that the editors have selected these matters for inclusion in this book. Commentaries on them, which range from disasters through sectarian division and bloodshed to extremism, radicalisation and terrorism, are included in our quest for learning and inspiration in general terms as much as finding solutions to these and other circumstances that affect people.
Disasters and major incidents, while uncommon in each country, occur sufficiently frequently worldwide and have such societal impacts that they make headlines on most days. Perhaps, paradoxically, emergencies are so common as to be almost ordinary, if only in purely statistical terms, if it were not for the human impact, worry and suffering that is involved. This chapter shows how disasters are integral to and, thus, present a microcosm of our worlds. Our intention is to use them, in common with each of the topics in Section 3 of this book, to explore social influences on how people, communities and societies respond to and cope with the physical and psychosocial impacts of major events. This chapter links John Drury et al.’s exploration of the contribution of social psychology to crowd science in Chapter 15 with Drury and Alfadhli’s Chapter 17, on disasters. We intend that Chapters 15, 16 and 17 provide another window on the human condition, the importance of social relationships and the powerful influences of social identity.
This chapter pulls together key matters in this book. Its title is a quote from a line given to one of the characters in Hamlet by Shakespeare. That sentence perfectly outlines the intention of Section 5 of this book and the function of this final chapter in which I endeavour to align theory, research and the practical impacts of the topics covered by this book with the circumstances in which we find health services as we near the close of the second decade of the twenty-first century. But, first, I return to Chapter 1, to recapture some of those circumstances. Then, I look at the matters on which I think we should focus in order to sustain healthcare services and incorporate the social agenda identified in this book.
This book illustrates the burgeoning literature focusing on the ill effects of many forms of adversity, misfortune and disaster, whether deliberate and human-inspired or of, so-called, natural origins. There appear to be many possible ways in which humans can fare badly in response to endogenous and exogenous stress, inequity and inequality. But, by contrast with the risks and the all-too-real suffering of so many survivors, we are struck by the positive ways in which so many people appear to cope with the stress, strain and potentially deleterious impacts. Indeed, post-traumatic growth and mental health problems that are consequent on disasters do not appear to lie at the opposite extremes of a spectrum of outcome, but may co-occur.
We are moved to ask how so many people do well or reasonably well and in what ways that learning might be applied to preventing people from developing problems in the future.
This book’s roots are in an impactful seminar series hosted by the Royal College of Psychiatrists in which practitioners and scientists from a wide array of disciplines came together in 2014 to explore the social influences on our health and recovery from ill health. This volume echoes the evocative conversations in that College and is intended to rehearse research of potentially great impact. It presents practitioners, researchers, policymakers and students of a wide array of disciplines and roles with the material to support them in better harnessing what we now know about the impact of social factors on health. Thereby, the editors hope to influence how practitioners and the responsible authorities work together with members of the public and communities to design and deliver services. Our aspiration is to contribute to creating better-targeted approaches to promoting health and mental health and more effective and integrated interventions for people who have health problems or disorders.
While there is great optimism for healthcare to be gained from developments in neuroscience, genetics and epigenetics, the social contexts and social approaches revealed by research, including much that we cover in this book, are also very powerful contributors to our health and recovery from ill health. As Nestler et al. say, ‘Psychiatric disorders are complex multifactorial illnesses … While genetic factors are important in the etiology of most mental disorders, the relatively high rates of discordance among identical twins … clearly indicate the importance of additional mechanisms’ (Nestler et al., 2016, p. 447).
This book focuses on social and environmental mechanisms; this chapter draws together a selection of the topics raised in Sections 1 and 2. We link facets of the social science that have come up thus far with concepts that are implicit in public physical and mental healthcare, and we summarise the concept of mental health recovery.
We developed a fictional town, Smithtown, to support the exercises we undertook during the seminars that gave rise to this book. The town, and a small selection of its inhabitants, were presented to the seminars in 2014, in order to ground the ideas we discussed and focus our conversations about what approaches and actions might assist the population generally and, particularly, following a disastrous flood. We have included a summarised version of it in the book because we thought that readers might wish to think about the implications of the contents of this book for how responsible authorities might approach the challenge of planning for the population of Smithtown. Also, the nature of this fictional town and its recent narrative raises questions for theory, research and practice. Although the town and its inhabitants are entirely fictional, the problems faced by its inhabitants are not..
This chapter does two things. First, it shows how social identity principles can explain the basic psychological and behavioural effects of crowd membership. Second, it describes some recent research and applied work that shows how these basic effects operate to contribute to harmonious outcomes in potentially dangerous crowd events.
We begin by explaining some of the fundamental psychology of crowd membership in the next section.
Public health is defined by the UK’s Faculty of Public Health as ‘The science and art of promoting and protecting health and well being, preventing ill health and prolonging life through the organised efforts of society’.
This definition locates the causes of ill health and the remedies in the realms of personal and societal agency, and not only in the remit of health practitioners. Although the latter have a role as members of society to make prevention a reality for themselves, families and communities, they play a special part in preventing further ill health for people who suffer mental illness and are seeking help for it.
Other chapters in this book attend to the relational and social fabric that enables people to flourish; it is made of good and trusting relationships, and material conditions that permit thought about purpose and meaning beyond survival.