To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
A cross-sectional study was conducted from 2014 to 2017 in 13 organised pig farms located in eight states of India (Northern, North-Eastern and Southern regions) to identify the risk factors, pathotype and antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli associated with pre- and post-weaning piglet diarrhoea. The data collected through questionnaire survey were used to identify the risk factors by univariable analysis, in which weaning status, season, altitude, ventilation in the shed, use of heater/cooler for temperature control in the sheds, feed type, water source, and use of disinfectant, were the potential risk factors. In logistic regression model, weaning and source of water were the significant risk factors. The piglet diarrhoea prevalence was almost similar across the regions. Of the 909 faecal samples collected (North – 310, North-East – 194 and South – 405) for isolation of E. coli, pathotyping and antibiotic screening, 531 E. coli were isolated in MacConkey agar added with cefotaxime, where 345 isolates were extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producers and were positive for blaCTX-M-1 (n = 147), bla TEM (n = 151), qnrA (n = 98), qnrB (n = 116), qnrS (n = 53), tetA (n = 46), tetB (n = 48) and sul1 (n = 54) genes. Multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index revealed that 14 (2.64%) isolates had MAR index of 1. On the virulence screening of E. coli, 174 isolates harboured alone or combination of Stx1, Stx2, eaeA, hlyA genes. The isolates from diarrhoeic and post-weaning samples harboured higher number of virulence genes than non-diarrhoeic and pre-weaning. Alleviating the risk factors might reduce the piglet diarrhoea cases. The presence of multidrug-resistant and ESBL-producing pathogenic E. coli in piglets appears a public health concern.
A cross-sectional study on six dairy farms was conducted to ascertain the occurrence of carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli in calves. Two-hundred and seventy-nine isolates of E. coli were recovered from 90 faecal samples from apparently healthy (45) and diarrhoeal (45) calves. The isolates were screened for phenotypic susceptibility to carbapenems and production of metallo β-lactamase, as well as five carbapenemase resistance genes by PCR, and overexpression of efflux pumps. Eighty-one isolates (29.03%) were resistant to at least one of three carbapenem antibiotics [meropenem (23.30%), imipenem (2.15%) and ertapenem (1.43%)], and one isolate was positive for the blaVIM gene which was located on an Incl1 plasmid of a novel sequence type (ST 297) by multilocus sequence typing. The majority (83.95%) of isolates had an active efflux pump. Calves housed on concrete floors were approximately seven times more likely to acquire meropenem-resistant isolates than those housed on earthen floors (95% CI 1.27–41.54). In India, carbapenem drugs are not used in food animal treatment, hence carbapenem-resistant strains in calves possibly originate from the natural environment or human contact and is of public health importance. To our knowledge, this is the first report of blaVIM carbapenemases gene in calves from India.
Vertically aligned nitrogen-doped nanocrystalline diamond nanorods are fabricated from nitrogen-doped nanocrystalline diamond films using reactive ion etching in oxygen plasma. These nanorods show enhanced thermionic electron emission (TEE) characteristics, viz., a high current density of 12.0 mA/cm2 and a work function value of 4.5 eV with an applied voltage of 3 V at 923 K. The enhanced TEE characteristics of these nanorods are ascribed to the induction of nanographitic phases at the grain boundaries and the field penetration effect through the local field enhancement from nanorods owing to a high aspect ratio and an excellent field enhancement factor.
Immunoactivation depends upon the antigen potential to modulate T-cell repertoires. The present study has enumerated the effect of 61 kDa recombinant Leishmania donovani co-factor-independent phosphoglycerate mutase (rLd-iPGAM) on mononuclear cells of healthy and treated visceral leishmaniasis subjects as well as on THP-1 cell line. rLd-iPGAM stimulation induced higher expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in the phagocytic cell, its receptor and CD69 on T-cell subsets. These cellular activations resulted in upregulation of host-protective cytokines IL-2, IL-12, IL-17, tumour necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ, and downregulation of IL-4, IL-10 and tumour growth factor-β. This immune polarization was also evidenced by upregulation of nuclear factor-κ light-chain enhancer of activated B cells p50 and regulated expression of suppressor of mother against decapentaplegic protein-4. rLd-iPGAM stimulation also promoted lymphocyte proliferation and boosted the leishmaniacidal activity of macrophages by upregulating reactive oxygen species. It also induced 1·8-fold higher release of nitric oxide (NO) by promoting the transcription of inducible nitric oxide synthase gene. Besides, in silico analysis suggested the presence of major histocompatibility complex class I and II restricted epitopes, which can proficiently trigger CD8+ and CD4+ cells, respectively. This study reports rLd-iPGAM as an effective immunoprophylactic agent, which can be used in future vaccine design.
The aim of the present communication is to draw attention to the value of simultaneous observations of sunspot umbrae and the quiet Sun in selected molecular lines. It is felt that such observations may lead to an array of sunspot models which account for sunspot sizes, magnetic field strengths, and the solar activity cycle.
The frail and homebound older adult populations currently experience difficulties accessing primary care in the medical office. Given this fundamental access to care problem, and the questionable care quality that arises when navigating a labyrinthine health-care system, these populations have typically been subject to inadequate primary care. To meet their needs better, growing research stresses the importance of providing comprehensive home-based primary care (HBPC), delivered by an inter-professional team of health-care providers. Family care-givers typically provide the majority of care within the home, yet their perceptions of HBPC remain under-researched. The purpose of this study was to explore unpaid care-givers' perceptions of and experiences with HBPC programmes in Toronto, Canada. We conducted qualitative inductive content analysis, using analytic procedures informed by grounded theory, to discover a number of themes regarding unpaid care-givers' understandings of HBPC. Findings suggest that, compared to the standard office-based care model, HBPC may better support unpaid care-givers, providing them assistance with system navigation and offering them the peace of mind that they are not alone, but have someone to call should the need arise. The implications of this research suggest that HBPC could be a model to help mitigate the discontinuities in care that patients with comorbid chronic conditions and their attendant unpaid care-givers experience when accessing fragmented health, home and social care systems.
Deformation characteristics of polycrystalline ice and their dependence on time, temperature, and stress have been analysed on the basis of a phenomenological relation which describes creep in terms of initial elastic, delayed elastic, and permanent strain. It is shown that the effective modulus of ice observed in the laboratory or in the field can be examined on the basis of this model. The model also provides a basis on which the observed flow law of ice can be examined conveniently. Some apparent inconsistencies in the results of earlier investigations of the mechanical property of ice appear of be reconciled by the model.
A method is described for preparing the surface of ice and for forming etch pits on the prismatic surfaces with whisker replicas that correspond to basal dislocations. The technique removes the ambiguity sometimes associated with etch pits and dislocations, and allows direct observation of dislocation glide, pile-up against barriers, and other features in deformed ice.
This paper describes the growth of sea ice and the salinity profiles observed in Eclipse Sound near Pond Inlet, Baffin Island, Canada, during the winter of 1977–78. A numerical method of calculation has been developed to incorporate the variations in snow conditions and physical properties of ice and snow during the growth season. It is shown that the growth rate can be predicted reasonably well. It is also shown that the vertical salinity profile in the ice towards the end of the season, provides a record of previous climatological conditions. A dependence has been shown between the predicted growth rate and the measured salinity.
A test program undertaken in April 1981 on the uniaxial compressive strength of freshly recovered first-year columnar-grained sea ice at a portable field laboratory floating on top of the ice cover in Eclipse Sound, Baffin Island, Canadian Arctic, is reported. Using a small battery-operated test machine, both vertical and horizontal samples were tested so that the load could be applied either parallel or perpendicular to the axis of the columns. Rate sensitivity of the observed strength is discussed in terms of measured average strain-rate and average stress-rate to upper yield or failure. Strain and time aspects of the test results are considered as well. Although vertical samples showed considerably greater strength than horizontal samples, no significant differences were detected in the failure strains. Examination of the interdependence of failure stress and failure time revealed certain anomalies in the results for vertical samples that could be linked to the performance characteristics of the test machine. As such problems could be common to any test system, methods of analysis are proposed for rational examination of the results.
As Canada’s population ages, frailty – with its increased risk of functional decline, deterioration in health status, and death – will become increasingly common. The physiology of frailty reflects its multisystem, multi-organ origins. About a quarter of Canadians over age 65 are frail, increasing to over half in those older than 85. Our health care system is organized around single-organ systems, impairing our ability to effectively treat people having multiple disorders and functional limitations. To address frailty, we must recognize when it occurs, increase awareness of its significance, develop holistic models of care, and generate better evidence for its treatment. Recognizing how frailty impacts lifespan will allow for integration of care goals into treatment options. Different settings in the Canadian health care system will require different strategies and tools to assess frailty. Given the magnitude of challenges frailty poses for the health care system as currently organized, policy changes will be essential.
A non-surgical approach for managing rhinosinusitis associated with chronic oroantral fistula resulting from tooth extraction was evaluated.
Twenty-six consecutive patients (15 males and 11 females) aged 28–72 years (mean, 49.81 years) were administered local decongestion therapy for 2 weeks and antibiotics for 10 days. Patients showing a reduction in Sino-Nasal Outcome Test 22 scores after two weeks continued to receive local decongestion therapy weekly for up to six weeks, while those not showing any improvement underwent surgical management.
At 2 weeks, 17 patients (65.38 per cent) showed an improvement in rhinosinusitis (33.39 per cent mean reduction in Sino-Nasal Outcome Test 22 scores). The primary determinant of response was fistula size. At 6 weeks, sinusitis resolved completely in all 17 patients, and the fistula closed in 16 of these. Final Sino-Nasal Outcome Test 22 and Lund–Mackay scores showed no significant difference between the surgically treated and non-surgically treated groups.
Local decongestion therapy along with antibiotics may promote resolution in this subset of rhinosinusitis patients.
In view of the already available reviews on the subject, the progress after 1972 is summarised. Newly identified species and molecular transitions are listed. How the studies of solar molecules can be helpful in understanding the solar atmosphere, in structuring better models and in deriving molecular parameters with some degree of confidence, is stated.
A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify effective approaches to preventing and addressing abuse and neglect of older adults within health care settings in Canada. The review was conducted using databases searched from January 2000–April-May 2013. Additionally, expert panel members submitted article citations from personal archives. Two research associates (NRA) screened each title and abstract for inclusion. After inter-rater reliability was determined between the NRAs (Kappa score of 0.76), the records were divided, appraised, and data extracted independently. The review resulted in 62 studies that focused on identifying, assessing, and responding to abuse and neglect of older adults; education, prevention, and health promotion strategies; and organizational and system-level supports to prevent and respond to abuse and neglect. Abuse and neglect of older adults remains under-explored in terms of evidence-based studies; consequently, further research in all of the areas described in the results is needed.
Nitrate and nitrite are probable human carcinogens when ingested under conditions that increase the formation of N-nitroso compounds. There have been limited efforts to develop US databases of dietary nitrate and nitrite for standard FFQ. Here we describe the development of a dietary nitrate and nitrite database and its calibration.
We analysed data from a calibration study of 1942 members of the NIH–AARP (NIH–AARP, National Institutes of Health–AARP) Diet and Health Study who reported all foods and beverages consumed on the preceding day in two non-consecutive 24 h dietary recalls (24HR) and completed an FFQ. Based on a literature review, we developed a database of nitrate and nitrite contents for foods reported on these 24HR and for food category line items on the FFQ. We calculated daily nitrate and nitrite intakes for both instruments, and used a measurement error model to compute correlation coefficients and attenuation factors for the FFQ-based intake estimates using 24HR-based values as reference data.
FFQ-based median nitrate intake was 68·9 and 74·1 mg/d, and nitrite intake was 1·3 and 1·0 mg/d, in men and women, respectively. These values were similar to 24HR-based intake estimates. Energy-adjusted correlation coefficients between FFQ- and 24HR-based values for men and women respectively were 0·59 and 0·57 for nitrate and 0·59 and 0·58 for nitrite; energy-adjusted attenuation factors were 0·59 and 0·57 for nitrate and 0·47 and 0·38 for nitrite.
The performance of the FFQ in assessing dietary nitrate and nitrite intakes is comparable to that for many other macro- and micronutrients.
Cassava germplasm collection is important for the preservation of genetic variability, allowing the development of improved cultivars with desirable traits such as drought and disease tolerance, better starch quality and yield. Therefore, the assessment of diversity in cassava germplasm maintained by farmers is important for maintaining biodiversity and crop improvement. Herein, we report genetic diversity relationships of 52 farmer-preferred cassava landraces from the eastern zone of Tanzania based on morphological descriptors and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Cluster analysis was performed for both morphological traits (genetic distance 1.18–0.15) and SNPs (genetic distance 0.078–0.002). The analysis revealed that there were a total of 17,393 variant positions, and that several of the SNPs were distributed across all the chromosomes. The abundance of SNP varied remarkably among the 18 cassava chromosomes, with chromosome 2 having the highest number of SNPs (1335) and chromosome 18 having the lowest number of SNPs (734). The power of SNPs in distinguishing morphologically similar landraces was shown. Both analyses did not group landraces according to geographical locations, suggesting that farmers were moving cassava germplasm to different areas. Their diversity was mainly due to adaptation and preferential selection by farmers. This further implied that within a geographical location, the cultivars were more diverse and there was no misnaming of cassava cultivars by farmers. The collection revealed a wide range of genetic diversity, and represented a valuable resource for trait improvement, allowing the capture of farmer-preferred traits in future cassava breeding programmes.
Head and face dimensions vary according to race and geographical zone. Hereditary factors also greatly affect the size and shape of the head. There are important medical applications of craniofacial data specific to different racial and ethnic groups.
Various cranial and facial anthropometric parameters were assessed in singleton, healthy, full-term newborns of Sikkimese origin in a tertiary care hospital in Sikkim, India. The data were then analysed to determine statistically significant differences between sexes.
Forty-five newborns were included in the study. Both male and female newborns were observed to be hyperbrachycephalic and hyperleptoprosopic. The only significant difference between the sexes was in commissural length, which was observed to be greater in male newborns.
Craniofacial parameters in Sikkimese newborns vary in comparison with those of other newborns from around the world. Larger studies are needed in order to reveal sex-related variations. Similar studies on various racial groups in North-East India are needed to establish standards for populations with East Asian features.
Background: Of the children with Down syndrome 40–50% have cardiac defects and the majority of these cardiac defects are amenable to biventricular repair. The outcome of single ventricle palliation is improving; nonetheless, there are limited data on Down syndrome patients with associated high-risk factors undergoing single ventricle palliation. Our aim was to study the outcomes of children with Down syndrome and high-risk factors on the single ventricle palliation pathway. Methods: A retrospective study on all patients with Down syndrome on the single ventricle palliation pathway from 2005 until 2011 was conducted. Operative, clinical, echocardiographic, haemodynamic data, and follow-up data were reviewed. Results: A total of 310 patients underwent at least one single ventricle surgical intervention. Of those, eight patients had Down syndrome, five of which had associated risk factors – low birth weight, high pulmonary vascular resistance, pulmonary vein stenosis, significant atrioventricular valve regurgitation, and extracardiac anomalies. Mortality in the high-risk group was 80% (4/5), compared with 33% (1/3) in the non-high-risk patients. Overall, after a median follow-up period of 138 days (8–576 days), only 37.5% (3/8) of patients were alive. Conclusion: Despite many improvements in the care of single ventricle patients, the fate of those with Down syndrome and associated high-risk factors remains poor. Further multicentre longer-term studies are needed to validate and quantify the cumulative effects of negative prognostic factors in this complex group of patients.
Soil quality integrates the effects of soil physical, chemical and biological attributes. Some of them are dynamic in nature and behave differentially in various agro-ecosystems (AESs) and are quantified in terms of a soil quality index (SQI). An attempt has been made in this paper to develop an SQI based on a minimum data set (MDS), which could be used to evaluate the sustainability of the crop production in three varying AESs in India, namely sub-humid, semi-arid and arid. Thirteen indicators were utilized to develop the SQI from the properties measured from the surface soil layer (0–15 cm). Each indicator of the MDS was transformed into a dimensionless score based on scoring functions (linear and non-linear) and integrated into four SQIs. The weighted non-linear index (WNLI) was identified as the most sensitive for all the AESs and was recommended as an index for future assessments. Based on this index, the quantification of soil quality under several cropping systems was carried out for sub-humid, semi-arid and arid AESs and the most suitable cropping system was identified. WLNI was positively and significantly correlated (R2 = 0.79, p < 0.01) with wheat equivalent yield for all the cropping systems. This clearly indicated that the index may be used satisfactorily for quantifying soil quality.