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Energy dispensive X-ray spectrometry has been used extensively for the rapid, simultaneous deterninaion of elements in a variety of sample types. Excitation of the analytical sample can be by either X-ray tube, secondary targets, or radioactive isotopic sources. Tube sources have the advantages of convenient control of the excitation conditions, whereas an isotopic source or secondary target must be physically replaced by another to affect an excitation change. The use of primary filters between the sample and X-ray tube can greatly enhance the flexibilitty of the excitation conditions.
Over the last fifty years since the discovery of pulsars, our understanding of where and how pulsars emit the radiation we observe has undergone significant revision. The location and mechanisms of high-energy radiation are intimately tied to the sites of particle acceleration. The evolution of emission models has paralleled the development of increasingly more sensitive telescopes, especially at high energies. I will review the history of pulsar emission modeling, from the early days of gaps at the polar caps, to outer gaps and slot gaps in the outer magnetosphere, to the present era of global magnetosphere simulations that locate most acceleration and high-energy emission in the current sheets.
Follow-up of unidentified Fermi sources has expanded the number of known galactic-field “black widow” and “redback” millisecond pulsar binaries from four to nearly 30. Several systems observed by Chandra, XMM-Newton, Suzaku, and NuSTAR exhibit double-peaked X-ray orbital modulation. This is attributed to synchrotron emission from electrons accelerated in an intrabinary shock and Doppler boosting by mildly relativistic bulk flow. We briefly discuss the rich complexity of these systems, their astrophysical utility, and open questions.
Pulsed non-thermal quiescent emission between 10 keV and around 150 keV has been observed in ~10 magnetars. For inner magnetospheric models of such hard X-ray signals, resonant Compton upscattering of soft thermal photons from the neutron star surface is the most efficient radiative process. We present angle-dependent hard X-ray upscattering model spectra for uncooled monoenergetic relativistic electrons. The spectral cut-off energies are critically dependent on the observer viewing angles and electron Lorentz factor. We find that electrons with energies less than around 15 MeV will emit most of their radiation below 250 keV, consistent with the observed turnovers in magnetar hard X-ray tails. Moreover, electrons of higher energy still emit most of the radiation below around 1 MeV, except for quasi-equatorial emission locales for select pulses phases. Our spectral computations use new state-of-the-art, spin-dependent formalism for the QED Compton scattering cross section in strong magnetic fields.
In recent years, surprise discoveries of pulsed emission from the Crab and Vela pulsars above 100 GeV have drawn renewed attention to this largely unexplored region of the energy range. In this paper, we discuss example light curves due to curvature emission, with good resolution in the different energy bands. Continued light curve modelling may help to discriminate between different emission mechanisms, as well as constrain the location where emission is produced within the pulsar magnetosphere, including regions beyond the light cylinder.
Reports of air showers with E > 1015 eV from Cygnus X-3, LMC X-4, Vela X-1 and Hercules X-1 have been interpreted as requiring production of neutral secondaries by cosmic rays accelerated by the compact partner in these systems. If neutral pions are the source of photons that produce the observed air showers, then charged pions must also be produced, and they will give rise to neutrinos. We consider limits that may be placed on binary systems like Cygnus X-3 in which a neutron star is a strong source of ultra-high energy (UHE) particles that produce photons, neutrinos and other secondary particles in the companion star through nuclear interactions. The highest energy neutrinos (> 1 TeV), which have the largest interaction cross sections, are absorbed deep in the companion. From a detailed numerical calculation of the hadronic cascade induced in the atmosphere of the companion star, we estimate the neutrino production spectrum from an isotropic flux of monoenergetic 1017 eV protons and we estimate the resulting neutrino absorption in the stellar core. In the case of Cyg X-3 and LMC X-4, the cosmic-ray luminosities required to produce the observed gamma rays would result in energy deposition from neutrino absorption exceeding the intrinsic stellar luminosity of the companion. Over a timescale of 104−105 yr, the star would absorb its own binding energy and be disrupted. On shorter timescales, the energy deposition will cause significant expansion of the star, perhaps leading to quenching of high-energy signals from the source. From these results, we conclude that systems requiring intense UHE proton fluxes are either very young or the companion star is not the site of observed gamma-ray production. Alternatively, if the gamma-ray source is highly variable, the proton flux requirements would be lower, providing some relaxation of the above constraints.
[See Gaisser et al. 1986, Ap. J. (Oct. 15), in press].
To: (i) determine the prevalence of self-reported eating less and eating down during early and late pregnancy and postpartum, and explore risk factors associated with eating less; (ii) examine the association between eating less and diet quality; and (iii) determine the association between eating less and weight gain during pregnancy.
Data were collected longitudinally from a cohort of women participating in a community health programme. Diet was assessed at three time points (≤20 weeks’ gestation, 36 weeks’ gestation, 6 months’ postpartum), body weight was measured during study enrolment (≤20 weeks’ gestation) and at 36 weeks’ gestation, and information about the woman and her household was collected at enrolment.
The Rang-Din Nutrition Study in the Rangpur and Dinajpur districts of Bangladesh.
Women (n 4011).
The prevalence of self-reported eating less differed by time point (75·9 % in early pregnancy, 38·8 % in late pregnancy, 7·4 % postpartum; P<0·001). The most common reason for eating less across all time periods was food aversion or loss of appetite. Women who reported eating less in late pregnancy had consumed animal-source foods less frequently in the preceding week than women who reported eating more (mean (sd): 11·7 (7·4) v. 14·8 (9·2) times/week; P<0·001) and had lower weekly weight gain than women who reported eating more (mean (se): 0·27 (0·004) v. 0·33 (0·004) kg/week; P<0·001).
Eating less has negative implications with respect to diet quality and pregnancy weight gain in this context.
We present high-energy light curves and polarization properties of pulsars calculated within the recently proposed two-pole caustic model. The results are compared with the optical data for the Crab pulsar and with predictions of other high-energy pulsar models: the polar cap model, and the outer gap model.
The large number of
-ray pulsars discovered by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope since its launch in 2008 dwarfs the handful that were previously known. The variety of observed light curves makes possible a tomography of both the ensemble-averaged field structure and the high-energy emission regions of a pulsar magnetosphere. Fitting the
-ray pulsar light curves with model magnetospheres and emission models has revealed that most of the high-energy emission, and the particles acceleration, takes place near or beyond the light cylinder, near the current sheet. As pulsar magnetosphere models become more sophisticated, it is possible to probe magnetic field structure and emission that are self-consistently determined. Light curve modelling will continue to be a powerful tool for constraining the pulsar magnetosphere physics.
We propose a full polar cap cascade model which includes the curvature and inverse Compton emission of the primary particles, and both synchrotron radiation and inverse Compton of the higher generation pairs. Such a full cascade model can reproduce both the Lγ ∝ (Lsd)1/2 and the Lx ~ 10−3Lsd dependences observed from the known spin-powered pulsars.
Gamma-ray bursts have always been intriguing sources to study in terms of particle acceleration, but not since their discovery two decades ago has the theory of these objects been in such turmoil. Prior to the launch of Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory and observations by BATSE, there was strong evidence pointing to magnetized Galactic neutron stars as the sources of gamma-ray bursts. However, since BATSE the observational picture has changed dramatically, requiring much more distant and possibly cosmological sources. I review the history of gamma-ray burst theory from the era of growing consensus for nearby neutron stars to the recent explosion of halo and cosmological models and the impact of the present confusion on the particle acceleration problem.
Subject headings: acceleration of particles — gamma rays: bursts
We investigate the spectral attenuation due to one-photon pair production and photon splitting in neutron star magnetospheres. The calculations are performed in a Schwarzschild metric, thereby including redshift and field enhancement effects associated with curved spacetime. We find that pair production and splitting totally inhibit emission above around 10-30 MeV in PSR1509-58, whose surface field is inferred to be as high as 3 × 1013 Gauss. Model pulsar spectra of splitting cascades for high field cases, where splitting is important, are consistent with the very low cutoff energy in PSR1509-58 for a wide range of polar cap sizes.
We report on our analysis of a 300 ks observation of the Vela pulsar with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). The double-peaked, pulsed emission at 2 - 30 keV, which we had previously detected during a 93 ks observation, is confirmed with much improved statistics. There is now clear evidence, both in the spectrum and the light curve, that the emission in the RXTE band is a blend of two separate components. The spectrum of the harder component connects smoothly with the OSSE, COMPTEL and EGRET spectrum and the peaks in the light curve are in phase coincidence with those of the high-energy light curve. The spectrum of the softer component is consistent with an extrapolation to the pulsed optical flux, and the second RXTE pulse is in phase coincidence with the second optical peak. In addition, we see a peak in the 2-8 keV RXTE pulse profile at the radio phase.
With the increased sensitivity of gamma-ray detectors on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) the number of presently known gamma-ray pulsars has grown. The new detections are beginning to provide clues to the origin of the high-energy radiation in the form of emerging patterns and correlations among observed quantities such as gamma-ray efficiency and spectral index vs. age. But there are still many questions about the location of the emission and its relation to the radio, optical and X-ray pulses. This paper will review models for gamma-ray emission from pulsars and will examine how well the detailed predictions of these models account for the existing observations.
The discovery of the double quasar (Walsh ET AL. 1979) provides an opportunity to study the mass distribution of elliptical galaxies and clusters of galaxies. This has been done initially by Young ET AL. (1981) who produced a model to account for the image positions and intensities. Since then VLBI observations have been made of 0957+561A and B (Porcas ET AL. 1981) which show very similar core and jet structures in the nuclei of both images. In addition to providing further evidence in favour of the gravitational lens hypothesis, these new observations provide additional constraints on the mass distribution of the lensing galaxy and cluster. We have attempted to produce a model in the light of these new results.
The distribution of pulsars in galactocentric radius and z distance has been determined for opposite halves of the Galaxy, using data on 328 pulsars from three surveys. The distributions in galactocentric radius are found to be significantly different at positive and negative longitudes, although both show strong peaks between 5 and 6 kpc. There is also some indication that pulsars are located preferentially along spiral arms. Distributions in the z component of dispersion measure above and below the galactic plane also show asymmetry, with higher dispersion occurring at negative z. This may imply the existence of a narrow (~ 100 pc), high electron density layer below the plane of the Sun in the inner galaxy.
Aragonite can grow from calcium carbonate solutions as the favored phase, at ambient conditions, in the presence of 1:1 volume % water:ethanol. Its form is single and branched needles, with pseudohexagonal symmetry. Morphological evidence demonstrates that all precipitated aragonite is twinned. The recently popularized hypothesis of nonclassical growth by nanocrystal self assembly cannot describe the aragonite crystal form. Rather, its formation is effectively described as spherulitic growth, i.e. by classical crystal growth theory.
Alcohol consumption during pregnancy remains common in many countries. Exposure to even low amounts of alcohol (i.e. ethanol) in pregnancy can lead to the heterogeneous fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), while heavy alcohol consumption can result in the fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). FAS is characterized by cerebral dysfunction, growth restriction and craniofacial malformations. However, the effects of lower doses of alcohol during pregnancy, such as those that lead to FASD, are less well understood. In this article, we discuss the findings of recent studies performed in our laboratories on the effects of fetal alcohol exposure using sheep, in which we investigated the effects of late gestational alcohol exposure on the developing brain, arteries, kidneys, heart and lungs. Our studies indicate that alcohol exposure in late gestation can (1) affect cerebral white matter development and increase the risk of hemorrhage in the fetal brain, (2) cause left ventricular hypertrophy with evidence of altered cardiomyocyte maturation, (3) lead to a decrease in nephron number in the kidney, (4) cause altered arterial wall stiffness and endothelial and smooth muscle function and (5) result in altered surfactant protein mRNA expression, surfactant phospholipid composition and pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA expression in the lung. These findings suggest that fetal alcohol exposure in late gestation can affect multiple organs, potentially increasing the risk of disease and organ dysfunction in later life.