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Rubber seed oil (RO) that is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA) can improve milk production and milk FA profiles of dairy cows; however, the responses of digestion and ruminal fermentation to RO supplementation in vivo are still unknown. This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of RO and flaxseed oil (FO) supplementation on nutrients digestibility, rumen fermentation parameters and rumen FA profile of dairy cows. Forty-eight mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to one of four treatments for 8 weeks, including basal diet (CON) or the basal dietary supplemented with 4% RO, 4% FO or 2% RO plus 2% FO on a DM basis. Compared with CON, dietary oil supplementation improved the total tract apparent digestibility of DM, neutral detergent fibre and ether extracts ( P < 0.05). Oil treatment groups had no effects on ruminal digesta pH value, ammonia N and microbial crude protein ( P > 0.05), whereas oil groups significantly changed the volatile fatty acid (VFA) profile by increasing the proportion of propionate whilst decreasing total VFA concentration, the proportion of acetate and the ratio of acetate to propionate ( P < 0.05). However, there were no differences in VFA proportions between the three oil groups (P > 0.05). In addition, dietary oil supplementation increased the total unsaturated FA proportion in the rumen by enhancing the proportion of trans-11 C18:1 vaccenic acid (VA), cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA) ( P < 0.05). These results indicate that dietary supplementation with RO and FO could improve nutrients digestibility, ruminal fermentation and ruminal FA profile by enhancing the VA, cis-9, trans-11 CLA and ALA composition of lactating dairy cows. These findings provide a theoretical basis for the application of RO in livestock production.
There is growing interest in the manipulation of dietary ingredients a means of reducing nitrogen excretion (NE) and ammonia (NH3) losses from pig production. Significant quantities of lactose may reach the hindgut of the older pig undigested, yielding a substrate for bacteria (Kim et al., 1978). It is hypothesised that increasing concentrations of lactose in finishing pig diets will alter NE patterns and reduce NH3-N emission.
Long-term care facilities (LTCFs) and their residents are especially susceptible to disruptions associated with natural disasters and often have limited experience and resources for disaster planning and response. Previous reports have offered disaster planning and response recommendations. We could not find a comprehensive review of studied interventions or facility attributes that affect disaster outcomes in LTCFs and their residents. We reviewed articles published from 1974 through September 30, 2015, that studied disaster characteristics, facility characteristics, patient characteristics, or an intervention that affected outcomes for LTCFs experiencing or preparing for a disaster. Twenty-one articles were included in the review. All of the articles fell into 1 of the following categories: facility or disaster characteristics that predicted preparedness or response, interventions to improve preparedness, and health effects of disaster response, most often related to facility evacuation. All of the articles described observational studies that were heterogeneous in design and metrics. We believe that the evidence-based literature supports 6 specific recommendations for facilities, governmental agencies, health care communities and academia. These include integrated and coordinated disaster planning, staff training, careful consideration before governments order mandatory evacuations, anticipation of the increased medical needs of LTCF residents following a disaster, and the need for more outcomes research. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:140–149)
By action of the Executive Committee of IAU, the report for 1970 is restricted to half the length of the 1967 draft report; the bibliography and the abstracting of work already published are essentially eliminated. The report is no longer to serve primarily as a review of accomplishments between General Assemblies but rather as a report of work in progress. These changes were adopted by the Executive Committee in order to reduce the cost of publishing the reports.
Several commission members have voiced the opinion that the extensive bibliographies in past reports have been the most valuable contributions of the reports and they have objected to the elimination of the bibliography. Also, material from some observatories and from some national groups that have been submitted for inclusion in this draft report have contained only abstracts of work already published. The rules adopted by the Executive Committee do not permit the report to abstract published works except in evaluating general progress in solar astronomy. We express our regret to these commission members and to these institutions that we have not been able to include the abstracts and bibliography in the present report.
Cephalopods (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) play an important role as keystone invertebrates in various marine ecosystems, as well as being a valuable fisheries resource. At the World Malacological Congress, held 21–28 July 2013 in Ponta Delgada, Azores, Portugal, a number of cephalopod experts convened to honour the contribution of the late Malcolm R. Clarke, FRS (1930–2013) to cephalopod research. Endorsed by the Cephalopod International Advisory Council (CIAC), the meeting discussed some of the major challenges that cephalopod research will face in the future. These challenges were identified as follows: (1) to find new ways to ascertain the trophic role and food web links of cephalopods using hard tissues, stable isotopes and novel concepts in theoretical ecology; (2) to explore new approaches to the study of cephalopod morphology; (3) to further develop cephalopod aquaculture research; (4) to find new ways to ascertain cephalopod adaptation and response to environmental change; (5) to strengthen cephalopod genetics research; and (6) to develop new approaches for cephalopod fisheries and conservation. The present paper presents brief reviews on these topics, followed by a discussion of the general challenges that cephalopod research is bound to face in the near future. By contributing to initiatives both within CIAC and independent of CIAC, the principle aim of the paper is to stimulate future cephalopod research.
Nitrogen (N) losses from dairy production systems are a cause for environmental concern. Excreted primarily as urea N in the urine, this volatile form of N can be lost as ammonia (NH3) contributing to ground-level ozone, the greenhouse effect and the deterioration of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. In addition, the production of urea N places a metabolic demand for energy on the dairy cow and excessively high levels of blood urea N are known to have deleterious effects on reproductive performance. Therefore, it is of interest to develop strategies that reduce N excretion from dairy cows and to this end, dietary manipulation of N efficiency offers great potential. There are a significant number of reports in the literature on N efficiency in the lactating dairy cow, including reducing dietary CP intake, improving the balance of amino acids reaching the small intestine, optimising the forage mix and optimising the energy sources in the diet. Across these experiments, N intake ranged from 0.33 to 0.67 kg/day with N efficiency ranging from 0.21 to 0.42. This paper will report on recent N balance experiments conducted at University College Dublin, as well as reports in the literature on studies aimed at improving N efficiency in the lactating dairy cow.
The effective use of model-based formal methods in the development of complex embedded systems requires the integration of discrete-event models of controllers with continuous-time models of their environments. This paper proposes a new approach to the development of such combined models (co-models), in which an initial discrete-event model may include approximations of continuous-time behaviour that can subsequently be replaced by couplings to continuous-time models. An operational semantics of co-simulation allows the discrete and continuous models to run on their respective simulators and managed by a coordinating co-simulation engine. This permits the exploration of the composite co-model's behaviour in a range of operational scenarios. The approach has been realised using the Vienna Development Method (VDM) as the discrete-event formalism, and 20-sim as the continuous-time framework, and has been applied successfully to a case study based on the distributed controller for a personal transporter device.
The waters off north-west Scotland are known to provide important habitat for the harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) and the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata). Between October 2008 and April 2011, systematic land-based surveys were carried out to assess the seasonal occurrence, group size and group behaviours of both species in a study area located off Melvaig, near Gairloch. Data were collected on 47 separate days, with a total of 4543 minutes of survey effort (in sea states ≤3) recorded during the spring months and 8204 minutes of effort during the autumn. A total of 189 sightings of marine fauna were recorded, comprising 126 cetacean sightings, 50 seal sightings and 13 sightings of basking sharks (Cetorhinus maximus). Six species of cetacean were identified, with most sightings comprising harbour porpoise (N = 72) or minke whale (N = 38). Harbour porpoise abundance was higher in autumn than in spring and there was a variation between years in numbers of minke whales sighted. In porpoises, sea state and cloud cover both influenced sightings and increasing sea state influenced survey area. Foraging behaviour was exhibited in 13% of harbour porpoise sightings and 34% of minke whale sightings. Results demonstrate a regular occurrence of harbour porpoises and minke whales in nearshore waters off Gairloch. Densities are comparable to boat surveys in the region and so support the use of land-based watches as a potential longer-term monitoring method for these species in coastal waters. Given the regular use of this area by these two European Protected Species, as well as the occurrence of a range of human activities potentially affecting them in the region, it may be appropriate to consider protecting this area for their conservation.
β-Glucans have been identified as natural biomolecules with immunomodulatory activity. The first objective of the present study was to compare the effects of purified β-glucans derived from Laminariadigitata, L. hyperborea and Saccharomyces cerevisiae on piglet performance, selected bacterial populations and intestinal volatile fatty acid (VFA) production. The second aim was to compare the gene expression profiles of the markers of pro- and anti-inflammation in both unchallenged and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged ileal and colonic tissues. β-Glucans were included at 250 mg/kg in the diets. The β-glucans derived from L. hyperborea, L. digitata and S. cerevisiae all reduced the Enterobacteriaceae population (P < 0·05) without influencing the lactobacilli and bifidobacteria populations (P>0·05) in the ileum and colon. There was a significant interaction between gastrointestinal region and β-glucan source in the expression of cytokine markers, IL-1α (P < 0·001), IL-10 (P < 0·05), TNF-α (P < 0·05) and IL-17A (P < 0·001). β-Glucans did not stimulate any pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokine markers in the ileal epithelial cells. In contrast, the expression of a panel of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1α, IL-10, TNF-α and IL-17A) was down-regulated in the colon following exposure to β-glucans from all the three sources. However, the data suggest that the soluble β-glucans derived from L. digitata may be acting via a different mechanism from the insoluble β-glucans derived from L. hyperborea and S. cerevisiae, as the VFA profile was different in the L. digitata-treated animals. There was an increase in IL-8 gene expression (P < 0·05) in the gastrointestinal tract from the animals exposed to L. digitata following an LPS ex vivo challenge that was not evident in the other two treatment groups. In conclusion, β-glucans from both seaweed and yeast sources reduce Enterobacteriaceae counts and pro-inflammatory markers in the colon, though the mechanisms of action may be different between the soluble and insoluble fibre sources.
The aim of this study was to assess the influence of age, body weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS) of maiden Holstein–Friesian heifers before mating start date (MSD) on the rate of puberty, subsequent production and longevity and their implications with regard to farm profitability. Data were available on 871 Holstein–Friesian heifers from 48 herds. BW was recorded electronically and BCS was recorded by a single operator on a scale of 1 to 5. Heifer age was calculated as the number of days from birth to the day of visit. All of the independent variables of interest were grouped into three or four categories. Three age categories (thirtiles), four BW categories (quartiles) and four BCS categories (⩽2.75, 3.00, 3.25 and ⩾3.50) were formed. Heifers with an identifiable corpus lutuem (CL) in the presence or absence of large follicles and peri-ovulatory signs and with a plasma progesterone (P4) concentration ⩾1 ng/ml were classified as pubertal. In addition, heifers without an identifiable CL in the presence or absence of large follicles and peri-ovulatory signs but with a P4 concentration ⩾1 ng/ml were also classified as pubertal. Age, BW and BCS at MSD were all found to be significantly associated with pubertal rate (P < 0.05). Age was shown to have no practical implications on subsequent cow performance. BW at MSD was favourably associated with subsequent calving date (P < 0.05), subsequent cow BW (P < 0.001) and potential (305 days) milk fat plus protein yield (P < 0.001). BCS at MSD was found to be favourably associated with milk fat plus protein yield potential (P < 0.05) and BCS (P < 0.001) during lactation. The economic analysis undertaken indicated that larger, well-grown heifers will be more profitable because of superior production potential, all else being equal. However, because of the finding of poorer reproductive efficiency in heifers grown to more than 343 kg at MSD, heifers at ∼330 kg at MSD are deemed optimal. This will correspond to mature cow BW of ∼550 kg.
In order to better understand the chemical bonding forces which control lubricating film stability and adhesion, the binding of lead and tin atoms on the ceramics alumina and silica was investigated by laser induced thermal evaporation combined with mass spectrometric detection of the evaporated species. The interaction between lead or tin and alumina and silica was studied as a function of coverage. The sticking probability for the interaction was measured and found to be temperature and coverage dependent. At low coverage the binding energy of lead to alumina and silica was determined as 237and 246 KJ mol1 respectively, while the binding energy of tin to alumina and silica is 313 and 331 kJ mol1, respectively. A binding energy model based on thermochemical and crystallographic data was used to predict corresponding values which agree with the experimental values.
In addition, temperature programmed desorption and\or decomposition (TPD) was used to investigate the thermal and\or chemical stability of MoS2 films on molybdenum supports. The TPD spectra for S2 from MoS 2 were analyzed, and activation energies were found to be dependent on the film application technique. The binding energy model also provided a useful approximation to the experimental activation energies for the S2 production from MoS2 films. Water and carbon impurities were shown to contribute to the decomposition of MoS2 producing SO2 and CS2. The TPD spectra of S2, SO2, and CS2 provide a measure of the onset of lubricant decomposition.
The objective of this study is to quantify the milk production response per cow and per hectare (ha) for an incremental stocking rate (SR) change, based on a meta-analysis of published research papers. Suitable experiments for inclusion in the database required a comparison of at least two SRs under the same experimental conditions in addition to details on experimental length and milk production results per cow and per ha. Each additional increased SR treatment was also described in terms of the relative milk production change per cow and per ha compared to the lower base SR (b_SR). A database containing 109 experiments of various lengths with 131 comparisons of SR was sub-divided into Type I experiments (common experimental lengths) and Type II experiments (variable experimental lengths). Actual and proportional changes in milk production according to SR change were analysed using linear mixed model procedures with study included as a random effect in the model. Low residual standard errors indicated a good precision of the predictive equations with the exception of proportional change in milk production per cow. For all milk yield variables analysed, the results illustrate that while production per cow is reduced, a strong positive relationship exists between SR and milk production per ha. An SR increase of one cow/ha resulted in a decrease in daily milk yield per cow of 7.4% and 8.7% for Type I and Type II data, respectively, whereas milk yield per ha increased by 20.1% and 19.6%, respectively. Within the Type II data set, a one cow/ha increase in SR also resulted in a 15.1% reduction in lactation length (equivalent to 42 days). The low predictability of proportional change in milk production per cow according to the classical SR definition of cows per ha over a defined period suggests that SR may be more appropriately defined in terms of the change in available feed offered per animal within each treatment.
Two experiments, a performance experiment and a mineral balance study, were conducted on grower–finisher pigs (42 to 101 kg live weight) to investigate the effects of Peniophora lycii phytase enzyme and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OHD3) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, nutrient retention and excretion, and bone and blood parameters. The two experiments were designed as a 2 × 2 factorial (two levels of phytase and two levels of 25-OHD3). The four diets were T1, low-phosphorous diet; T2, T1 + phytase; T3, T1 + 25-OHD3 and T4, T1 + phytase + 25-OHD3 diet. In all, 25 μg of 25-OHD3 was used to replace 1000 IU of vitamin D3 in diets T3 and T4. Diets were pelleted (70°C) and formulated to contain similar concentrations of energy (13.8 MJ DE/kg), lysine (9.5 g/kg) and digestible phosphorus (P; 1.8 g/kg). Neither the inclusion of phytase nor 25-OHD3 in the diet had any effect on pig performance. There was an interaction between phytase and 25-OHD3 on calcium (Ca) and P retention (P < 0.01) and on the apparent digestibility of ash (P < 0.01), P (P < 0.001) and Ca (P < 0.001). Pigs offered phytase diets only, had a higher retention of Ca and P and digestibility of ash (P < 0.01), P (P < 0.001) and Ca (P < 0.01) compared with pigs offered unsupplemented diets. However, when the combination of phytase and 25-OHD3 were offered, no effects were detected compared with 25-OHD3 diets only. Pigs fed phytase diets had higher bone ash (P < 0.01), bone P (P < 0.01) and bone Ca (P < 0.05) concentrations compared with pigs offered non-phytase diets. In conclusion, pigs offered phytase diets had a significantly increased bone ash, Ca and P than pigs offered unsupplemented phytase diets. However, there was no advantage to offering a combination of phytase and 25-OHD3 on either bone strength or mineral status compared to offering these feed additives separately.