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Developing countries are experiencing an increase in total demand for livestock commodities, as populations and per capita demands increase. Increased production is therefore required to meet this demand and maintain food security. Production increases will lead to proportionate increases in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions unless offset by reductions in the emissions intensity (Ei) (i.e. the amount of GHG emitted per kg of commodity produced) of livestock production. It is therefore important to identify measures that can increase production whilst reducing Ei cost-effectively. This paper seeks to do this for smallholder agro-pastoral cattle systems in Senegal; ranging from low input to semi-intensified, they are representative of a large proportion of the national cattle production. Specifically, it identifies a shortlist of mitigation measures with potential for application to the various herd systems and estimates their GHG emissions abatement potential (using the Global Livestock Environmental Assessment Model) and cost-effectiveness. Limitations and future requirements are identified and discussed. This paper demonstrates that the Ei of meat and milk from livestock systems in a developing region can be reduced through measures that would also benefit food security, many of which are likely to be cost-beneficial. The ability to make such quantification can assist future sustainable development efforts.
We describe the performance of the Boolardy Engineering Test Array, the prototype for the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. Boolardy Engineering Test Array is the first aperture synthesis radio telescope to use phased array feed technology, giving it the ability to electronically form up to nine dual-polarisation beams. We report the methods developed for forming and measuring the beams, and the adaptations that have been made to the traditional calibration and imaging procedures in order to allow BETA to function as a multi-beam aperture synthesis telescope. We describe the commissioning of the instrument and present details of Boolardy Engineering Test Array’s performance: sensitivity, beam characteristics, polarimetric properties, and image quality. We summarise the astronomical science that it has produced and draw lessons from operating Boolardy Engineering Test Array that will be relevant to the commissioning and operation of the final Australian Square Kilometre Array Path telescope.
Navigators help rural older adults with advanced illness and their families connect to needed resources, information, and people to improve their quality of life. This article describes the process used to engage experts – in rural aging, rural palliative care, and navigation – as well as rural community stakeholders to develop a conceptual definition of navigation and delineate navigation competencies for the care of this population. A discussion paper on the important considerations for navigation in this population was developed followed by a four-phased Delphi process with 30 expert panel members. Study results culminated in five general navigation competencies for health care providers caring for older rural persons and their families at end of life: provide patient/family screening; advocate for the patient/family; facilitate community connections; coordinate access to services and resources; and promote active engagement. Specific competencies were also developed. These competencies provide the foundation for research and curriculum development in navigation.
This paper describes the system architecture of a newly constructed radio telescope – the Boolardy engineering test array, which is a prototype of the Australian square kilometre array pathfinder telescope. Phased array feed technology is used to form multiple simultaneous beams per antenna, providing astronomers with unprecedented survey speed. The test array described here is a six-antenna interferometer, fitted with prototype signal processing hardware capable of forming at least nine dual-polarisation beams simultaneously, allowing several square degrees to be imaged in a single pointed observation. The main purpose of the test array is to develop beamforming and wide-field calibration methods for use with the full telescope, but it will also be capable of limited early science demonstrations.
Information on the incidence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is essential for models of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of screening programmes. We developed two independent estimates of CT incidence in women in England: one based on an incidence study, with estimates ‘recalibrated’ to the general population using data on setting-specific relative risks, and allowing for clearance and re-infection during follow-up; the second based on UK prevalence data, and information on the duration of CT infection. The consistency of independent sources of data on incidence, prevalence and duration, validates estimates of these parameters. Pooled estimates of the annual incidence rate in women aged 16–24 and 16–44 years for 2001–2005 using all these data were 0·05 [95% credible interval (CrI) 0·035–0·071] and 0·021 (95% CrI 0·015–0·028), respectively. Although, the estimates apply to England, similar methods could be used in other countries. The methods could be extended to dynamic models to synthesize, and assess the consistency of data on contact and transmission rates.
The waters off north-west Scotland are known to provide important habitat for the harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) and the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata). Between October 2008 and April 2011, systematic land-based surveys were carried out to assess the seasonal occurrence, group size and group behaviours of both species in a study area located off Melvaig, near Gairloch. Data were collected on 47 separate days, with a total of 4543 minutes of survey effort (in sea states ≤3) recorded during the spring months and 8204 minutes of effort during the autumn. A total of 189 sightings of marine fauna were recorded, comprising 126 cetacean sightings, 50 seal sightings and 13 sightings of basking sharks (Cetorhinus maximus). Six species of cetacean were identified, with most sightings comprising harbour porpoise (N = 72) or minke whale (N = 38). Harbour porpoise abundance was higher in autumn than in spring and there was a variation between years in numbers of minke whales sighted. In porpoises, sea state and cloud cover both influenced sightings and increasing sea state influenced survey area. Foraging behaviour was exhibited in 13% of harbour porpoise sightings and 34% of minke whale sightings. Results demonstrate a regular occurrence of harbour porpoises and minke whales in nearshore waters off Gairloch. Densities are comparable to boat surveys in the region and so support the use of land-based watches as a potential longer-term monitoring method for these species in coastal waters. Given the regular use of this area by these two European Protected Species, as well as the occurrence of a range of human activities potentially affecting them in the region, it may be appropriate to consider protecting this area for their conservation.
We report results from an experimental and theoretical study of the room temperature (RT) compression of the ternary alloy Ti-6Al-4V. In this work, we have extended knowledge of the equation of state (EOS) from 40 GPa to 221 GPa, and observed a different sequence of phase transitions to that reported previously for pure Ti.
Until recently it had generally been assumed that apoptosis and other forms of programmed cell death evolved during evolution of the metazoans to regulate growth and development in these multicellular organisms. However, recent research is adding strength to the original phenotypic observations described almost a decade ago which indicated that some parasitic protozoa may have evolved a cell death pathway analogous to the process described as apoptosis in metazoa. Here we explore the implications of a programmed cell death pathway in the African tsetse-transmitted trypanosomes.
Bolivia holds one of the world's richest avifaunas, but large areas remain biologically unexplored or unsurveyed. This study carried out the first ornithological inventory of one of the largest of these unexplored areas, the yungas forests of Cordilleras Cocapata and Mosetenes. A total of 339 bird species were recorded including 23 restricted-range, four Near-Threatened, two globally threatened, one new to Bolivia and one that may be new to science. The study extended the known altitudinal ranges of 62 species, 23 by at least 500 m, which represents a substantial increase in our knowledge of species distributions in the yungas, and illustrates how little is known about Bolivia's avifauna. Species characteristic of, or unique to, three Endemic Bird Areas (EBAs) were found. The Cordilleras Cocapata and Mosetenes are a stronghold for yungas endemics and hold large areas of pristine Bolivian and Peruvian Upper and Lower Yungas habitat (EBAs 54 and 55). Human encroachment is starting to threaten the area and priority conservation actions, including designation as a protected area and designation as one of Bolivia's first Important Bird Areas, are recommended.
In any partially inbred population, ‘junctions’ are the loci that form boundaries between segments of ancestral chromosomes. Here we show that the expected number of junctions per Morgan in such a population is linearly related to the inbreeding coefficient of the population, with a maximum in a completely inbred population corresponding to the prediction given by Stam (1980). We further show that high-density marker maps (fully informative markers with average densities of up to 200 per cM) will fail to detect a significant proportion of the junctions present in highly inbred populations. The number of junctions detected is lower than that which would be expected if junctions were distributed randomly along the chromosome, and we show that junctions are not, in fact randomly spaced. This non-random spacing of junctions significantly increases the number of markers that is required to detect 90% of the junctions present on any chromosome: a marker count of at least 12 times the number of junctions present will be needed to detect this proportion.
A line transect survey was conducted in July/August 1998 to investigate the distribution and abundance of cetaceans off north-west Scotland. Over 2156.5 km of survey effort, 304 sightings were recorded of which 184 were identified to species. Nine species were identified: Atlantic white-sided dolphin Lagenorhynchus acutus, fin whale Balaenoptera physalus, sei whale Balaenoptera borealis, long-finned pilot whale Globicephala melas, sperm whale Physeter macrocephalus, common dolphin Delphinus delphis, harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena, white beaked dolphin Lagenorhynchus albirostris and Risso's dolphin Grampus griseus. The Atlantic white-sided dolphin was the most relatively abundant species. The relative abundance of large whales and dolphins was greatest in the Faroe–Shetland Channel. The continental slopes of this area are undergoing development by oil industries and concerns have been raised about the potential impacts of these activities on cetaceans. These waters are used year-round by cetaceans and provide feeding and breeding grounds and are a migration route for large whales.
Background. We carried out a large randomized trial of a brief form of cognitive therapy, manual-assisted cognitive behaviour therapy (MACT) versus treatment as usual (TAU) for deliberate self-harm.
Method. Patients presenting with recurrent deliberate self-harm in five centres were randomized to either MACT or (TAU) and followed up over 1 year. MACT patients received a booklet based on cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) principles and were offered up to five plus two booster sessions of CBT from a therapist in the first 3 months of the study. Ratings of parasuicide risk, anxiety, depression, social functioning and global function, positive and negative thinking, and quality of life were measured at baseline and after 6 and 12 months.
Results. Four hundred and eighty patients were randomized. Sixty per cent of the MACT group had both the booklet and CBT sessions. There were seven suicides, five in the TAU group. The main outcome measure, the proportion of those repeating deliberate self-harm in the 12 months of the study, showed no significant difference between those treated with MACT (39%) and treatment as usual (46%) (OR 0·78, 95% CI 0·53 to 1·14, P=0·20).
Conclusion. Brief cognitive behaviour therapy is of limited efficacy in reducing self-harm repetition, but the findings taken in conjunctin with the economic evaluation (Byford et al. 2003) indicate superiority of MACT over TAU in terms of cost and effectiveness combined.
Background. Causal attributions about bodily sensations may
determine help-seeking and influence
patients' demands for medical treatment. The present study aimed
to differentiate the causal
attributions associated with health-related and non-health-related
Methods. Anxious hypochondriacal, generally anxious, and
non-anxious general practice attenders
were compared on their propensity to give somatic, psychological or
normalizing attributions for
common bodily sensations, measured by number of each type of
attribution in a given time period
and the frequency of first response of each type.
Results. The groups differed in all three types of
attributions. Giving more psychological and fewer
normalizing attributions was related to general anxiety whereas
giving more somatic attributions
was related specifically to hypochondriasis.
Conclusions. Anxiety and hypochondriasis can be
distinguished in terms of their associated patterns
of attributions for bodily sensations, reinforcing the importance
of attributional processes and
interventions which use reattributional training.
Background. Previous research has shown that
parasuicides' view of the future is characterized
by an absence of anticipation of positive experiences rather than the
presence of anticipation of
negative experiences. The present study aimed to replicate this
finding and examine whether it
would also be found in parasuicides who were not depressed.
Method. Depressed parasuicides (N=27), non-depressed
parasuicides (N=17) and matched
controls (N=34) were assessed on their anticipation of
future positive and negative experiences
using an adapted fluency paradigm, where they were given a set time
to generate future positive and negative anticipated experiences.
Results. Consistent with previous findings,
parasuicides showed an overall reduced anticipation
of positive experiences and no overall increased anticipation
of negative experiences. However,
the parasuicides did show evidence of increased negative anticipation
for the immediate future.
The results for depressed and non-depressed parasuicides
were essentially the same.
Conclusion. Lack of positive anticipation in the absence
of increased negative anticipation is a
feature of parasuicide. Although this lack of positive anticipation
can occur in depression, it
appears to be an independent feature of parasuicide.
The causal attributions that people make about bodily symptoms or sensations are likely to influence their decisions whether or not to consult a doctor. Previous research has supported the model that people tend initially to look for external or environmental explanations for bodily sensations (normalizing attributions) and only if this process fails do they search for attributions internal to themselves (somatic or psychological attributions). This study tested two hypotheses about frequent general practice attenders: (1) compared with others, they are more likely to make somatic attributions and less likely to make normalizing ones; and (2) given a bodily symptom together with a somatic explanation, frequent attenders will have greater difficulty than others in finding reasons why the given (pathological) explanation is untrue. The frequent attenders' group had themselves initiated an average of 12 general practice visits in the 12 months before assessment, while a control group of infrequent attenders had not made appointments to see their general practitioner for an average of 24 months. The results provide partial support for the hypotheses. Frequent attenders generated significantly fewer normalizing explanations for a series of common bodily sensations than the comparison group, although the two groups did not differ in their somatic attributions. Given a common bodily sensation and an accompanying pathological explanation, the frequent attenders were less able than the control group to generate reasons why the given explanation might be untrue. Some associations were found between these measures and anxiety.
Recent developments in the understanding, assessment and treatment of suicidal behaviour are reviewed. The accumulated social and demographic knowledge of suicidal populations has proved to be clinically useful in shaping the general level of concern, but at the individual level an understanding of the psychological processes involved in suicidal behaviour is required. Studies examining psychological processes involved in suicidal behaviour is required. Studies examining psychological processes in parasuicidal groups have revealed a number of deficits, including poor interpersonal problem solving, hopelessness about the future, and reduced ability to regulate affect. Research has also begun to look at some of the processes underlying these deficits, such as over-general retrieval of autobiographical memories and reduced anticipation of specific positive experiences. The clinical picture is now more optimistic, with therapies, such as Dialectical Behaviour Therapy, which focus on using problem solving strategies with those clients who are most vulnerable to repeat parasuicide episodes, producing demonstrable delays in parasuicide and reduced risk of repetition. The importance of the relationship between research and clinical practice is emphasized.
Aluminum nitride thin films have been deposited by ion-assisted deposition. Aluminum was electron-beam evaporated onto substrates with simultaneous nitrogen ion bombardment. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry showed that nitrogen-to-aluminum ratios of one or greater could be achieved with sufficient nitrogen ion fluxes. This excess nitrogen apparently degrades the optical properties of the films in the visible. Annealing at 500°C improves the optical properties drastically at the expense of a slight oxygen diffusion into the films. Finally, aluminum oxynitride films were deposited by adding an oxygen backfill to the vacuum chamber during deposition. These films had very similar optical properties to the annealed nitride films.