To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
To consider the plausible nutritional impacts of fluctuations in money availability within an income cycle for remote Indigenous Australians.
Community-level dietary intake (energy, micro/macronutrients) and expenditure on foods and beverages (F&B) were estimated over one year for three remote Indigenous Australian communities (Northern Territory, Australia) using monthly F&B transaction data. F&B that were likely to be consumed during a period within an income cycle when money was relatively limited (low money period (LMP) foods) were identified by panel consensus and scenario modelling was conducted to simulate the nutritional outcomes of a range of F&B selection responses to having an LMP.
All scenarios resulted in reduced diet quality during the LMP relative to overall average diet values. Protein and fat energy percentages were reduced and carbohydrate energy percentage increased. Despite reduced expenditure, declines in energy intake were typically buffered due to the reduced energy cost ($AU/MJ) of the LMP diet. The micronutrient profile of the LMP diet was substantially poorer, such that additional key micronutrients dropped below population-weighted Estimated Average Requirements/Adequate Intakes.
The modelling undertaken herein suggests that even a short period of low money within an income cycle may noticeably contribute to the reduced diet quality of remote Indigenous Australians and exacerbate lifestyle disease risk. Dietary strategies that are designed to respond to diets and expenditure during different income cycle periods, rather than the overall average diet and expenditure, should be considered for improving diet quality and reducing cardiometabolic disease risk in remote Indigenous Australians.
Some helicopter manufacturers are exploring the compound helicopter design as it could potentially satisfy the new emerging requirements placed on the next generation of rotorcraft. It is well understood that the main benefit of the compound helicopter is its ability to reach speeds that significantly surpass the conventional helicopter. However, it is possible that the introduction of compounding may lead to a vehicle with significantly different flight characteristics when compared to a conventional helicopter. One method to examine the flight dynamics of an aircraft is to create a linearised mathematical model of the aircraft and to investigate the stability derivatives of the vehicle. The aim of this paper is to examine the stability derivatives of a compound helicopter through a comparison with a conventional helicopter. By taking this approach, some stability, handling qualities and design issues associated with the compound helicopter can be identified. The paper features a conventional helicopter and a compound helicopter. The conventional helicopter is a standard design, featuring a main rotor and a tail-rotor. The compound helicopter configuration features both lift and thrust compounding. The wing offloads the main rotor at high speeds, whereas two propellers provide additional propulsive thrust as well as yaw control. The results highlight that the bare airframe compound helicopter would require a larger tailplane surface to ensure acceptable longitudinal handling qualities in forward flight. In addition, without increasing the size of the bare airframe compound helicopter’s vertical fin, the Dutch roll mode satisfies the ADS-33 level 1 handling qualities category for the majority of the flight envelope.
School belonging, at both a school and university level, has been well documented as a predictor of academic and psychosocial success. The construct has been examined by scholars in a variety of different professional disciplines (e.g., education, psychology, sociology) and continues to be consistently researched. Although significant contributions have been made in the field, there are still additional areas of investigation needed, as well as interventions that need to be designed and explored. The current article was designed to review the theoretical foundations of belonging, conceptualise school belonging with respect to how it is presented in the literature, discuss the key variables related to school belonging, present a summary of the predictors of school belonging, discuss school belonging in a university setting, and posit future directions for research.
Sediments in north-central Texas, ranging in age from >117 to 85 Ma, represent a variety of terrestrial and marine depositional settings. Isotopic analyses of wood fragments found throughout the section allow correlation to the standard secular marine δ13C curve because of characteristic peaks at the Aptian-Albian and Cenomanian-Turonian boundaries. Consistency of the north-central Texas δ13C curve with the marine standard facilitates correlation among non-marine and marine environments on a global scale. Radiometrically dated ammonite zones recognised in Texas provide calibration for the Cenomanian and Turonian portions of the section. Cenomanian and Turonian sediments in north-central Texas preserve the oldest (96 Ma) and the youngest (<85 Ma) well-documented Coniasaurus, a dolichosaur also known from the southern North Sea Basin during that interval. Haasiasaurus, the oldest known well-documented early mosasaur, is found at ‘Ein Yabrud, Israel (98 Ma), followed by other poorly dated Cenomanian taxa from the eastern Mediterranean region, and then by Dallasaurus turneri and Russellosaurus coheni in Texas (92 Ma) and Tethysaurus (90.5 Ma) in Morocco. Neither shifts in δ13C nor large-scale sea level change seem to have influenced dolichosaur or mosasaur evolution in substantial ways during the Cenomanian and Turonian stages.
The north-central Texas Cretaceous section and its contained fossils, as compared to sections at ‘Ein Yabrud in the eastern Mediterranean region, demonstrate that dolichosaurs and primitive mosasaurs inhabited marine environments at least from the intertidal zone to <100 m in depth. The small body size of dolichosaurs and primitive mosasaurs, and the association of Haasiasaurus with marine snakes at ‘Ein Yabrud, suggest similar temperature requirements to modern sea snakes and marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus), specifically sea-surface temperatures between approximately 20° and 30° С The Cenomanian and Turonian stages are characterised by widespread shallow seas with relatively high sea-surface temperatures extending to at least 45° N and 65° S latitude. The distribution of dolichosaurs, mosasaurs and snakes during this interval contradicts palaeoclimate models that predict high (>30° C) equatorial sea-surface temperatures and a steep latitudinal temperature gradient in the Northern Hemisphere.
Supervision is a widely recognised component of counsellor training, yet little is known about the clinical supervision training of rehabilitation counsellor educators during their doctoral education. Using syllabi from doctoral rehabilitation counselling programmes, this article discusses the state of clinical supervision in doctoral-level training, and its teaching and clinical implications. 16 of the 25 Ph.D. programmes in rehabilitation responded to contact, and 11 programmes reported offering a course in supervision. Eight of these programmes shared the syllabus for their doctoral-level supervision course(s). The syllabi were analysed to find common themes related to content, learning objectives, assignments and readings. These themes are discussed, and are followed by five recommendations on the manner in which clinical supervision should be provided in rehabilitation doctoral programmes.
The public health threat posed by zoonotic Plasmodium knowlesi appears to be growing: it is increasingly reported across South East Asia, and is the leading cause of malaria in Malaysian Borneo. Plasmodium knowlesi threatens progress towards malaria elimination as aspects of its transmission, such as spillover from wildlife reservoirs and reliance on outdoor-biting vectors, may limit the effectiveness of conventional methods of malaria control. The development of new quantitative approaches that address the ecological complexity of P. knowlesi, particularly through a focus on its primary reservoir hosts, will be required to control it. Here, we review what is known about P. knowlesi transmission, identify key knowledge gaps in the context of current approaches to transmission modelling, and discuss the integration of these approaches with clinical parasitology and geostatistical analysis. We highlight the need to incorporate the influences of fine-scale spatial variation, rapid changes to the landscape, and reservoir population and transmission dynamics. The proposed integrated approach would address the unique challenges posed by malaria as a zoonosis, aid the identification of transmission hotspots, provide insight into the mechanistic links between incidence and land use change and support the design of appropriate interventions.
GaN and its alloys are promising candidates for high temperature thermoelectric (TE) materials due to their high Seebeck coefficient and high thermal and mechanical stability. Moreover, these materials can overcome the toxicity concern of current Te-based TE materials, such as Bi2Te3 and PbTe. These materials have recently shown a higher Seebeck coefficient than that of SiGe in high temperature region because their large bandgap characteristic eliminates the bipolar conduction. In this study, we report the room temperature thermoelectric properties of p-type Mg doped GaN, grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on sapphire substrate with various carrier concentrations. Undoped and n-type GaN are also incorporated with p-type GaN films to make comparison. The structural, optical, electrical, and thermal properties of the samples were examined by X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence, van der Pauw hall-effect, and thermal gradient methods, respectively. The Seebeck coefficient ranging from 710-900µV/K at room temperature of Mg: GaN were observed, which further indicated their potential TE applications.
We have used high-resolution, HST WFC3/IR, near-infrared imaging to conduct a detailed bulge-disk decomposition of the morphologies of ≃ 200 of the most massive (M* > 1011 M⊙) galaxies at 1 < z < 3 in the CANDELS-UDS field. We find that, while such massive galaxies at low redshift are generally bulge-dominated, at redshifts 1<z<2 they are predominantly mixed bulge+disk systems, and by z > 2 they are mostly disk-dominated. Interestingly, we find that while most of the quiescent galaxies are bulge-dominated, a significant fraction (25–40%) of the most quiescent galaxies, have disk-dominated morphologies. Thus, our results suggest that the physical mechanisms which quench star-formation activity are not simply connected to those responsible for the morphological transformation of massive galaxies.
In this work, a room temperature spin-polarized LED based on ferromagnetic Ga1-xGdxN is reported. The device was grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and is the first report of a spin-LED based on Ga1-xGdxN. Electroluminescence from this device had a degree of polarization of 14.6% at 5000 Gauss and retained a degree of polarization of 9.3% after removal of the applied magnetic field. Ga1-xGdxN thin films were grown on 2 μm GaN templates and were co-doped with Si and Mg to achieve n-type and p-type materials. Co-doping of the Ga1-xGdxN films with Si produced conductive n-type material, while co-doping with Mg produced compensated p-type material. Both Si and Mg co-doped films exhibited room temperature ferromagnetism, measured by vibrating sample magnetometry.
In the past two decades, there has been growing interests in the design and improvement of thermoelectric (TE) materials and devices largely due to their potential use in technologies such as: 1) the conversion of waste heat to electricity, 2) solid-state refrigeration and heating, 3) biomedical batteries, and 4) power sources for both ground and space-based electronics.1 Recent research has suggested that by using nanotechnology (i.e. nanostructuring / nanoengineering) large advances can be gained in controlling interfaces to hinder thermal transport while allowing electrical movement. Thin film structuring of thermoelectric materials potentially offers several advantages over bulk thermoelectric materials especially for cooling applications. Furthermore, others have advocated that by making thermoelectric materials very small, one can achieve an enhanced ZT (the thermoelectric figure of merit) due to quantum confinement effects.2-5 The structure and physical properties of doped fullerene materials were investigated for use as electrically conducting phonon blocking layers. The synthesis and thermal properties of ZnxC60 thin films are reported. Preliminary results have shown the formation of amorphous fullerides structures with thermal conductivities as low as 0.13 Wm-1K-1. Physical and structural measurements (e.g. Electron Microscopy, Electron Diffraction, and Raman Spectroscopy) will be reported detailing the unique structure-property relationships in these materials.
GaN-based dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS) have recently been investigated for use in spintronic devices. In particular, Gd-doped GaN has shown very promising room temperature ferromagnetic behavior and potential for use in spintronics applications. III-Nitride materials have recently had their thermoelectric properties investigated; however this work has not been extended to Nitride-based DMS. Understanding the spin-calorimetric characteristics of GaN-based DMS is important to the successful development of low-power spintronic devices. In this paper the Seebeck and spin-Seebeck effect in MOCVD grown Gd-doped GaN (Gd: GaN) are investigated.
In November 1986 a large-scale survey was undertaken in the Gloucestershire town of Stonehouse during an outbreak of meningococcal disease due to group B type 15 subtype Pl. 16 sulphonamide-resistant strains. There were 15 cases in Stonehouse residents during the 4 years from April 1983, an annual attack rate of 56·5 per 100000. Four secondary cases occurred despite rifampicin prophylaxis. The objectives of this community survey were to investigate patterns of meningococcal carriage, transmission and immunity and to determine the proportion of non-secretors of blood group antigens in the Stonehouse population find amongst meningococcal carriers. A total of 6237 subjects participated including 75% of the 6635 Stonehouse residents. Over 97% of the participants provided all three of the requested specimens – nasopharyngeal swabs, saliva and blood samples.
The co-operation between the many organizations involved in the detailed preliminary planning was instrumental in the success of the survey; in particular the value of effective collaboration between Departments of Community Medicine and Microbiology and of the Public Health Laboratory Service network of laboratories in undertaking investigations of this size and type was clearly demonstrated.
Serum samples from 1963 Merino sheep were examined for serum transferrin type. Two of the five transferrin alleles previously described in British breeds of sheep, viz. T fA and T fc, were found, but T fB, T fD and T fE were absent. Evidence for seven further transferrin alleles was obtained. These alleles were coded T fF, T fG, T fH, T fJ, T fN, T fK and T fL in decreasing order of mobility of the zones they produce in starch gel.
Gene frequency data is presented for the populations studied.