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Climate change causes changes in forests, their ecological functions and ecosystem services. Many of these changes will negatively impact people, plants, animals and micro-organisms that depend on forests. SDG 13 aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions that cause climate change and drive adaptation actions. Current commitments are insufficient to reach the Paris Agreement goals of restricting warming to less than 2oC and increasing resilience of vulnerable communities. Better forest and land management can contribute up to 20 per cent of the Paris goals, while increasing community and ecosystem resilience, and help bridge this gap. Strong synergies between SDG 13 and forests can drive investment in sustainable forest management, forest restoration and forest conservation. However, achieving these synergies is challenged by unsustainable forest exploitation and pressures to develop land for agriculture, urban areas and infrastructure. Maximising potential synergies between forests and SDG 13 requires long-term finance and local collaboration, but currently only 3 per cent of climate finance is dedicated to forest actions, and much less is used for local implementation. Improved forest management and conservation can be achieved through more efficient use of the finance, increased investment from public and private sectors and stronger commitment to local actions.
Identical and fraternal twin pairs reared together have been key to understanding the genetic and environmental etiology of dyslexia and of individual differences in reading. In this chapter, we begin with a brief overview of the methods of twin research, and the historical development and application of these methods to understanding the etiology of individual differences and deficits in reading and related skills. Then we examine results from predominantly English-language twin research on dyslexia. The next section on twin studies of individual differences in reading ability introduces a broader cross-language perspective that includes comparisons of findings from studies in the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, Norway, Sweden, the Netherlands, and China. Then we expand the reading phenotype beyond word recognition to reading comprehension, the ultimate goal of reading.
In the present study, we aimed to compare anthropometric indicators as predictors of mortality in a community-based setting.
We conducted a population-based longitudinal study nested in a cluster-randomized trial. We assessed weight, height and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) on children 12 months after the trial began and used the trial’s annual census and monitoring visits to assess mortality over 2 years.
Children aged 6–60 months during the study.
Of 1023 children included in the study at baseline, height-for-age Z-score, weight-for-age Z-score, weight-for-height Z-score and MUAC classified 777 (76·0 %), 630 (61·6 %), 131 (12·9 %) and eighty (7·8 %) children as moderately to severely malnourished, respectively. Over the 2-year study period, fifty-eight children (5·7 %) died. MUAC had the greatest AUC (0·68, 95 % CI 0·61, 0·75) and had the strongest association with mortality in this sample (hazard ratio = 2·21, 95 % CI 1·26, 3·89, P = 0·006).
MUAC appears to be a better predictor of mortality than other anthropometric indicators in this community-based, high-malnutrition setting in Niger.
Emotional distress during pregnancy is likely influenced by both maternal history of adversity and concurrent prenatal stressors, but prospective longitudinal studies are lacking. Guided by a life span model of pregnancy health and stress sensitization theories, this study investigated the influence of intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy on the association between childhood adversity and prenatal emotional distress. Participants included an urban, community-based sample of 200 pregnant women (aged 18–24) assessed annually from ages 8 to 17 for a range of adversity domains, including traumatic violence, harsh parenting, caregiver loss, and compromised parenting. Models tested both linear and nonlinear effects of adversity as well as their interactions with IPV on prenatal anxiety and depression symptoms, controlling for potential confounds such as poverty and childhood anxiety and depression. Results showed that the associations between childhood adversity and pregnancy emotional distress were moderated by prenatal IPV, supporting a life span conceptualization of pregnancy health. Patterns of interactions were nonlinear, consistent with theories conceptualizing stress sensitization through an “adaptive calibration” lens. Furthermore, results diverged based on adversity subdomain and type of prenatal IPV (physical vs. emotional abuse). Findings are discussed in the context of existing stress sensitization theories and highlight important avenues for future research and practice.
Childhood exposure to stress can induce prolonged negative effects on health, which in turn confer risks for the next generation, but greater specificity is needed to inform intervention. A first step is to measure individual differences in emotional reactivity to stress early in life in ways that can account for heterogeneity in child exposure. The present study tested the hypothesis that mothers’ childhood exposure to stress would be differentially associated with patterns of positive and negative emotional reactivity in their offspring, suggesting transmission of stress response across generations. Participants were 268 young mothers (age 14–23 years) followed longitudinally since childhood, and their infants aged 3–9 months. Latent class analysis of infant emotions expressed before and during the still-face paradigm yielded five subgroups that varied in valence, intensity, and reactivity. After accounting for sociodemographic factors, infant temperament, and postpartum depression, multinomial regression models showed that, relative to an emotionally regulated still-face response, infants showing low negative reactivity were more likely to have mothers exposed to childhood emotional abuse, and infants showing high and increasing negative reactivity were more likely to have mothers exposed to childhood emotional neglect. Mechanisms by which early maternal stress exposure influences emotional reactivity in offspring are discussed.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Our study seeks to answer the following questions: (1) To determine whether higher numbers of gravidity and parity are associated with a decreased risk of mild cognitive impairment or dementia; (2) To determine whether higher numbers of gravidity and parity are associated with a decreased risk of amyloid deposition by PET MRI. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Our study population includes all female study participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study who did not have a diagnosis of dementia before enrollment. Participants were also required to have been evaluated for cognitive impairment in the ARIC-NCS ancillary study, or to have received an MRI PET scan of their brain as part of the ARIC-PET ancillary study. Baseline information on the gravidity and parity of all the women was recorded at initial enrollment. We use statistical analyses and epidemiological measures to explore our study questions. For our first question, we use logistic regression to evaluate the association of gravidity and parity as two separate ordinal variables using adjudicated mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. For our second question, we use logistic regression to evaluate the association of gravidity and parity (again as ordinal variables) with amyloid positivity. We use STATA for our statistical analyses. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We hypothesize that increased gravidity and parity will have either no effect or a protective effect against MCI, dementia, and amyloid deposition. Our preliminary analyses show that older age of a woman at first pregnancy and at first live birth are both positively correlated with increased incidence of cognitive impairment. No relationship was found between these surrogates of lifetime estrogen exposure and cerebral amyloid deposition. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Multiple basic science and clinical research studies have shown that estrogen exposure has an effect on cognitive function, likely through a complex interplay of multiple physiologic systems. Our study expands the research in this area by using a large, established epidemiologic cohort to examine gravidity and parity as important factors in lifetime estrogen exposure as they relate to cognitive impairment and amyloid plaque deposition.
Introduction: Cognitive processing theories postulate that decision making depends on both fast and slow thinking. Experienced physicians (EPs) make diagnoses quickly and with less effort by using fast, intuitive thinking, whereas inexperienced medical students rely on slow, analytical thinking. This study used a cognitive task analysis to examine EPs cognitive processes and ability to provide knowledge translation to learners. Methods: A novel mind mapping approach was used to examine how EPs translate their clinical reasoning to learners, when evaluating a patient for a possible venous thromboembolism (VTE). Nine EPs were interviewed and shown two different videos of a medical student patient interview (randomized from six possible videos). Results: EPs were asked to demonstrate their clinical approach to the scenario using a mind map, assuming they were teaching a learner in the Emergency Department. EPs were later re-interviewed to examine response stability, and given the opportunity to make clarifying or substantive mind map modifications. Maps were broken into component pieces and analyzed using mixed-methods techniques. A mean of 15.7 component pieces were identified within each mind map (standard deviation (SD) 7.8). Maps were qualitatively coded, with a mean of 2.8 clarifying amendments (e.g. adding a time course caveat) (SD 1.5-5.75) and 4.4 substantive modifications (e.g. changing the flow of the map) (SD 2-5). Conclusion: Resulting mind maps displayed significant heterogeneity in teaching points and the degree to which EPs used slow thinking. EPs frequently made fast thinking jumps, although learners could prompt slow thinking by questioning unclear points. This is particularly important as learners engage in cognitive apprenticeship throughout their training. An improved understanding of EPs cognitive processes through mind mapping will allow learners to improve their own clinical reasoning (Merrit et al., 2017). Educating EPs on these processes will allow modification of their teaching styles to better suit learners.
Research consistently demonstrates that common polymorphic variation in monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) moderates the influence of childhood maltreatment on later antisocial behavior, with growing evidence that the “risk” allele (high vs. low activity) differs for females. However, little is known about how this Gene × Environment interaction functions to increase risk, or if this risk pathway is specific to antisocial behavior. Using a prospectively assessed, longitudinal sample of females (n = 2,004), we examined whether changes in emotional reactivity (ER) during adolescence mediated associations between this Gene × Environment and antisocial personality disorder in early adulthood. In addition, we assessed whether this putative risk pathway also conferred risk for borderline personality disorder, a related disorder characterized by high ER. While direct associations between early maltreatment and later personality pathology did not vary by genotype, there was a significant difference in the indirect path via ER during adolescence. Consistent with hypotheses, females with high-activity MAOA genotype who experienced early maltreatment had greater increases in ER during adolescence, and higher levels of ER predicted both antisocial personality disorder and borderline personality disorder symptom severity. Taken together, findings suggest that the interaction between MAOA and early maltreatment places women at risk for a broader range of personality pathology via effects on ER.
Palmer amaranth, a dioecious summer annual weed species, is the most troublesome weed in agronomic crop production systems in the United States. Palmer amaranth resistant to photosystem (PS) II- and 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) inhibitors is of particular concern in south central Nebraska. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of PRE followed by POST herbicide programs on PS II- and HPPD-inhibitor-resistant Palmer amaranth control, crop yield, and net economic return in conventional corn. A field study was conducted in 2014, 2015, and 2016 in a grower’s field infested with PS II- and HPPD-inhibitor-resistant Palmer amaranth near Shickley in Fillmore County, Nebraska. A contrast analysis suggested that mesotrione+S-metolachlor+atrazine applied PRE provided 83% Palmer amaranth control at 21 d after application compared to 78 and 72% control with pyroxasulfone+fluthiacet-ethyl+atrazine and saflufenacil+dimethenamid-P, respectively. Most of the PRE followed by POST herbicide programs provided ≥85% Palmer amaranth control. Based on contrast analysis, POST application of dicamba+diflufenzopyr provided 93% Palmer amaranth control compared to 87, 79, and 42% control with dicamba, dicamba+halosulfuron, and acetochlor, respectively, at 28 d after POST. All PRE followed by POST herbicide programs, aside from mesotrione+S-metolachlor+atrazine followed by acetochlor (2,530 to 7,809 kg ha−1), provided 9,550 to 10,500 kg ha−1 corn yield compared with 2,713 to 6,110 kg ha−1 from nontreated control. Similarly, PRE followed by POST herbicide programs, except for mesotrione+S-metolachlor+atrazine followed by acetochlor ($191 and $897 ha−1), provided similar net return of $427 to $707 ha−1 and $1,127 to $1,727 ha−1 in 2014 and 2015-16, respectively. It is concluded that herbicide programs based on multiple sites of action are available for control of PS II- and HPPD-inhibitor-resistant Palmer amaranth in conventional corn.
We examined norovirus contamination on hands of ill patients during 12 norovirus outbreaks in 12 long-term care facilities (LTCFs). The higher frequency and norovirus titers on hands of residents compared to hands of heathcare workers highlights the importance of adhering to appropriate hand hygiene practices during norovirus outbreaks in LTCFs.
Cattle manure value chains play important biological and economic roles in smallholder crop–livestock systems in developing countries, but relative to other livestock products our understanding of the nature and impact of manure sales is limited. In regions with an active manure trade, farmers face a choice between manure use on-farm and sales, which affects nutrient flows and participant incomes. We analyzed the manure value chain operating in south-central Vietnam as an example of the function and role of manure trade in crop–livestock systems. Lowland cattle farmers sell manure through a network of chain participants, including small-scale collectors, lowland and highland traders, to pepper, coffee, dragon fruit and rubber farms in the central highlands and southeast coast. We collected and summarized quantitative data (e.g., manure-related labor, manure transactions, and fertilizer and manure use) gathered in semi-structured interviews with value-chain participants [lowland cattle owners (n = 101), traders (n = 27) and end users (n = 72)]. Lowland cattle owners were selected by stratified random sampling, and subsequent participants were identified in preceding interviews. One key finding concerns the seasonality of the manure value chain: most manure flowed between February and August (lowland dry season and period of peak highland demand) from lowland communes to highland coffee and pepper farms for use as organic soil amendments. Fewer sales occurred, at a lower price, to southeast coastal dragon fruit farms and rubber companies. Value addition to manure occurred via drying, bagging, collection, transport and composting. The presence of local traders facilitated market sales for smallholder cattle owners, and prices through the value chain generally reflected costs for value addition. The geographic distribution of cattle relative to agricultural land influenced the flow of manure, with net outflows from regions with higher animal density to regions with lower density and higher value crop production. Manure trade was an important source of supplementary income for farmers and a primary livelihood activity for traders. Value chain participant net incomes ranged from near US$100 yr−1 for lowland farmers to over US$13,000 yr−1 for traders, and returns to labor were just over US$0.50 h−1 for lowland farmers and US$2 h−1 for traders. The quantitative information generated during our descriptive assessment provides an important first step toward manure value chain improvement, indicates survey methods that can be applied in other areas, and identifies next steps necessary to evaluate chain evolution and resilience.
Field and greenhouse experiments were conducted in Nebraska to (1) confirm the 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD)-inhibiting resistant-waterhemp biotype (HPPD-RW) by quantifying the resistance levels in dose-response studies, and (2) to evaluate efficacy of PRE-only, POST-only, and PRE followed by POST herbicide programs for control of HPPD-RW in corn. Greenhouse dose-response studies confirmed that the suspected waterhemp biotype in Nebraska has evolved resistance to HPPD-inhibiting herbicides with a 2- to 18-fold resistance depending upon the type of HPPD-inhibiting herbicide being sprayed. Under field conditions, at 56 d after treatment, ≥90% control of the HPPD-RW was achieved with PRE-applied mesotrione/atrazine/S-metolachlor+acetochlor, pyroxasulfone (180 and 270 g ai ha−1), pyroxasulfone/fluthiacet-methyl/atrazine, and pyroxasulfone+saflufenacil+atrazine. Among POST-only herbicide programs, glyphosate, a premix of mesotrione/atrazine tank-mixed with diflufenzopyr/dicamba, or metribuzin, or glufosinate provided ≥92% HPPD-RW control. Herbicide combinations of different effective sites of action in mixtures provided ≥86% HPPD-RW control in PRE followed by POST herbicide programs. It is concluded that the suspected waterhemp biotype is resistant to HPPD-inhibiting herbicides and alternative herbicide programs are available for effective control in corn. The occurrence of HPPD-RW in Nebraska is significant because it limits the effectiveness of HPPD-inhibiting herbicides.