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While the burden of dementia is increasing in low- and middle-income countries, there is a low rate of diagnosis and paucity of research in these regions. A major challenge to study dementia is the limited availability of standardised diagnostic tools for use in populations with linguistic and educational diversity. The objectives of the study were to develop a standardised and comprehensive neurocognitive test battery to diagnose dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to varied etiologies, across different languages and educational levels in India, to facilitate research efforts in diverse settings.
A multidisciplinary expert group formed by Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) collaborated towards adapting and validating a neurocognitive test battery, that is, the ICMR Neurocognitive Tool Box (ICMR-NCTB) in five Indian languages (Hindi, Bengali, Telugu, Kannada, and Malayalam), for illiterates and literates, to standardise diagnosis of dementia and MCI in India.
Following a review of existing international and national efforts at standardising dementia diagnosis, the ICMR-NCTB was developed and adapted to the Indian setting of sociolinguistic diversity. The battery consisted of tests of cognition, behaviour, and functional activities. A uniform protocol for diagnosis of normal cognition, MCI, and dementia due to neurodegenerative diseases and stroke was followed in six centres. A systematic plan for validating the ICMR-NCTB and establishing cut-off values in a diverse multicentric cohort was developed.
A key outcome was the development of a comprehensive diagnostic tool for diagnosis of dementia and MCI due to varied etiologies, in the diverse socio-demographic setting of India.
To examine factors that influence decision-making, preferences, and plans related to advance care planning (ACP) and end-of-life care among persons with dementia and their caregivers, and examine how these may differ by race.
13 geographically dispersed Alzheimer’s Disease Centers across the United States.
431 racially diverse caregivers of persons with dementia.
Survey on “Care Planning for Individuals with Dementia.”
The respondents were knowledgeable about dementia and hospice care, indicated the person with dementia would want comfort care at the end stage of illness, and reported high levels of both legal ACP (e.g., living will; 87%) and informal ACP discussions (79%) for the person with dementia. However, notable racial differences were present. Relative to white persons with dementia, African American persons with dementia were reported to have a lower preference for comfort care (81% vs. 58%) and lower rates of completion of legal ACP (89% vs. 73%). Racial differences in ACP and care preferences were also reflected in geographic differences. Additionally, African American study partners had a lower level of knowledge about dementia and reported a greater influence of religious/spiritual beliefs on the desired types of medical treatments. Notably, all respondents indicated that more information about the stages of dementia and end-of-life health care options would be helpful.
Educational programs may be useful in reducing racial differences in attitudes towards ACP. These programs could focus on the clinical course of dementia and issues related to end-of-life care, including the importance of ACP.
Background: SMA is a neurodegenerative disease caused by biallelic deletion/mutation of the survival motor neuron (SMN1) gene. In the phase 1 trial (NCT02122952), SMN GRT onasemnogene abeparvovec (AVXS-101) improved outcomes of 15 symptomatic SMA1 patients (3 at a lower dose [cohort 1] and 12 at the proposed therapeutic dose [cohort 2]). This report describes long-term follow-up study design and data from the phase 1 study. Methods: Patients in the phase 1 study could rollover into a long-term follow-up study (NCT03421977). The primary objective is to collect long-term safety data (serious adverse events, hospitalizations, and adverse events of special interest). Annual follow-up will occur for 15 years. Additionally, patient record transfers from local clinician(s) will be requested. Safety assessments include medical history and record review, physical examination, clinical laboratory evaluation, and pulmonary assessments. Efficacy assessments include physical examination to assess developmental milestones. Results: As of September 27, 2018, the oldest patients are 59.2 (cohort 1) and 52.1 (cohort 2) months old and free of permanent ventilation. Preliminary data, including survival and developmental milestones, will be presented. Conclusions: Patients treated with a one-time dose of AVXS-101 continue to gain strength, develop, and achieve new milestones, demonstrating a long-term, durable response.
Background: Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a triad of impaired gait, cognition and urinary control in the setting of normal pressure ventriculomegaly. Various options for shunt implantation exist, but there is limited ability to predict outcome. Methods: This study is a retrospective chart review of 82 shunted patients for iNPH between 2007 and 2018. Factors examined included age, sex, lumbar puncture results, use of laparoscopic approach, type of shunt used, Charlson Comorbidity Index and imaging (callosal angle and DESH). Patient outcome was assessed via modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Results: 52 patients were male and 30 were female. Average age at surgery was 71.4 years. 58/62 (94%) improved following lumbar puncture. 41% of patients had VP shunt, and 59% of patients had LP shunt. 30/79 (38%) had laparoscopic placement of the distal catheter. 23/75 (31%) and 30/81 (36%) had a complication and required reoperation, respectively. Callosal angle showed statistically significant increase post-shunting (76 to 94 degrees, p<0.005). Presence of DESH did not change post-shunting. Average Charlson Comorbidity Index was 4.4. The mRS decreased from 3.84 to 2.66 post-operatively (p<0.005). Conclusions: In our centre, iNPH patients had clinicoradiologic improvement following shunting. We will perform regressional statistics to elucidate the factors influencing outcomes.
Shunt-related adverse events are frequent in infants after modified Blalock–Taussig despite use of acetylsalicylic acid prophylaxis. A higher incidence of acetylsalicylic acid-resistance and sub-therapeutic acetylsalicylic acid levels has been reported in infants. We evaluated whether using high-dose acetylsalicylic acid can decrease shunt-related adverse events in infants after modified Blalock–Taussig.
In this single-centre retrospective cohort study, we included infants ⩽1-year-old who underwent modified Blalock–Taussig placement and received acetylsalicylic acid in the ICU. We defined acetylsalicylic acid treatment groups as standard dose (⩽7 mg/kg/day) and high dose (⩾8 mg/kg/day) based on the initiating dose.
There were 34 infants in each group. Both groups were similar in age, gender, cardiac defect type, ICU length of stay, and time interval to second stage or definitive repair. Shunt interventions (18 versus 32%, p=0.16), shunt thrombosis (14 versus 17%, p=0.74), and mortality (9 versus 12%, p=0.65) were not significantly different between groups. On multiple logistic regression analysis, single-ventricle morphology (odds ratio 5.2, 95% confidence interval of 1.2–23, p=0.03) and post-operative red blood cells transfusion ⩾24 hours [odds ratio 15, confidence interval of (3–71), p<0.01] were associated with shunt-related adverse events. High-dose acetylsalicylic acid treatment [odds ratio 2.6, confidence interval of (0.7–10), p=0.16] was not associated with decrease in these events.
High-dose acetylsalicylic acid may not be sufficient in reducing shunt-related adverse events in infants after modified Blalock–Taussig. Post-operative red blood cells transfusion may be a modifiable risk factor for these events. A randomised trial is needed to determine appropriate acetylsalicylic acid dosing in infants with modified Blalock–Taussig.
We observed pediatric S. aureus hospitalizations decreased 36% from 26.3 to 16.8 infections per 1,000 admissions from 2009 to 2016, with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) decreasing by 52% and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus decreasing by 17%, among 39 pediatric hospitals. Similar decreases were observed for days of therapy of anti-MRSA antibiotics.
This paper discusses the concept and parameter design of a robust stair-climbing compliant modular robot, capable of tackling stairs with overhangs. Geometry modifications of the periphery of the wheels of our robot helped in tackling overhangs. Along with establishing a concept design, the robust design parameters are set to minimize performance variations. The Grey-based Taguchi method is applied to provide an optimal setting for the design parameters of the robot. The robot prototype is shown to have successfully scaled stairs of varying dimensions, with overhang, thus corroborating the analysis performed.
Section 1 of the FM14 focus on bridging the astronomy research and outreach communities - recent highlights, emerging collaborations, best practices and support structures. This paper also contains supplementary materials that point to contributed talks and poster presentations that can be found online.
Using time-resolved laser-scanning confocal microscopy and ultrafast optical pump/THz probe spectroscopy, we measure photoluminescence (PL) and THz-conductivity in perovskite micro-crystals and films. PL quenching and lifetime variations occur from local heterogeneity. Ultrafast THz-spectra measure sharp quantum transitions from excitonic Rydberg states, providing weakly bound excitons with a binding energy of ~13.5 meV at low temperatures. Ab-initio electronic structure calculations give a direct band gap of 1.64 eV, a dielectric constant of ~18, heavy electrons, and light holes, resulting in weakly bound excitons, consistent with the binding energies from the experiment. The complementary spectroscopy and simulations reveal fundamental insights into perovskite light-matter interactions.
Patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) have frequent exposure to Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) risk factors but the incidence and aetiology of CDI on this population is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence, disease presentation and outcomes of CDI in patients with underlying CLD. The Health Care and Utilization Project National Inpatient Sample (HCUP-NIS) 2009 dataset was used to identify patients with CLD who developed CDI along with matched non-CLD patients with CDI. Using the NIS dataset, the incidence rate of CDI was 189.4/10 000 discharges in CLD patients vs. 83.7/10 000 discharges in the non-CLD matched cohort (P < 0.001). Compared with non-CLD, comorbidity-matched controls with CDI, CLD patients with CDI had higher likelihood of in-hospital mortality (8.8% vs. 18.6%, P < 0.001), increased length of stay by 1.19 days (P < 0.001) and increased total costs by $8632 (P < 0.001). In separate analyses using a tertiary case database of hospitalised patients in Houston, Texas (2006–2016) with CLD and CDI (n = 41) compared with patients with CDI but not CLD (n = 111), CLD patients had significantly higher Charlson comorbidity index (P < 0.0001) but similar risk factors for CDI and CDI-related disease presentation compared with non-CLD patients. In conclusion, CDI-related risk factors were almost universally present in the CLD population. CDI resulted in worse outcomes in this population.
Introduction: Emergency department (ED) physicians strive to provide analgesia, amnesia and sedation for patients undergoing painful procedures through the use of procedural sedation (PS). While, PS is generally safe and effective in the ED, there is institutional variability and clinician disagreement with respect to the bedside equipment required for airway management and the monitoring of adverse events. The primary goal of this research project was to describe the variability of the bedside setup utilized by Canadian ED physicians preforming PS in conjunction with self-reported adverse events. Methods: An electronic survey was distributed through the Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians (CAEP). Practicing physician members of CAEP were invited to complete the survey. The 20 question survey encompassed various aspects of PS including physician choices regarding bedside setup of airway equipment, and prevalence of self-reported adverse events. The primary outcome was the quantification of variability among ED physicians with respect to the above listed aspects of PS. Data was presented with simple descriptive statistics. Results: 278 ED physicians responded to our survey (response rate 20.9%). Respondents were primarily academic (53.2%) or community hospital based (38.2%). With emergency medicine training as: CCFP-EM (55.2%), FRCPC (30.1%), and CCFP (9.0%). The ED area in which PS was carried out varied; bedside (30.5%), procedure room (37.1%), resuscitation area (31.2%). The basic equipment set utilized appears to be a bag valve mask, suction, and an oral airway. These 3 items were present 95.4%, 95.9%, and 86.3% of the time respectively. The preparation of other items such as capnography and difficult airway equipment is highly variable and appears to be physician specific rather than clinical situation specific. The most common physician self-reported adverse events associated with PS appear to be hypoxia (Spo2<90%), hypotension (sBP<90), and prolonged sedation which occurred in 10.7%, 8.3%, and 8.1% of PS performed. Conclusion: There appears to be significant practice variability with respect to the clinical setting as well as the equipment ED physicians prefer when administering PS. Given that causal relationships cannot be inferred between airway/monitoring equipment preferences and adverse events, future studies should be targeted at identifying optimal bedside set ups which minimize adverse events.
Introduction: Emergency department (ED) physicians strive to provide analgesia, amnesia and sedation for patients when performing painful procedures through the use of procedural sedation (PS). Examination of the literature suggests that the application of PS appears to be variable with institutional influences and clinician disagreement on pharmacology, airway management, and monitoring. The primary goal of this research project was to describe the variability of practice with respect to pharmacologic choices and clinical applications of PS among Canadian ED physicians. Methods: An electronic survey was distributed through the Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians (CAEP). Practicing physician members of CAEP were invited to complete the survey. The 20 question survey encompassed various aspects of PS including physician choices regarding PS indications and pharmacology. The primary outcome was the quantification of practice variability among ED physicians with respect to the above listed aspects of PS. The data was presented with simple descriptive statistics. Results: To date, 278 ED physicians responded to our survey (response rate 20.3%). Respondents were primarily academic hospital (53.2%) or community hospital based (38.2%). With emergency medicine training as: CCFP-EM (55.2%), FRCPC (30.1%), and CCFP (9.0%). There was relative agreement on the following interventions requiring PS: 98.4% applied PS for electrical cardioversion and 98.1% for brief (<10 mins) orthopedic manipulations. However, only 36.3% utilized PS for burn debridement in the ED. PS was utilized less frequently (78.1%) for prolonged (>10mins) orthopedic manipulations than brief manipulations. For all procedures aggregated, in hemodynamically stable patients with an American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) score of 1, ED physicians utilized propofol 76.3% of the time. Additional agents were utilized at the following rates: fentanyl-propofol (7.6%), ketamine (7.6%), and fentanyl (4%). This inclination towards propofol alone appears to be consistent across modality of ER training, type of ER setting (rural vs academic), and volume of PS performed. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that Canadian ED physicians have a clear preference for propofol as a first line pharmacologic agent when administering PS in hemodynamically stable, ASA1 patients. Conversely, there appears to be more variation amongst ED physicians with respect to second line pharmaceutical choices for PS.
Numerous advances in surgical techniques and understanding of single-ventricle physiology have resulted in improved survival. We sought to determine the influence of various demographic, perioperative, and patient-specific factors on the survival of single-ventricle patients following stage 1 palliation at our institution.
We conducted a retrospective study of all single-ventricle patients who had undergone staged palliation at our institution over an 8-year period. Data were collected from the Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery database and from patient charts. Information on age, weight at stage 1 palliation, prematurity, genetic abnormalities, non-cardiac anomalies, ventricular dominance, and type of palliation was collected. Information on mortality and unplanned reinterventions was also collected.
A total of 72 patients underwent stage 1 palliation over an 8-year period. There were 12 deaths before and one death after stage 2 palliation. There was no hospital mortality following Glenn or Fontan procedures. On univariate analysis, low weight at the time of stage 1 palliation and prematurity were found to be risk factors for mortality following stage 1 palliation. However, multivariable Cox regression analysis revealed weight at stage 1 palliation to be a strong predictor of mortality. The type of stage 1 palliation did not have any influence on the outcome. No difference in survival was noted following the Glenn procedure.
Low weight has a deleterious impact on survival following stage 1 palliation. This is mitigated by stage 2 palliation. The type of stage 1 palliation itself has no bearing on the outcome.
The mitral–aortic intervalvular fibrosa is an area of fibrous continuity between the mitral and aortic valves. We present the first case of a congenital pseudoaneurysm in this region, detected prenatally as an isolated cardiac defect, which was followed-up conservatively postnatally. The diagnosis was confirmed by echocardiogram demonstrating blood flow into the pouch during systole and into the left ventricular outflow tract during diastole. The infant has been followed-up with serial echocardiograms demonstrating stable size and appearance of the lesion, without signs of obstruction, making close continued observation a reasonable approach.
The liver is the ‘central laboratory’ of a chicken's body, responsible for sorting and transforming digested compounds as well as dealing with waste products. It is essential that this organ is kept in an excellent condition in order to maintain a healthy bird. Viral hepatitis in poultry is a complex disease syndrome caused by several viruses belonging to different families, including fowl adenoviruses (FAdV), avian hepatitis E virus (HEV), duck hepatitis virus (DHV), and turkey hepatitis virus (THV). Although, these viruses target the liver primarily, they each possess unique clinical and biological features. Hydropericardium syndrome (HPS) is a highly infectious disease caused by FAdV serotype 4 (FAdV-4) affecting poultry, especially broilers, and is characterised by the accumulation of fluid in the pericardial sac and hepatitis. Inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) was recognised firstly in the US, and the disease has now been reported in many countries. FAdV, the causative agent of inclusion body hepatitis, is a Group I avian adenovirus in the genus Aviadenovirus. The affected birds have a pale, swollen, friable, and haemorrhagic liver with pathognomonic histological lesions including intranuclear inclusion bodies in the nuclei of the hepatocytes. Avian HEV naturally infects chickens and is associated with hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome, although the majority of the infected birds are subclinical. THV is a picornavirus that is likely the causative agent of turkey viral hepatitis. Currently there are more questions than answers about THV, and pathogenesis and clinical impact remains largely unknown. Future research into viral hepatic diseases of poultry is warranted to develop effective vaccines, specific diagnostic assays, and identify suitable cell culture systems for virus propagation. This review covers the common and unique features of major hepatitis causing viruses, with emphasis on FAdV, HEV and THV in an effort to identify the knowledge gaps and aid prevention and control of poultry viral hepatitis.
To determine trends and impact on outcomes of atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients with pre-existing major depressive disorder(MDD).
While post-AF MDD has been extensively studied, contemporary studies including temporal trends on impact of pre-AF MDD on AF and post-AF outcomes are lacking.
We used Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) from Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) from 2002 to 2012. We identified AF and MDD as primary and secondary diagnosis respectively using validated International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, and Clinical Modification (ICD9CM) codes, and used Cochrane-Armitage trend test and multivariate regression to generate adjusted odds ratios (aOR).
We analyzed total of 3,887,827 AF hospital admissions from 2002 to 2012 of which 6.78% had MDD. Proportion of hospitalizations with MDD increased from 4.93% to 14.19% (P-trend < 0.001). Utilization of atrial cardioversion was lower in patients with MDD (34.37% vs. 40.52%, P < 0.001). In-hospital mortality was significantly lower in patients with MDD (aOR0.749; 95% CI 0.664–0.846; P < 0.001) but discharge to specialty care was higher (aOR 1.695; 95%CI 1.650–1.741; P < 0.001). In addition, median length of hospitalization (2.5 vs. 2.13 days; P < 0.001) and median cost of hospitalization (28,246 vs. 22,663; P < 0.001) was higher in hospitalizations with MDD.
Our study displayed an increasing proportion of patients with MDD admitted due to AF in the last decade with lower mortality but higher morbidity post-AF. In addition, there was significantly less utilization of atrial cardioversion in this population along with higher median length and cost of hospitalization. There is a need to explore the reasons behind this disparity in outcomes and atrial cardioversion utilization in order to improve post-AF outcomes in this vulnerable population.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
To determine temporal trends, invasive treatment utilization and impact on outcomes of pre-infarction drug abuse (DA) on acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in adults.
DA is important risk factor for AMI. However, temporal trends in drug abuse on AMI hospitalization outcomes in adults are lacking.
We used Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) from Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) from 2002 to 2012. We identified AMI and DA as primary and secondary diagnosis respectively using validated International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, and Clinical Modification (ICD9CM) codes, and used the CochraneArmitage trend test and multivariate regression to generate adjusted odds ratios (aOR).
We analyzed total of 7,174,274 AMI hospital admissions from 2002 to 2012 of which 1.67% had DA. Proportion of hospitalizations with DA increased from 5.63% to 12.08% (P trend < 0.001). Utilization of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) was lower in patients with DA (7.83% vs. 9.18%, P < 0.001). In-hospital mortality was significantly lower in patients with DA (aOR 0.811; 95% CI 0.693–0.735; P < 0.001) but discharge to specialty care was higher (aOR 1.076; 95% CI 1.025–1.128; P < 0.001). The median cost of hospitalization (40,834 vs. 37,253; P < 0.001) was higher in hospitalizations with DA.
We demonstrate an increasing proportion of adults admitted with AMI have DA over the decade. However, DA has paradoxical association with mortality in adults. DA is associated with lower CABG utilization and higher discharge to specialty care, with a higher mean cost of hospitalization. The reasons for the paradoxical association of DA with mortality and worse morbidity outcomes need to be explored in greater detail.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
To determine trends and impact on outcomes of atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients with pre-existing psychosis.
While post-AF psychosis has been extensively studied, contemporary studies including temporal trends on the impact of pre-AF psychosis on AF and post-AF outcomes are largely lacking.
We used Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) from the healthcare cost and utilization project (HCUP) from year's 2002–2012. We identified AF and psychosis as primary and secondary diagnosis respectively using validated international classification of diseases, 9th revision, and Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes, and used Cochrane–Armitage trend test and multivariate regression to generate adjusted odds ratios (aOR).
We analyzed total of 3.887.827AF hospital admissions from 2002–2012 of which 1.76% had psychosis. Proportion of hospitalizations with psychosis increased from 5.23% to 14.28% (P trend < 0.001). Utilization of atrial-cardioversion was lower in patients with psychosis (0.76%v vs. 5.79%, P < 0.001). In-hospital mortality was higher in patients with Psychosis (aOR 1.206; 95%CI 1.003–1.449; P < 0.001) and discharge to specialty care was significantly higher (aOR 4.173; 95%CI 3.934–4.427; P < 0.001). The median length of hospitalization (3.13 vs. 2.14 days; P < 0.001) and median cost of hospitalization (16.457 vs. 13.172; P < 0.001) was also higher in hospitalizations with psychosis.
Our study displayed an increasing proportion of patients with Psychosis admitted due to AF with higher mortality and extremely higher morbidity post-AF, and significantly less utilization of atrial-cardioversion. There is a need to explore reasons behind this disparity to improve post-AF outcomes in this vulnerable population.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
To determine trends and impact on outcomes of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in patients with pre-existing psychosis.
While post-AMI psychosis has been extensively studied, contemporary studies including temporal trends on impact of pre-AMI Psychosis on AMI and post-AMI outcomes are lacking.
We used Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) from Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project(HCUP) from 2002 to 2012. We identified AMI and psychosis as primary and secondary diagnosis respectively using validated International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, and Clinical Modification (ICD9CM) codes, and Cochrane-Armitage trend test and multivariate regression to generate adjusted odds ratios (aOR).
We analyzed total of 7,174,274 AMI hospital admissions from 2002 to 2012 of which 1.77% had psychosis. Proportion of hospitalizations with psychosis increased from 6.94% to 11.85% (P-trend < 0.001). Utilization of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) was lower in patients with psychosis (29.98% vs. 40.36%, P < 0.001). Utilization of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) was lower in patients with psychosis (8.01% vs. 9.18%, P < 0.001). In-hospital mortality was significantly lower in patients with psychosis (aOR 0.677; 95% CI 0.630–0.727; P < 0.001) but discharge to specialty care higher (aOR 1.870; 95%CI 1.786–1.958; P < 0.001). In addition, median length of hospitalization (3.77 vs. 2.90 days; P < 0.001) was higher in hospitalizations with psychosis.
Our study displayed increasing proportion of patients with psychosis admitted due to AMI in last decade with lower mortality but higher morbidity post-infarction, and significantly less utilization of PCI and CABG. There was also increased length of stay patients with MDD. There is need to explore reasons behind this disparity in outcomes and PCI and CABG utilization to improve post-AMI outcomes in this vulnerable population.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.