To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
We conducted a preintervention–postintervention study to assess the effectiveness of a multimodal approach to reduce unnecessary urethral catheters in 5 Japanese intensive care units. After the intervention urethral catheter point prevalence decreased by 18%, from 79% preintervention to 61% postintervention, and catheter appropriateness increased by 28%, from 57% preintervention to 85% postintervention.
κ-Al2O3-type GaFeO3 is a promising multiferroic material due to the coexistence of a large spontaneous magnetization and polarization near room temperature. In the current study, we present the magnetic properties of single crystalline GaFeO3 and compare it with that of ε-Fe2O3. Magnetic measurements revealed that spontaneous magnetization appears below 540 K in two steps, similar to that reported for ε−Fe2O3. Partial magnetic ordering takes place at 540 K (TN1), with Fe3+ ions in two distorted octahedral sites ordering antiparallel to one another. Upon further cooling at 200 K (TN2), the remaining Fe3+ ions in regular octahedra and tetrahedra order antiparallel to one another. Substitution of Ga for Fe in ε-Fe2O3 leads to a decrease in TN1 and TN2 from 850 to 540 K and from 480 to 200 K, respectively, caused by a dilution of magnetic Fe by nonmagnetic Ga and preferential site occupation of Ga.
Single-phase multiferroic materials have attracted considerable attention among scientists, due to the strong drive in industry towards device miniaturization, addition of new functionalities, etc. Currently, most of the discovered materials have at-least one ferroic order active only at low temperatures, thereby hindering their induction into practical devices. κ-Al2O3-type AlxFe2-xO3 (x-AFO) oxides belong to a new class of metastable multiferroic compounds (space group: Pna21), with relatively high Curie temperatures. The current work investigates the effect of thin film deposition conditions on the ferroelectric and ferrimagnetic properties of Al0.5Fe1.5O3 (0.5-AFO). Substrate temperature and oxygen partial pressure during deposition were found to be the critical parameters in obtaining high quality films. Optimizing the deposition conditions of 0.5-AFO enabled observation of both ferroelectricity and ferrimagnetism at room temperature.
The aim of this paper is two-fold: to offer an interpretation that preserves the natural reading of Physics II 1 – that Aristotle is drawing a stark distinction between what is natural and what is artificial; and to show how there is logical room for a tertium quid – a category for things that are products of both nature and art. This aim is attained by highlighting two important qualifications Aristotle makes about the products of art in relation to an innate internal principle of change and pointing out that the proper understanding of the significance of the essential-accidental distinction that Aristotle draws must be viewed in the context where he identifies two kinds of nature – form and matter. Based on these analyses, the following three logical categories are shown to be consistent with the passage: 1) purely natural things; 2) essentially artificial objects; and 3) essentially natural things with artificial aspects.
We have recently reported that soluble dietary fibre, glucomannan, increased colonic alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the gene expression without affecting the small-intestinal activity and that colonic ALP was correlated with gut mucins (index of intestinal barrier function). We speculated that dietary fermentable carbohydrates including oligosaccharides commonly elevate colonic ALP and gene expression as well as increase mucin secretion and microbial fermentation. To test this hypothesis, male Sprague–Dawley rats were fed a diet containing 30 % lard with or without 4 % fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), raffinose (RAF) and lactulose (LAC), which are non-digestible oligosaccharides or isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMOS; some digestible oligosaccharides) for 2 weeks. Colon ALP activity, the gene expression and gut luminal variables including mucins, organic acids and microbiota were measured. Colonic ALP was significantly elevated in the FOS, RAF and LAC groups, and a similar trend was observed in the GOS group. Colonic expression of intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP-I), an ALP gene, was significantly elevated in the FOS, GOS and RAF groups and tended to be increased in the LAC group. Dietary FOS, GOS, RAF and LAC significantly elevated faecal mucins, caecal n-butyrate and faecal ratio of Bifidobacterium spp. Dietary IMOS had no effect on colonic ALP, mucins, organic acids and microbiota. Colon ALP was correlated with mucins, caecal n-butyrate and faecal Bifidobacterium spp. This study demonstrated that non-digestible and fermentable oligosaccharides commonly elevate colonic ALP activity and the expression of IAP-I, with increasing mucins and microbial fermentation, which might be important for protection of gut epithelial homoeostasis.
Background: We evaluate long-term post-operative hippocampal volume (HV) on non-epileptic hippocampus using MR volumetry as well as the neuropsychological outcome in patients with surgery for unilateral mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) and achieved seizure-freedom. Methods: We studied 1.5-Tesla MRI before and after epilepsy surgery in 24 patients with MTLE. Serial MRI studies were scheduled at 4 post-operative consecutive periods; 6m-1y; 1-2y; 2-3y; 3-5y. We compared neuropsychological outcomes for memory and estimated IQ at the same periods with serial MRI up to 3 years. Results: The pre-operative non-epileptic HV was significantly smaller than HV in age-matched controls (n=14) (p<0.05). The HV became progressively atrophic after the surgery (p<0.05), correlating with the age at surgery (p<0.05) and pre-operative larger non-epileptic HV (p<0.05), but not with seizure duration. In 14 patients with non-dominant MTLE, the smaller dominant HV at 2-3y period correlated with decline of verbal memory (p<0.05). Conclusions: Post-operative progression of non-epileptic hippocampal atrophy was found with significantly more pronounce in patients with older age at surgery and larger pre-operative non-epileptic hippocampus. After the epileptogenic hippocampus is resected, the remaining hippocampus alone might exhaust to maintain the memory, especially in elders.
To investigate the effects of adding Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) to TiO2 films on the crystallization, phase transformation, and photocatalysis, films of both TiO2 and TiO2 embedded with AuNPs (Au–TiO2) with various characteristics were prepared by using the dip-coating method with preheating and post-heating treatments. The AuNPs acted as anatase nucleation agents and crystallized a lot of small anatase crystals with sizes of tens of nanometers, which suppressed the growth of anatase crystals that are large enough for them to transform into rutile crystals, resulting in repression of the transformation from anatase into rutile. The AuNPs affected the progress of the photocatalytic and adsorption reactions, resulting in improved photocatalytic activity. Of all the films we tested, the Au–TiO2 film preheated at 400 °C and post-heated at 400 °C (AT400-400), which consisted of small anatase crystals with high covalent character and high crystallinity, contained dispersed AuNPs with the smallest average crystallite size and showed the highest photocatalytic activity. This high activity resulted from the high reaction rate constants for adsorption and photocatalysis.
Is Aristotle committed, as a theoretical matter, to fixed species in biology? The answer seems to be a resounding no, if we were to infer his theoretical commitments from the actual practice found in his biological works. The answer, however, is far from clear, if we turn to the ‘philosophical discussion of biology’ found in Book 1 of Parts of Animals. In fact, I shall note that its context suggests that, contrary to some recent interpretations put forward, the phrase τὰ ἔσχατα εἴδη at 644a23 is best translated and understood as ‘infima species’, and that such a reading implies that Aristotle favours the methodology that reflects his theoretical commitment to fixed species (at least in Book 1 of Part. an.).
A Ga0.8Fe1.2O3 epitaxial thin film was fabricated on a SrTiO3(111) substrate using pulsed laser deposition. The film is c-axis-oriented and has multiple in-plane domains. In-plane magnetization measurements show that it exhibits ferrimagnetic behavior with a Curie temperature (TC) of 290 K. The insulating film exhibits hopping conduction with a resistivity (ρ) of 4 × 105 Ωcm at 300 K. The ρ value is four orders lower than that of a BiFeO3 film, probably owing to the formation of multiple in-plane domains in the Ga0.8Fe1.2O3 film. Positive magnetoresistance with a maximum value of 3.5% near TC was observed, suggesting that antiferromagnetic interaction between Fe3+ ions decreases carrier transfer between the ions.
We have produced plasma activated water (PAW) using air, O2, N2, He and Ar atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge plasma irradiation to deionized water. Then, PAW was kept for 1 hour or 1 day at room temperature to reduce concentrations of short lifetime reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species before supplying to plants. O2, air and N2 PAW induces growth enhancement of plants. For 1 hour PAW supply the longest seedling length after 3 days cultivation is 1.62, 1.38, 1.13, 1.12, and 1.04 times long for air, O2, He, N2, and Ar plasmas compared with the length for thecontrol, whereas for 1 day PAW supply it is 1.52, 1.28, 1.13, 1.10, and 1.08 times long for air, O2, He, N2 and Ar. Therefore, long lifetime reactive oxygen nitrogen species in PAW is effective for the growth enhancement.
To examine the effects of lunches with different dietary energy densities on food preferences between genders.
Randomized crossover study. Participants were administered the following packed test meals once weekly on a specified day during six sessions: control (150 g of rice with a sautéed beef entrée containing 40 g of raw beef and 240 g of vegetables), high-meat/low-rice, low-vegetable, medium-fat/low-vegetable, high-fat and high-fat/low-vegetable meals. Subjective levels of sensory properties were assessed over time using visual analogue scales.
University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima, Japan.
Sixty-five men and sixty-five women matched by age and BMI.
Men showed significantly stronger desires for salty and fatty foods after meals (P<0·05). Women showed a significantly stronger desire for sweetness from 2 h after the low-vegetable meal, and increasing fat content under high-vegetable conditions caused a significant stimulated sweetness desire in women more than in men (P<0·05). Moreover, after a high-meat/low-rice meal with 100 g of rice, sweetness desire was stronger in women (P=0·024), whereas no significant differences in sweetness desire were shown between genders after another low-energy-density control meal with 150 g of rice.
Men had significantly stronger desires for salty and fatty foods, whereas women preferred sweet food after meals. The sweetness desire in women was stimulated by increasing fat content, even with a high vegetable intake. Low rice intake in a low-energy-density diet also caused a relative stimulation of sweetness desire in women.
We report three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging findings in a patient with relapsing polychondritis.
A 76-year-old woman initially presented with bilateral auricular swelling together with dyspnoea. Three months later, she experienced left hearing loss and recurrent vertigo. A biopsy of the auricle was performed and relapsing polychondritis was diagnosed. The patient underwent three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging 4 hours after intravenous injection of a standard dose of gadolinium. Gadolinium enhancement was visible throughout the vestibule and the endolymphatic space could not be visualised, suggesting breakdown of the blood–labyrinth barrier.
This is the first radiological report to demonstrate breakdown of the blood–labyrinth barrier in a case of relapsing polychondritis with inner ear impairment.
We have fabricated high-efficiency a-Si/µc-Si tandem solar cells and modules with a very high µc-Si deposition rate using Localized Plasma Confinement CVD to give very high-rate deposition (>2.0 nm/s) of device-grade µc-Si layers. For further progress in productive plasma-CVD techniques, we have studied plasma phenomena by combining newly developed plasma simulation and plasma diagnosis techniques that reveal the importance of non-emissive atomic hydrogen. We also have proposed a model of defective µc-Si formation on highly textured substrates in which the atomic H in plasma is assumed to play an important role. We are also developing a non-vacuum deposition technique that we term “Liquid Si Printing.” A new record conversion efficiency for HIT solar cells of 24.7% has been achieved using a very thin c-Si wafer (Thickness: 98 µm, Area: 102 cm2).
In this paper we deal with an M/G/1 vacation system with the sojourn time (wait plus service) limit and two typical vacation rules, i.e. multiple and single vacation rules. Using the level crossing approach, we derive recursive equations for the steady-state distributions of the virtual waiting times in M/G/1 vacation systems with a general vacation time and two vacation rules.
One of the most important goals of palliative care is achieving a good death. Most Japanese believe that “having some pleasure in daily life” is necessary at the end of life. The aim of this study was to identify, from the perspective of physicians and nurses, a care strategy that ensures that cancer patients have pleasure in daily life at the end of life.
We conducted semistructured interviews with experts in palliative care units. A total of 45 participants included 22 palliative care physicians and 23 nurses. Transcripts of the interviews were analyzed using a content analysis method.
Care for end-of-life cancer patients that ensures they have some pleasure in daily life was classified into five categories: “Pain assessment and pain easing” aimed to offer physical and psychological pain assessment and relief. “Maintenance of recuperative environment” aimed to offer care that arranged for assistive devices and equipment in the patient's room. “Support of daily life” aimed to offer care that eased accomplishment of daily activities. “Care that respects individuality” aimed to offer care that assessed sources of pleasure for the patient. “Events and complementary and alternative therapies” aimed to offer such care as aromatherapy and massage.
Significance of results:
The elements of care identified in this study are useful for all end-of-life cancer patients, even those who do not enter palliative care units. The next step of research is to test the efficacy of interventions that reflect the five identified categories of care for end-of life cancer patients.
In this paper we deal with an M/G/1 vacation system with the sojourn time (wait plus service) limit and two typical vacation rules, i.e. multiple and single vacation rules. Using the level crossing approach, explicit expressions for the steady-state distributions of the virtual waiting times are obtained in vacation systems with exponential and constant service times, a general vacation time, and two vacation rules.
Recently, we proposed the model consists of a quartet of neuron groups: (1) sleep-active preoptic/anterior hypothalamic neurons (N-R group); (2) wake-active hypothalamic and brain-stem neurons exhibiting the highest rate of discharge during wakefulness and the lowest rate of discharge during paradoxical or REM sleep (WA group); (3) brain-stem neurons exhibiting the highest rate of discharge during REM sleep (REM group); and (4) basal forebrain, hypothalamic, and brain-stem neurons exhibiting a higher rate of discharge during both wakefulness and REM sleep than during NREM sleep (W-R group). In this chapter, we explain our revised model of sleep–wakefulness regulation in the rat, which includes a neural regulator quartet of NREM sleep, REM sleep, wakefulness, and a coregulator of REM sleep and wakefulness, whose parameters are tuned up so that the model reproduces some of the recent findings concerning the WA neurons. The physiological reality of the model structure is demonstrated by comparing the model neuron activities with the actual neuronal activities across state transition. Among the conceptual and mathematical models, one of the novel features of our model is involvement of the cholinergic W-R neuron group, which is assumed to contribute toward induction of wakefulness as well as REM sleep by selectively mediating autocatalytic activation with the WA or REM neurons. Through activity of this neuron group, the wakefulness–sleep flip-flop and the REM–NREM flip-flop interact with each other in our model. In fact pharmacological or physiological manipulations of REM sleep were shown to affect not only NREM sleep but wakefulness. Our successful modeling suggests that REM sleep is regulated cooperatively/competitively with NREM sleep and wakefulness by well orchestrated interactions among the aforementioned quartet of neural groups distributed in the hypothalamus and the brain stem with the aid of sleep-promoting substances. Finally, further possible updates in the model structure are described considering recent physiological findings.
We examined 20 300 raw shell chicken eggs sold at retail stores in Japan for Salmonella outside and inside eggs. The eggs were purchased at 220 retail stores throughout Japan between August 2007 and January 2008. Of 2030 pooled egg samples (10 eggs/sample), Salmonella was isolated from five shell samples (0·25%), but not from any of egg-content samples. The serovars of the isolates were Salmonella Enteritidis (2), S. Derby, S. Livingstone and S. Cerro. The samples positive for Salmonella originated from five different egg grading and packaging (GP) centres. All the GP centres washed their egg shells according to government guidelines for hygienic practice in GP centres. Thus, practical control measures at GP centres need to be reviewed and implemented to diminish Salmonella prevalence of egg shells because Salmonella contamination on eggs is a potential hazard for foodborne salmonellosis in Japan.
Dispersion and deposition of terrestrial organic matter by flooding on the inner shelf were studied using C/N ratios, δ13C, and Δ14C values of sedimentary organic matter. Surface sediment samples (top 2 cm) were collected from coastal areas near the Saru River in southwestern Hokkaido, northern Japan, 1 yr after a flood event in 2006. Riverine suspended solids were also collected at a fixed station downstream during 2006–2008. Sandy sediments were located at the front of the river mouth and the western part of the sampling area, with the δ13C of organic matter ranging from −23.8‰ to −22.0‰, Δ14C of –655‰ to –388‰, and an organic carbon/total nitrogen (C/N) ratio of 5.9–7.7. On the other hand, silt and clay sediments were distributed in a restricted area 11–16 km from the river mouth, with lighter δ13C (–26.7‰ to −24.1‰) and higher Δ14C (–240‰ to –77‰) of organic matter and C/N ratio (7.8–13.3). From end-member analysis, the apparently younger and less degraded organic matter in the silt and clay sediments consists mainly of terrestrial organic matter released by flood events. They remain in the depression, although most flood deposits were moved to deep-sea environments.