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Simulation models are used widely in pharmacology, epidemiology and health economics (HEs). However, there have been no attempts to incorporate models from these disciplines into a single integrated model. Accordingly, we explored this linkage to evaluate the epidemiological and economic impact of oseltamivir dose optimisation in supporting pandemic influenza planning in the USA. An HE decision analytic model was linked to a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) – dynamic transmission model simulating the impact of pandemic influenza with low virulence and low transmissibility and, high virulence and high transmissibility. The cost-utility analysis was from the payer and societal perspectives, comparing oseltamivir 75 and 150 mg twice daily (BID) to no treatment over a 1-year time horizon. Model parameters were derived from published studies. Outcomes were measured as cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained. Sensitivity analyses were performed to examine the integrated model's robustness. Under both pandemic scenarios, compared to no treatment, the use of oseltamivir 75 or 150 mg BID led to a significant reduction of influenza episodes and influenza-related deaths, translating to substantial savings of QALYs. Overall drug costs were offset by the reduction of both direct and indirect costs, making these two interventions cost-saving from both perspectives. The results were sensitive to the proportion of inpatient presentation at the emergency visit and patients’ quality of life. Integrating PK/PD–EPI/HE models is achievable. Whilst further refinement of this novel linkage model to more closely mimic the reality is needed, the current study has generated useful insights to support influenza pandemic planning.
We compute the outcomes of close encounters between a binary and a single black holes including the effects of gravitational radiation reaction. All masses of individual black holes are assumed to be 1 M⊙. We found that merger of two black holes takes place during the encounters in some cases. Thus the gravitational radiation can act as a mechanism for the dissipation of energy of a cluster mainly composed of 10 M⊙ black holes which are produced by the evolution of high mass stars. The merger probability depends on many parameters in a complex way. Our preliminary calculations show that about 10% of the strong encounters (i.e., rp ∼ a) between a binary of hardness 100 and a single lead to mergers of two black holes in the stellar system of one-dimensional velocity σ = 100 km/s.
A radio-frequency magnetron sputtering technique and subsequent rapid thermal annealing (RTA) at 600, 700, 800, and 900 °C were implemented to grow high-quality Ga-doped MgxZn1-xO (GMZO) epi-layers. The GMZO films were deposited using a radio-frequency magnetron sputtering system and a 4 inch ZnO/MgO/Ga2O3 (75/20/5 wt %) target. The Hall results, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmittance were determined and are reported in this paper. The Hall results indicated that the increase in mobility was likely caused by the improved crystallization in the GMZO films after thermal annealing. The XRD results revealed that MgxZn1-xO (111) and MgO2 (200) peaks were obtained in the GMZO films. The absorption edges of the as-grown and annealed GMZO films shifted toward the short wavelength of 373 nm at a transmittance of 90%. According to these results, GMZO films are feasible for forming transparent contact layers for near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes.
Convergent studies provide support for abnormalities in the structure and functioning of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the amygdala, the key components of the neural system that subserves emotional processing in major depressive disorder (MDD). We used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine potential amygdala–PFC functional connectivity abnormalities in treatment-naive subjects with MDD.
Resting-state fMRI data were acquired from 28 individuals with MDD and 30 healthy control (HC) subjects. Amygdala–PFC functional connectivity was compared between the MDD and HC groups.
Decreased functional connectivity to the left ventral PFC (VPFC) from the left and right amygdala was observed in the MDD group, compared with the HC group (p < 0.05, corrected).
The treatment-naive subjects with MDD showed decreased functional connectivity from the amygdala to the VPFC, especially to the left VPFC. This suggests that these connections may play an important role in the neuropathophysiology of MDD at its onset.
We report on Chandra observations of the black widow pulsar, PSR B1957+20. Evidence for a binary-phase dependence of the X-ray emission from the pulsar is found with a deep observation. The binary-phase resolved spectral analysis reveals non-thermal X-ray emission of PSR B1957+20, confirming the results of previous studies. This suggests that the X-rays are mostly due to intra-binary shock emission which is strongest when the pulsar wind interacts with the ablated material from the companion star. The geometry of the peak emission is determined in our study. The marginal softening of the spectrum of the non-thermal X-ray tail may indicate that particles injected at the termination shock is dominated by synchrotron cooling.
We present a short Chandra observation that confirms a previous unidentified extended X-ray source, G308.3-1.4, as a new supernova remnant (SNR) in the Milky Way. Apart from identifying its SNR nature, a bright X-ray point source has also been discovered at the geometrical center. Its X-ray spectral properties are similar to those of a particular class of neutron star known as central compact objects (CCOs). On the other hand, the optical properties of this counterpart suggests it to be a late-type star. Together with the interesting ~ 1.4 hours X-ray periodicity found by Chandra, this system can possibly provide the first direct evidence of a compact binary survived in a supernova explosion.
Anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs) are thought to be magnetars which are young isolated neutron stars with extremely strong magnetic fields of >1014 Gauss. Their tremendous magnetic fields inferred from the spin parameters provide a huge energy reservoir to power the observed X-ray emission. High-energy emission above 0.3 MeV has never been detected despite intensive search. Here, we present the possible Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) detection of γ-ray pulsations above 200 MeV from the AXP, 1E 2259+586, which puts the current theoretical models of γ-ray emission mechanisms of magnetars into challenge. We speculate that the high-energy γ-rays originate from the outer magnetosphere of the magnetar.
We report on XMM-Newton observations of the Galactic supernova remnant G296.7–0.9. A detailed spectro-imaging X-ray study of G296.7–0.9 was performed. We detected an incomplete shell-like X-ray structure which is located near the boundary of the radio emission at a frequency of 843 MHz. The X-ray spectrum can be best described by an absorbed ionization plasma model accompanied with metallic emission lines, which suggests the plasma is shock heated. No promising compact stellar remnant associated with G296.7–0.9 was found. No Gamma-ray emission of G296.7–0.9 from Fermi-LAT telescope was detected in our study.
M. Laroussi, Old Dominion University, Virginia,M. G. Kong, Loughborough University,G. Morfill, Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching, Germany,W. Stolz, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munchen
The current trends in stimulated Brillouin scattering and optical phase conjugation are overviewed. This report is formed by the selected papers presented in the “Fifth International Workshop on stimulated Brillouin scattering and phase conjugation 2010” in Japan. The nonlinear properties of phase conjugation based on stimulated Brillouin scattering and photo-refraction can compensate phase distortions in the high power laser systems, and they will also open up potentially novel laser technologies, e.g., phase stabilization, beam combination, pulse compression, ultrafast pulse shaping, and arbitrary waveform generation.
To review our experience of cochlear implant failure and subsequent revision surgery, and to illustrate the experience we have gained by presenting a series of lessons learned.
A combined retrospective and prospective study of revision surgery in a UK regional cochlear implant centre.
Of the 746 cochlear implantations undertaken, 33 (4.7 per cent of adults and 4.1 per cent of children) had a registered failure requiring re-implantation. The mean time to device failure was 60 months in adults and 35 months in children. Causes of cochlear implant failure were medical (n = 11), electrode displacement (n = 2), ‘hard device failure’ (n = 15) and ‘soft device failure’ (n = 5). Chronic suppurative otitis media and post-auricular mastoid abscess were the commonest causes of medical failure. There was one case of electrode array displacement as a direct result of skin flap revision surgery. In 80 per cent of cases, audiological performances were stable or improved following re-implantation.
As the number of cochlear implants increase and patients outlive the lifespan of their devices, we will face a growing number of revision procedures. Audiologists and otologists should be competent in diagnosing and managing device failure and medical complications requiring cochlear re-implantation.
Damage in single crystal ß-SiC(100) as a result of ion bombardment has been studied using Rutherford backscattering (RBS) and cross-section transmission electron microscopy (X-TEM). Samples were implanted with 123 keV 27Al at liquid nitrogen temperature. RBS spectra for He channeling in the (110) axis at 45° were obtained as a function of implantation dose to determine damage accumulation. X-TEM was used to characterize damage structure for selected doses. The surface of the SiC becomes amorphous for doses greater than 1 x 1015 /cm 2. At lower doses, significant uniaxial lattice strain along the (100) direction is suggested by comparison of RBS channeling spectra obtained for several high index axes. High resolution TEM on a sample implanted at 4 x 1014 /cm2 shows no damage structure in the surface region; lattice damage in a broad layer centered roughly at the depth of highest energy deposition is characterized by small amorphous pockets in a crystalline matrix. Qualitatively similar backscattering results were obtained for other elements implanted at room and liquid nitrogen temperature.
Current-voltage characteristics of Au contacts formed on β-SiC films grown heteroepitaxially on both nominally (100) oriented and off-axis (100) silicon substrates have been investigated. Logarithmic plots of the I-V characteristics in the forward direction indicate space charge limited current conduction through the active volume of the diodes. The β-SiC films grown on nominally (100) oriented substrates show the presence of two deep levels located approximately between 0.26 eV and 0.38 eV below the conduction band edge. In some films on nominal (100) substrates, the I-V characteristics are also influenced by additional traps which are exponentially distributed in energy with a maximum occurring at the conduction band edge. In contrast, the films deposited on off-axis substrates have only one deep level located at approximately 0.49 eV for the 2° off (100) substrates and 0.57 eV for the 4° off (100) substrates. Previous microstructural analysis revealed that the nature and density of defects in the β-SiC heteroepitaxial films on both nominal and off-axis (100) silicon are similar except that the films on nominal (100) substrates have a high density of antiphase domain boundaries. Therefore, the presence of the shallower deep-level states observed in the β-SiC films grown on nominal (100) substrates is speculated to be due to the electrical activity of antiphase domain boundaries.
In this paper, we report a multi-step rapid thermal annealing process for microwave discrete devices and monolithic integrated circuits fabrication. 2” diameter undoped liquid encapsulated Czochralski GaAs wafers were implanted with 29 Si+ and annealed without capping using incoherent light from high intensity halogen lamps. The annealing was carried out in multiple temperature steps to achieve optimum damage removal and dopant activation. As a result, wafers implanted with mid 1012 cm−2 dose exhibited 85–90% activation efficiency for 100kV implant and nearly 100% activation for 300 kV implant. In comparison with single-stepannealed wafers, multi-step-annealed wafers showed not only higher activation efficiency, but also more uniform activation, higher electron mobility and better device performance.
A β-SiC MESFET structure with functional DC characteristics has been fabricated and evaluated. The MESFET employs an epitaxial n on p SiC layer grown by chemical vapor deposition on a p-type Si(100) substrate. Modulation of the n-type channel current is achieved with a Au Schottky barrier gate. A transconductance of 2.3 mS/mm was obtained using a 5 micron gate length.
Vacancy behaviors during ageing of Cu-26Zn-4A1 and Cu-14Al-4Ni alloys have been investigated and compared by means of positron annihilation (PA) and electrical resistivity measurement. For ageing in martensitic state after direct quenching, it is observed that the S parameter values of Cu-Zn- Al specimens, measured in liquid nitrogen, increase at first and then decrease, while those of Cu-Al-Ni remain unchanged. The activation energies calculated from the S parameter for increasing and decreasing stages are o.4lev and o.63ev respectively, and the former can be corresponding to the formation energy of vacancy clustering, while the latter may be regarded as the migration energy of effective vacancies. A mechanism is put forward that the clustering of quenched-in vacancies results in a decreasing of the ordering degree and a reduction of the stored energy in martensite, which is responsible for the early stage of the stabilization of martensite in Cu-Zn-Al alloys. However, the fact that Cu-Al-Ni alloy is not subject to the stabilization is assumed to be owing to the immobility of supersaturated vacancies in its martensitic state which may be associated with the strong binding force between Ni and Al atoms.
Single crystal thin films with compositions from the A1N-InN-GaN system were grown via metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on single crystal 6H-SiC substrates. Blue light emitting (LED) and laser diode (LD) structures were fabricated. The conducting buffer layer LEDs employed an AlGaN buffer layer which provides a conduction path between SiC and the active device region. The external quantum efficiency of the LEDs was 3% at 20 mA- 3.6V and peak emission wavelength of 430 nm. Violet and blue LDs were fabricated and consisted of an 8-well InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) active region in a separate confinement heterostructure (SCH) design. Lasing was obtained both on structures using an insulating buffer layer, and also on structures using a conducting buffer layer. The resulting lasers operated at room temperature using pulsed and continuous wave operation with an emission wavelength of 404-435 rim. The lowest threshold current density obtained for lasing was 11 kA/cm2.
This paper reports the events at NCSU leading up to and including those of June 5, 1997 which produced the first demonstration of a nitride laser diode on silicon carbide – and the very first nitride laser demonstration outside of Japan. All of the laser diode samples tested at NCSU were designed, grown, and fabricated into cleaved cavity test structures at Cree Research. Laser testing at NCSU consisted of spectral emission versus current measurements, light output power versus current (L-I) measurement, and light output polarization measurements versus current. The first successful laser on silicon carbide emitted at 402.6 nm. Subsequently, lasers displaying outputs ranging from 402.6 to 430.2 have been successfully tested at NCSU.
A chemical gas sensor with a novel pad pattern applicable to NH3, NO2, and H2 gas was developed based on single-walled carbon nanotube ropes. In this pattern named BCE (Barricade confronting electrode), several electrodes were located at the circumference of a sample and each pair of electrode tips was designed to confront to each other with a narrow interval. Several single-walled carbon nanotubes were shifted to the interval by the centrifugal force generated through the rapid rotation of a sample equipped on the spinner. Our device showed improved performance for NO2, NH3, and H2 gases compared with others in references.
Direct characterization of band alignment at chemical bath deposition (CBD)-CdS/Cu0.93 (In1-xGax)Se2 has been carried out by photoemission spectroscopy (PES) and inverse photoemission spectroscopy (IPES). Ar ion beam etching at the condition of the low ion kinetic energy of 350 eV yields a removal of surface contamination as well as successful measurement of the intrinsic properties of each layer and the interfaces. Especially interior regions of the wide gap CIGS layers with a band gap of 1.4 ∼ 1.6 eV were successfully exposed. IPES spectra revealed that the conduction band offset (CBO) at the interface region of the wide gap CIGS with x = 0.60 and 0.75 was negative, where the conduction band minimum of CdS was lower than that of CIGS. It was also observed that the energy spacing between conduction band minimum (CBM) of CdS layer and valence band maximum (VBM) of Cu0.93(In0.25Ga0.75)Se2 layer at interface region was no wider than that of the interface over the Cu0.93(In0.60Ga0.40)Se2 layer.