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N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA) encephalitis is a recently described autoimmune disease that typically presents with prodromal symptoms including upper respiratory tract infection, headache, fever, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Psychiatric symptoms follow within weeks, including anxiety, insomnia, mania, paranoia and grandiose delusions. The diagnosis is confirmed by the detection of NMDA antibodies in the serum or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).1 Tumours, especially teratomas, are frequently associated with NMDA encephalitis; however, only 5% of male patients older than 18 years have been found to have an underlying tumour. Optic neuropathy associated with NMDA encephalitis is being increasingly recognised in the literature2–6 and was reviewed most recently by Mugavin et al.2 in 2017. In this report, we present a case of bilateral optic neuropathy in a young man diagnosed with NMDA receptor encephalitis.
The eastern Arabian Sea is influenced by both the advection of upwelled water from the western Arabian Sea and winter convective mixing. Therefore, sediments collected from the eastern Arabian Sea can help to understand the long-term seasonal hydrographic changes. We used the planktonic foraminifera census and stable isotopic ratio (δ18O) from sediments drilled during the International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 355 to reconstruct surface hydrographic changes in the eastern Arabian Sea during the last 350 kyr. The increased abundance of Globigerina bulloides suggests enhanced advection of upwelled water during the latter half of MIS7 and the beginning of MIS6, as a result of a strengthened summer monsoon. A large drop in upwelling and/or advection of upwelled water from the western Arabian Sea is inferred during the subsequent interval of MIS6, based on the rare presence of G. bulloides. The comparable relative abundance of Neogloboquadrina dutertrei, G. bulloides and Globigerinoides ruber suggests that during the early part of MIS5, hydrographic conditions were similar to today. The upwelling decreased and winter convection increased with the progress of the glacial interval. A good coherence between planktonic foraminiferal assemblage-based monsoon stacks from both the eastern and western Arabian Sea suggests a coeval response of the entire northern Arabian Sea to the glacial–interglacial changes. The glacial–interglacial difference in δ18Osw-ivc was at a maximum with 4–5 psu change in salinity during Termination 2 and 3, and a minimum during Termination 4. The significantly reduced regional contribution to the glacial–interglacial change in δ18Osw-ivc during Termination 4 suggests a lesser change in the monsoon.
Opioid analgesics are often prescribed following rhinology surgery. This study aimed to evaluate whether the quantity of opioid analgesics prescribed is justified.
Patients were asked about their pain management post-operatively. Parameters recorded included: current pain (using a 10-point Likert scale); type of operation; the opioid analgesics prescribed; and the quantity of opioid tablets taken and other methods of pain relief used.
Thirty-five patients were successfully contacted. The median pain score at one week post-operation was 1 (interquartile range, 0–3). Of these 35 patients, 16 were prescribed opioids, whilst 19 were not. Patients prescribed opioids took a median of 8 tablets (interquartile range, 0.8–10.5) out of the 28 tablets prescribed.
The study shows that the quantity of post-operative opioid analgesics prescribed does not compare with the amount consumed by patients to relieve pain, resulting in a surplus of opioid medication which has the potential to be abused.
A 62-year-old male presented to hospital with acute aphasia. His past medical history was significant for a previous left middle cerebral artery stroke, from which he fully recovered, hypertension, dyslipidemia, coronary artery disease, one episode of atrial fibrillation postoperatively, and thalidomide exposure in utero. Although initially he was thought to be aphasic, on further examination, he demonstrated significant abulia. His level of consciousness was normal, and neurological examination was otherwise unremarkable. A CT angiogram of the head and neck was performed. The patient was not a candidate for acute therapy, as he had established stroke on imaging, and the time of onset was unclear.
In this work, a new compact, low profile, frequency, and end-fire pattern reconfigurable antenna is presented. The proposed antenna consists of four parasitic elements and an electric-inductive-capacitive (ELC) resonator enclosed with a closed ring resonator (CRR). The reconfigurability in the proposed antenna is achieved with the help of five PIN diodes (D1–D5) embedded on the top surface of the substrate. The diode (D1) is implanted between ELC and CRR resonators for frequency reconfigurability. The other four diodes (D2–D5) are implanted between the ground plane and four parasitic elements to control the electrical length of the ground plane to achieve pattern diversity. The ground plane and parasitic elements steer the primary omni-directional beam to bi-directional and uni-directional end-fire radiation at multiple frequencies. The proposed antenna exhibits multiband operation and end-fire pattern diversity depending upon the different states of PIN diodes. The overall size of the proposed antenna is 0.20λ0× 0.17λ0× 0.009λ0, where λ0 is calculated at the lowest resonance frequency. The impedance bandwidth of the antenna ranges from 1.45 to 26.22%, while peak gain varies from 0.86 to 3.86 dBi depending upon the state of operation. The measured results are in agreement with the simulated results, which confirm the frequency and pattern diversity performance of the antenna. The proposed antenna can be used in back-to-back repeater systems.
The present study investigated if the presence of encircling granulosa cells protected against di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP)-induced oxidative stress in rat oocytes cultured in vitro. Denuded oocytes and cumulus–oocyte complexes (COCs) were treated with or without various doses of DEHP (0.0, 25.0, 50.0, 100, 200, 400 and 800 μM) in vitro. Morphological apoptotic changes, levels of oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential, and expression levels of apoptotic markers (Bcl2, Bax, cytochrome c) were analyzed. Our results showed that DEHP induced morphological apoptotic changes in a dose-dependent manner in denuded oocytes cultured in vitro. The effective dose of DEHP (400 µg) significantly (P>0.05) increased oxidative stress by elevating ROS levels and the mitochondrial membrane potential with higher mRNA expression and protein levels of apoptotic markers (Bax, cytochrome c). Encircling granulosa cells protected oocytes from DEHP-induced morphological changes, increased oxidative stress and ROS levels, as well as increased expression of apoptotic markers. Taken together our data suggested that encircling granulosa cells protected oocytes against DEHP-induced apoptosis and that the presence of granulosa cells could act positively towards the survival of oocytes under in vitro culture conditions and may be helpful during assisted reproductive technique programmes.
The intensity of turbidite sedimentation over long timescales is driven by sea-level change, tectonically driven rock uplift and climatically modulated sediment delivery rates. This study focuses on understanding the effect of sea-level fluctuations and climatic variability on grain-size variations. The grain size and environmental magnetic parameters of Arabian Sea sediments have been documented using 203 samples, spanning the last 200 ka, obtained from International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Site U1457. Grain-size end-member modelling suggests that between ~200 and 130 ka there was an increase in the coarse silt fraction caused by sediment transport following reworking of the Indus Fan and development of deep-sea canyons. The sediment size and enhanced magnetic susceptibility indicate a dominant flux of terrestrial sediments. Sedimentation in the distal Indus Fan at c. 200–130 ka was driven by a drop in sea level that lowered the base level in the Indus and Narmada river systems. The low sea-stand caused incision in the Indus delta, canyons and fan area, which resulted in the transportation of coarser sediment at the drilling site. Magnetic susceptibility and other associated magnetic parameters suggest a large fraction of the sediment was supplied by the Narmada River during ~200–130 ka. Since ~130 ka, clay-dominated sedimentation is attributed to the rise in sea level due to warm and wet climate.
A field experiment was conducted to study the long-term effects of nutrient management practices on micronutrient concentrations in soil and their uptake by crops under a long-term rice–wheat cropping system. The treatments comprised different combinations of N, P, K, Zn and farm yard manure (FYM), used as nutrient management practices. After 25 years of continuous cropping, the higher grain yields and uptake of iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) were obtained when FYM was applied along with mineral sources of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) when compared to mineral sources of NPK alone. The residual effect of FYM, applied to rice, on the yield of subsequent wheat was significant. The application of mineral NPK with FYM recorded higher diethylene triamine penta acetic acid extracted (DTPA)-Fe, Mn and Cu concentrations in the soil compared to any other treatment. The plots with Zn application showed higher DTPA-Zn concentration in the soil compared to any other treatments. The available Fe, Mn and Cu in the soil were higher than their critical limits and the soil was low in Zn where inorganic fertilizers were applied alone (without Zn). Integrated application of mineral NPK and FYM to the rice crop and mineral NPK to wheat was found to be the best nutrient management practice in producing higher yields of rice and wheat and improve long-term soil micronutrient concentrations.
The decision by germ cells to differentiate and undergo either oogenesis or spermatogenesis takes place during embryonic development and Nanos plays an important role in this process. The present study was designed to investigate the expression patterns in rat of Nanos2-homologue protein in primordial germ cells (PGCs) over different embryonic developmental days as well as in spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). Embryos from three different embryonic days (E8.5, E10.5, E11.5) and SSCs were isolated and used to detect Nanos2-homologue protein using immunocytochemistry, western blotting, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and flow cytometry. Interestingly, Nanos2 expression was detected in PGCs at day E11.5 onwards and up to colonization of PGCs in the genital ridge of fetal gonads. No Nanos2 expression was found in PGCs during early embryonic days (E8.5 and 10.5). Furthermore, immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence data revealed that Nanos2 expression was restricted within a subpopulation of undifferentiated spermatogonia (As, single type A SSCs and Apr, paired type A SSCs). The same results were confirmed by our western blot and RT-PCR data, as Nanos2 protein and transcripts were detected only in PGCs from day E11.5 and in undifferentiated spermatogonia (As and Apr). Furthermore, Nanos2-positive cells were also immunodetected and sorted using flow cytometry from the THY1-positive SSCs population, and this strengthened the idea that these cells are stem cells. Our findings suggested that stage-specific expression of Nanos2 occurred on different embryonic developmental days, while during the postnatal period Nanos2 expression is restricted to As and Apr SSCs.
A 1108.6 m long core was recovered at Site U1457 located on the Indus Fan in the Laxmi Basin of the eastern Arabian Sea during IODP Expedition 355. Shipboard examinations defined five lithologic units (I to V) of the lower Paleocene to Holocene sedimentary sequence. In this study, δ13C values of sedimentary organic matter (SOM) confirm the differentiation of the lithologic units and further divide units III and IV into two subunits (1 and 2). Based on the underlying assumption that the SOM is decided primarily by a mixture of marine and terrestrial origins, δ13CSOM values at Site U1457 provide information on the terrestrial catchment conditions since late Miocene time. Low δ13CSOM values from late Miocene to late Pleistocene times are similar (c. −22.0 ‰) for the most part, reflecting a consistent contribution of terrestrial organic matter from the catchment areas characterized by dominant C3 land plants. Significantly lower δ13CSOM values (c. −24.0 ‰) in Unit III-2 (∼8 to ∼7 Ma) might be due to a greater input of C3 terrestrial organic matter. The increase in δ13CSOM values at ∼7 Ma and the appearance of high δ13CSOM values (c. −18.0 ‰) within Unit III-1 (∼7 to ∼2 Ma) indicate that C4 biomass overwhelmed the terrestrial catchment environment as a result of enhanced terrestrial aridity in the Himalayan foreland. The three-end-member simple mixing model, estimating the relative contributions of SOM from terrestrial C3 and C4 plants and marine phytoplankton, supports our interpretation of the distribution of C3 and C4 land plants in the terrestrial catchment environment.
Graphene oxide (GO)/MnO2 nanocomposites were synthesized by adding KMnO4 in a solution of water and ethanol (3:1), containing 10 mg of GO. Brown precipitates were obtained after a continuous stirring for 1 hr. The precipitates were then washed with deionized water (DI) water and dried to obtain the MnO2-GO nanocomposites. Pure MnO2 was also synthesized using the same method without GO for the comparison. X-ray diffraction pattern confirm δ-MnO2 type of MnO2 with birnessite type MnO2 structure. The TEM images show the average diameter of MnO2 nanorods as 15 nm. Electrochemical characterizations were carried out in an aqueous solution of 3M KOH. Charge-discharge studies were carried out between 1A/g to 20 A/g current range. The MnO2-GO nanocomposites showed improved electrochemical performances. The capacitance of MnO2 and MnO2-GO electrodes was found to be as 300 F/g, and 350 F/g, respectively at a current of 0.5 A/g.
We report evolution of the surface and wetting behavior of Barium fluoride (BaF2) thin films under the effect of swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation at different fluences. The analogy of this study may be used may be used for the development of dust resistant fabric technology for rural area. The ion irradiation has been performed at normal incidence on the films with Au ions having 100 MeV energy. Further, the wettability of irradiated surfaces is studied through contact angle of water droplet. The value of contact angle of droplet changes with irradiation, it increases from 111° to 123° with the increase in fluence from 5×1011 to 1×1013 ions/cm2. The mechanism of wettability of BaF2 is explained on the basis of increase in contact area of water droplet with surface. SHI irradiation deposits a huge amount of energy in materials due to extreme electronic excitation and it causes a large increase in the temperature of material around the ion track. Ion beam irradiation leads to the large ejection of atoms from the surface which is one of the major factors in increasing the roughness of the surface and thus for the change in contact angle.
Despite the global importance of Capsicum species, there is limited information on the indigenous endomycorrhizal fungal association in this crop. Therefore, the diversity and colonization patterns of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in roots of Naga King chilli (Capsicum chinense) were assessed during pre-flowering, flowering and fruit ripening growth stages under a sub-tropical shifting cultivation system of North Eastern India. All the roots examined had AMF colonization and the presence of Paris-type arbuscular mycorrhizal morphology is reported for the first time in C. chinense. A total of 11 AMF spore morphotypes were isolated from both field and trap culture soils. Maximum AMF spore density and root colonization were recorded during the pre-flowering and flowering stages, respectively. The influence of Funneliformis geosporum, individually or in combination with Pseudomonas fluorescens and Azotobacter chroococcum, on growth and yield of C. chinense, was evaluated in a pot experiment using sterilized and non-sterilized soils. The application of AMF and P. fluorescens to sterilized soil significantly increased the growth, flower and fruit production, and nutrient content of C. chinense. The highest growth rates and yields of C. chinense in non-sterilized soils were achieved when AMF was combined with both P. fluorescens and A. chroococcum. The results of the current study indicate the value of applying microorganisms to improve plant growth and performance in chillies. One of the mechanisms for this could be the facilitated assimilation of nutrients promoted by AMF and bacterial bioinoculants.
Two-dimensional flexural backstripping and thermal modelling (assuming laterally variable stretching) is applied along regional depth-converted interpreted seismic profiles from the Laxmi Basin in the Arabian Sea. Results from reverse post-rift flexural modelling reveal considerable basin-wide subsidence in response to the crustal geodynamics during and after the last extensional phase. Unloading of the stratigraphy allows us to estimate the degree of laterally varying extension, assuming thermal subsidence and pure shear. High degrees of extension in the basin centre predict considerable water depths at the time of rift cessation, consistent with deep drilling data. We suggest that regional extension prior to Paleocene time could have fuelled variable subsidence in the Laxmi Basin but that extension is less than seen in typical oceanic lithosphere. Volcanic loading by the seamounts shortly after extension has flexed the basin and implies an effective elastic thickness (Te) at that time of ∼6 km. Reconstruction of the seamount top near sea level at the end of emplacement indicates no major transient uplift potentially linked to the Deccan mantle plume activity. Backstripping of post-rift sediments from interpreted seismic profiles supports the presence of a hyper-thinned crust underneath the Laxmi Basin, with β factors reaching >7 in the basin centre and ∼3 across much of the basin width. Computations of decompacted sediment accumulation rates in light of new results from IODP Expedition 355 show that basin sedimentation peaked during early–middle Miocene time, possibly coeval with uplift and erosion of the Himalayan–Tibetan Plateau driven by strong summer monsoon rains.
Using the data obtained from Kepler satellite, we have analyzed an F-type ultra-fast rotator KIC 6791060. We derive a rotational period of 0.34365±0.00004 d. Multiple periodicity with a period separation of ~0.00016 d was detected, which appears to be a result of the relative velocity between the multiple spot-groups in different stellar latitudes due to the surface differential rotation. Modeling of the surface inhomogeneities using the light curve of 3899 epochs shows the evidence of single active longitude region. The active longitude is found to drift along the longitude at a rate similar to the detected period separation of the F-type star. The surface coverage of cool spots is found to be in the range of ~0.07–0.44%. The low value of the spottedness can be interpreted probably due to the thinner convection zone on the F-type star.
Immunoactivation depends upon the antigen potential to modulate T-cell repertoires. The present study has enumerated the effect of 61 kDa recombinant Leishmania donovani co-factor-independent phosphoglycerate mutase (rLd-iPGAM) on mononuclear cells of healthy and treated visceral leishmaniasis subjects as well as on THP-1 cell line. rLd-iPGAM stimulation induced higher expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in the phagocytic cell, its receptor and CD69 on T-cell subsets. These cellular activations resulted in upregulation of host-protective cytokines IL-2, IL-12, IL-17, tumour necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ, and downregulation of IL-4, IL-10 and tumour growth factor-β. This immune polarization was also evidenced by upregulation of nuclear factor-κ light-chain enhancer of activated B cells p50 and regulated expression of suppressor of mother against decapentaplegic protein-4. rLd-iPGAM stimulation also promoted lymphocyte proliferation and boosted the leishmaniacidal activity of macrophages by upregulating reactive oxygen species. It also induced 1·8-fold higher release of nitric oxide (NO) by promoting the transcription of inducible nitric oxide synthase gene. Besides, in silico analysis suggested the presence of major histocompatibility complex class I and II restricted epitopes, which can proficiently trigger CD8+ and CD4+ cells, respectively. This study reports rLd-iPGAM as an effective immunoprophylactic agent, which can be used in future vaccine design.
Oocyte-secreted factors (OSFs) play an important role in the acquisition of oocyte developmental competence through bidirectional cross-talk between oocyte and cumulus cells via gap junctions. Thus, the present study was designed to investigate the effect of two OSFs, growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) and bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15), on the developmental competence of buffalo oocytes derived from two different follicle sizes. Cumulus–oocyte complexes (COCs) from large follicles (LF, >6 mm) or small follicles (SF, <6 mm) were collected and matured in vitro either in the presence of GDF9 or BMP15, or both, or with the denuded oocytes (DOs) as a source of native OSFs. Cleavage and blastocyst rates were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in LF-derived than SF-derived oocytes. Cleavage and blastocyst rates were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the DOs and the combination groups compared with the control, GDF9 alone and BMP15 alone groups, both in LF-derived and SF-derived oocytes, although the cleavage and blastocyst rates did not differ significantly (P > 0.05) between DOs and combination groups. Relative mRNA analysis revealed significantly higher (P > 0.05) expression of the cumulus cell marker genes EGFR, HAS2, and CD44 in LF-derived than SF-derived oocyte; the expression of these markers was significantly higher (P > 0.05) in DOs and combination groups, irrespective of the follicle size. These results suggested that LF-derived oocytes have a higher developmental competence than SF-derived oocytes and that supplementation of GDF9 and BMP15 modulates the developmental competence of buffalo oocytes by increasing the relative abundance of cumulus-enabling factors and thereby increasing cleavage and the quality of blastocyst production.
Low-cost methods for enhancement of seed longevity may facilitate biodiversity conservation especially in resource constrained situations. Longevity of 13 cucurbitaceous seed lots belonging to 12 species with mean moisture contents 9.3±0.7% was studied in hermetic storage (HS) and in a liquid consisting of 20% (w/w) CaCl2 in glycerol, following seed to preservative ratio of 1:1 (v/v), at ambient temperature for 24 years. The liquid preservative (LP) was not absorbed by the seeds over the storage period and was harmless to them, drying seeds to about 5% of moisture and maintaining them at this state throughout the storage period. The seeds lost viability in HS in 3.8±0.4 years, while in LP viability was lost in 14–16 years in eight species and the seeds were still viable in five species after 24 years. LP-preserved seeds and also fresh seeds of three species were planted under field conditions. The results validated the use of LP in seed storage for 24 years. The liquid preservation extended longevity of the cucurbit seeds at ambient temperature by drying them and probably maintaining them in oxygen-free environment.