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This chapter consists of a literature review of girls’ and young women’s crime and deviance from a long-term perspective. It shows how certain themes have dominated European discourses and realities of female juvenile delinquency across several centuries and up until the present day, and how these various threats and transgressions have been countered by recurrent strategies. In assessing sexual misconduct, theft and vagrancy – three crime categories that were prevalent among prosecutions of young women – it identifies powerful and enduring narratives centering on concerns about girls’ sexuality and independence. Finally, in comparing responses to female juvenile crime and deviance across Western Europe since the eighteenth century, certain ‘solutions’ have proven dominant and very enduring: institutional confinement of criminal and problem girls on the one hand, and the pathologisation of female (juvenile) crime on the other.
Evaluation studies of active labour market policy show different activation measures generate contradictory results. In the present study, we argue that these contradictory results are due to the fact that the outcomes of activation measures depend on other institutions. The outcome measure in this study is the long-term unemployment rate. Two labour market institutions are of special interest in this context: namely, employment protection and unemployment benefits. Both institutions, depending on their design, may either increase or decrease the effectiveness of active labour market policies in lowering long-term unemployment. Based on an analysis of macro-level data on 20 countries over a period of 16 years, our results show that employment protection strictness and unemployment benefit generosity interact with the way in which active labour market policies relate to long-term unemployment. Our results also indicate that, depending on the measure used, active labour market policies fit either in a flexible or in a coordinated labour market. This suggests that active labour market policies can adhere to both institutional logics, which are encapsulated in different types of measures.
In the past few years, there has been an unprecedented increase in the number of forcibly displaced migrants worldwide, of which a substantial proportion is refugees and asylum seekers. Refugees and asylum seekers may experience high levels of psychological distress, and show high rates of mental health conditions. It is therefore timely and particularly relevant to assess whether current evidence supports the provision of psychosocial interventions for this population. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the efficacy and acceptability of psychosocial interventions compared with control conditions (treatment as usual/no treatment, waiting list, psychological placebo) aimed at reducing mental health problems in distressed refugees and asylum seekers.
We used Cochrane procedures for conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs. We searched for published and unpublished RCTs assessing the efficacy and acceptability of psychosocial interventions in adults and children asylum seekers and refugees with psychological distress. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depressive and anxiety symptoms at post-intervention were the primary outcomes. Secondary outcomes include: PTSD, depressive and anxiety symptoms at follow-up, functioning, quality of life and dropouts due to any reason.
We included 26 studies with 1959 participants. Meta-analysis of RCTs revealed that psychosocial interventions have a clinically significant beneficial effect on PTSD (standardised mean difference [SMD] = −0.71; 95% confidence interval [CI] −1.01 to −0.41; I2 = 83%; 95% CI 78–88; 20 studies, 1370 participants; moderate quality evidence), depression (SMD = −1.02; 95% CI −1.52 to −0.51; I2 = 89%; 95% CI 82–93; 12 studies, 844 participants; moderate quality evidence) and anxiety outcomes (SMD = −1.05; 95% CI −1.55 to −0.56; I2 = 87%; 95% CI 79–92; 11 studies, 815 participants; moderate quality evidence). This beneficial effect was maintained at 1 month or longer follow-up, which is extremely important for populations exposed to ongoing post-migration stressors. For the other secondary outcomes, we identified a non-significant trend in favour of psychosocial interventions. Most evidence supported interventions based on cognitive behavioural therapies with a trauma-focused component. Limitations of this review include the limited number of studies collected, with a relatively low total number of participants, and the limited available data for positive outcomes like functioning and quality of life.
Considering the epidemiological relevance of psychological distress and mental health conditions in refugees and asylum seekers, and in view of the existing data on the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions, these interventions should be routinely made available as part of the health care of distressed refugees and asylum seekers. Evidence-based guidelines and implementation packages should be developed accordingly.
The urbanised peat-rich coastal-deltaic plain of the Netherlands is severely subsiding due to human-induced phreatic groundwater level lowering, as this causes peat layers to compress and oxidise. To determine the potential susceptibility of this area to future subsidence by peat compression and oxidation, the effects of lowering present-day phreatic groundwater levels were quantitatively evaluated using a subsidence model. Input were a 3D geological subsurface voxel-model, modelled phreatic groundwater levels, and functions for peat compression and oxidation. Phreatic groundwater levels were lowered by 0.25 and 0.5m, and the resulting peat compression and oxidation over periods of 15 and 30 years were determined. The model area comprised the major cities Amsterdam and Rotterdam, and their surrounding agricultural lands.
The results revealed that for these scenarios agricultural areas may subside between 0.3 and 0.8m; potential subsidence in Amsterdam and Rotterdam is considerably lower, less than 0.4m. This is due to the presence of several metres thick anthropogenic brought-up soils overlying the peat below the urban areas, which has already compressed the peat to a depth below groundwater level, and thus minimises further compression and oxidation. In agricultural areas peat is often situated near the surface, and is therefore highly compressible and prone to oxidation. The averaged subsidence rates for the scenarios range between 7 and 13mma−1, which is corresponds to present-day rates of subsidence in the peat areas of the Netherlands. These results contrast with the trend of coastal-deltaic subsidence in other deltas, with cities subsiding faster than agricultural areas. This difference is explained by the driver of subsidence: in other deltas, subsidence of urban areas is mainly due to deep aquifer extraction, whereas in the Netherlands subsidence is due to phreatic groundwater level lowering.
Help-seeking is important to access appropriate care and improve mental health. However, individuals often delay or avoid seeking help for mental health problems. Interventions to improve help-seeking have been developed, but their effectiveness is unclear. A systematic review and meta-analysis were therefore conducted to examine the effectiveness of mental health related help-seeking interventions. Nine databases in English, German and Chinese were searched for randomised and non-randomised controlled trials. Effect sizes were calculated for attitudes, intentions and behaviours to seek formal, informal and self-help. Ninety-eight studies with 69 208 participants were included. Interventions yielded significant short-term benefits in terms of formal help-seeking, self-help, as well as mental health literacy and personal stigma. There were also positive long-term effects on formal help-seeking behaviours. The most common intervention types were strategies to increase mental health literacy, destigmatisation (both had positive short-term effects on formal help-seeking behaviours) as well as motivational enhancement (with positive long-term effects on formal help-seeking behaviours). Interventions improved formal help-seeking behaviours if delivered to people with or at risk of mental health problems, but not among children, adolescents or the general public. There was no evidence that interventions increased the use of informal help. Few studies were conducted in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This study provides evidence for the effectiveness of help-seeking interventions in terms of improving attitudes, intentions and behaviours to seek formal help for mental health problems among adults. Future research should develop effective interventions to improve informal help-seeking, for specific target groups and in LMICs settings.
The analysis of stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen has been used as a fingerprint for understanding the trophic interactions of organisms. Most of these studies have been applied to free-living organisms, while parasites have largely been neglected. Studies dealing with parasites so far have assessed the carbon and nitrogen signatures in endoparasites or ectoparasites of different hosts, without showing general trends concerning the nutritional relationships within host–parasite associations. Moreover, in most cases such systems involved a single host and parasite species. The present study is therefore the first to detail the trophic interactions of a freshwater monogenean–host model using δ13C and δ15N, where a single monogenean species infects two distinctly different hosts. Host fishes, Labeobarbus aeneus and Labeobarbus kimberleyensis from the Vaal Dam, South Africa, were assessed for the monogenean parasite Paradiplozoon ichthyoxanthon, individuals of which were removed from the gills of the hosts. The parasites and host muscle samples were analysed for signatures of δ13C and δ15N using an elemental analyser connected to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Host fish appear to use partly different food sources, with L. aeneus having slightly elevated δ13C signatures compared to L. kimberleyensis, and showed only small differences with regard to their nitrogen signatures, suggesting that both species range on the same trophic level. Carbon and nitrogen signatures in P. ichthyoxanthon showed that the parasites mirrored the small differences in dietary carbon sources of the host but, according to δ15N signatures, the parasite ranged on a higher trophic level than the hosts. This relationship resembles predator–prey relationships and therefore suggests that P. ichthyoxanthon might act as a micropredator, similar to blood-sucking arthropods such as mites and fleas.
This chapter examines the role of the great Indian epics in the process of signification in the Panji romance Hikayat Misa Taman Jayeng Kusuma (copied or written between 1860 and 1870), concentrating on five episodes in its narrative. It traces the intertextual presence of elements familiar from Mahabharata and Ramayana, and suggests that the hikayat's most probable sources are New Javanese (wayang kulit purwa) and Malay (hikayat's) adaptations of episodes of these epics, the creation of which was more or less contemporary with the hikayat's probable date of composition, and not Old-Javanese ones in the form of kakawin. The unknown author of the hikayat freely combines disparate elements from these adaptations to create what may be called mirrortexts commenting on the hikayat's narrative and thus adds new layers of meaning to it. The chapter closes with some considerations about how and why the hikayat foregrounds its own fictionality, relating this to what Malay poetics calls creative amplification (memanjangkan), a key characteristic of all narrative in the genre of the Panji romance.
Keywords: Literary criticism, intertextuality, traditional Malay literature, Old-Javanese poetry, wayang kulit purwa.
First the story is told that the gods were sitting together in the Hall of the Lotus of Illusion, discussing a plan to send Betara Indera Naya and his wife down to incarnate in the Illusionary Abode. Since the Pandawa kings had long ago gone back to the heavens, the Illusionary Abode had become a deserted place and their land was about to become forest again. The gods therefore liked the idea and all agreed with Betara Kala's proposal.
With these words opens the narrative of a bulky Malay Panji romance, entitled Hikayat Misa Taman Jayeng Kusuma (henceforth called HMTJK), that according to its editor, Abdul Rahman Kaeh (1976), was possibly copied or written between 1860 and 1870. On Betara Kala's proposal, so the hikayat subsequently tells us, Betara Indera Naya and his wife Dewi Mandurati descend to earth and incarnate as the king and queen of Koripan, whose sons then become the kings of the Javanese kingdoms of Koripan, Daha, Gagelang and Singasari, and whose daughter marries the king of Manjapahit.
The major histocompatibility complex region has been implicated in explaining some of the variation observed in adaptability and tick susceptibility of cattle. The bovine leukocyte antigen region of 192 cattle representing indigenous, composite and exotic breeds used in commercial beef production in Namibia and South Africa was investigated using four microsatellite markers. Ticks counted under the tail were taken as an indicator of tick susceptibility. Tick scores of all but one population was low (11 to 20 ticks), with only the South African Bonsmara population having an average score of 31 to 40 ticks per animal. The observed variation based on four microsatellite markers ranged from 5.5 alleles in Namibian Afrikaner to 7.7 alleles in South African Nguni and Bonsmara cattle. Unbiased heterozygosity values ranged from 0.66 (Namibian Afrikaner) to 0.76 (South African Bonsmara). Structure analyses grouped the five populations into three indistinct clusters with limited genetic variation between the populations.
The most popular beef breed in South Africa is the Bonsmara, a locally developed composite breed adapted to sub-tropical conditions. The establishment of a genomic reference population is currently ongoing for the application of genomic selection. To date, 583 Bonsmara cattle (388 bulls and 195 cows) have been genotyped with the GeneSeek® Genomic Profiler Bovine HD™ Chip (GGP-HD) 80 K chip, and the population structure of the reference population was studied. The average minor allele frequency for the Bonsmara was 0.280 across 56 248 autosomal single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), whereas the observed and expected heterozygosity values were 0.361 and 0.365, respectively. After pruning the data set for SNPs in linkage disequilibrium, 19 119 SNPs were retained, averaging 659 SNPs per autosomal chromosome. This generated an average SNP density of 1 SNP per 90 kb. Structure analysis revealed a non-homogenous population with a high level of genetic admixture, which may negatively influence genomic breeding value prediction accuracy. Genotyping of a further 990 Bonsmara cattle are pending, using the GeneSeek® GGP-HD 150 K chip. As more animals will be added to the reference population, the profile of the reference population are expected to change in such a way to ensure improved genomic estimated breeding value accuracies.
The Landshut bentonites that formed from Ca- and Mg-poor rhyolitic tuffs in a fluviatile-lacustrine depositional environment of the Miocene Upper Freshwater Molasse, southern Germany, contain abundant palustrine, pedogenic and groundwater carbonates. Geochemical analyses of dolomites, calcites and smectites from bentonites of various environments by X-ray diffraction, thermal ionization mass spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, and handheld X-ray fluorescence yield new insights into the compositions of fluids and sources of imported components involved in carbonate formation and bentonitization, as well as the timing of bentonite formation. Evaporated, Sr-rich brackish surface water with a molar Mg/Ca ratio of 2–5, derived mostly from the weathering of detrital carbonates, was involved in dolomite and bentonite formation in palustrine and some pedogenic environments. However, Sr-poor groundwater with a molar Mg/Ca ratio of ∼ 1 and a stronger silicate weathering component caused bentonite and calcite formation in strictly pedogenic and groundwater settings. The 87Sr/86Sr and molar Mg/Ca in the smectite interlayers indicate later cation exchange with water having more radiogenic Sr sources and smaller molar Mg/Ca ratios. The Rb-Sr data indicate the common presence of detrital illitic phases in the <0.2 μm fractions of the bentonites. Cogenetic palustrine dolomite and a single smectite residue sample which lacks this detrital illitic phase provide an age constraint for bentonitization at 14.7 ± 4.1 Ma identical to primary ash deposition. Thus a rapid onset of bentonitization of accumulated ash and dolomite formation in evaporation-driven wetland environments is indicated for the genesis of the Landshut bentonites.