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To date, there have been few studies on dietary supplement (DS) use in Korean children and adolescents, using nationally representative data. This study aimed to investigate the current status of DS use and its related factors, among Korean children and adolescents from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) data.
A cross-sectional study.
Data from the KNHANES 2015–2017. Participants completed 24-h dietary recall interviews, including DS products that the subjects consumed.
The study population was 4380 children and adolescents aged 1–18 years.
Approximately 2013 % of children and adolescents were using DS; the highest use was among children aged 1–3 years old, and the lowest use was among adolescents aged 16–18 years. The most frequently used DS was prebiotics/probiotics, followed by multivitamin/mineral supplements. Factors that were associated with DS use were lower birth weight in children aged <4 years; younger age, higher household income, regular breakfast intake and lower BMI in children aged 4–9 years; and regular breakfast intake and use of nutrition facts label in adolescents aged 10–18 years. Feeding patterns in infancy and having chronic diseases were not associated with DS use.
We report that over 20 % of children and adolescents use DS. Nutritional education for parents and children about proper DS consumption is needed.
The aim of this study was to measure whether participating in Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program – Education (SNAP-Ed) interventions is associated with changes in meeting recommendations for healthy eating and food resource management behaviours, such as shopping, among low-income children, adolescents, and adults in eight states in the US Southeast. The study used a one-group pre-test post-test design, analysing aggregate data on nutrition and shopping behaviours collected during Federal Fiscal Year 17 from SNAP-Ed direct education in community settings. Twenty-five implementing agencies in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee provided aggregated data on program participants. Because survey questions differed, agencies followed standard recoding guidelines. The number of participants varied depending on the indicator; the maximum number was n 43 303 pre-tests, n 43 256 post-test. Participants were significantly more likely to consume more than one kind of fruit (pooled relative risk (RR), 1⋅10; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1⋅09–1⋅11) and more than one kind of vegetable (pooled RR, 1⋅14; 95% CI, 1⋅12–1⋅15) after the intervention than before. On average, participants consumed 0⋅34 cups more of fruit per day (95% CI, 0⋅31–0⋅37), and 0⋅22 cups more of vegetables per day (95% CI, 0⋅19–0⋅25) after the intervention, compared to before. About 701 policy, systems, and environmental changes for nutrition supports were reported. This study suggests that SNAP-Ed direct education is associated with positive behaviour changes in the US Southeast. It provides a methodology that can inform data aggregation efforts across unique SNAP-Ed programs or other similar nutrition education programs to report on the collective impact.
What are the social and political consequences of poor state governance and low state legitimacy? Under what conditions does lynching – lethal, extralegal group violence to punish offenses to the community – become an acceptable practice? We argue lynching emerges when neither the state nor its challengers have a monopoly over legitimate authority. When authority is contested or ambiguous, mass punishment for transgressions can emerge that is public, brutal, and requires broad participation. Using new cross-national data, we demonstrate lynching is a persistent problem in dozens of countries over the last four decades. Drawing on original survey and interview data from Haiti and South Africa, we show how lynching emerges and becomes accepted. Specifically, support for lynching most likely occurs in one of three conditions: when states fail to provide governance, when non-state actors provide social services, or when neighbors must rely on self-help.
Sigma-delta radio over fiber (ΣΔ-RoF) is an expedient technology for next-generation networks including 5G cloud/centralized radio access networks (C-RAN). In this article, we demonstrate a realistic experimental scenario for ΣΔ-RoF link targeting C-RAN fronthaul applications, by using baseband second-order 1-bit sigma-delta modulation (ΣΔ-M). The experimental set-up validates the LTE 20 MHz signals having modulation order of 256-quadrature amplitude modulation for a carrier frequency of 3 GHz, up to 10 km of standard single mode fiber. A detailed analysis of the ΣΔ-RoF system performance is reported by adjacent channel leakage ratio and error vector magnitude. Furthermore, an experimental study is evaluated where ΣΔ-RoF is compared with its counterparts. It is deduced that ΣΔ-RoF corroborates the present range of C-RAN fronthaul networks and can be a promising candidate for future mobile haul applications.
This study developed a simulation program using standardized patients for the training of mental health practitioners in psychological first aid and evaluated its effect on learners’ self-efficacy and psychological first aid performance competence and knowledge. The simulation used in this program was of a fire disaster.
Thirty participants were randomly assigned to an experimental group, a comparison group, and a control group. The experimental group participated in simulation training after attending a two-hour psychological first aid lecture. The comparison group was given only the two-hour lecture and the control group was given a psychological first aid handout to study individually. The results of pre- and post-intervention questionnaires were then statistically analyzed.
The participants’ self-efficacy, performance competency, and knowledge improved in all groups, and there were some statistically significant differences between the three groups. The experimental group showed a greater improvement in self-efficacy and performance than the other groups.
The psychological first aid simulation training program was effective in improving three qualities of mental health practitioners: self-efficacy, performance competency, and knowledge. Further research is required for the development of various learning scenarios for iterative psychological first aid education.
This article analyses Bell Hill (Kane no naru oka), the NHK radio drama designed by US-occupation personnel, and the fervent audience response, while treating this redemption story of war-affected homeless children as a trope for Japanese reorientation under American tutelage. Specifically, it examines the two major tenets of the rehabilitative vision delineated in the serial, liberal guidance based on the principles of self-government and sentimental brotherhood. Questioning the underlying assumption of post-war discourses that they were new, humanitarian fundamentals for Japan's democratic transformation, this study considers liberal principles and sentimentalism as technologies of power and the self that affected both drama's characters and receptive audiences to refigure themselves as responsible and empathetic members of the newly imagined national community. Through this approach, the article suggests a way to resist a simplistic account of Japan's post-war reorientation as either unilateral indoctrination or liberation. The historical experience is instead rearticulated as a process of self-rehabilitation within the biopolitical order of American Cold-War governmentality. This rearticulation opens a further possibility to locate the specific rendering of Japan's post-war rehabilitation within a wider trans-war continuum of human reformation projects implemented through similar technologies of power and the self in Japan and beyond.
The 14C peak in AD 775 (M12) has been measured and confirmed globally in several studies since it was first measured in annual tree rings by Miyake et al. (2012). However, M12 data measurements in early- and latewood are limited. This paper presents the Δ14C values in early- and latewood from AD 762–776 Zelkova serrata tree rings from Bangu-dong, Ulsan, South Korea (35°33′N, 129°20′E). The results indicate no early rise in Δ14C values in the latewood of AD 774 in this sample located at mid-latitude. A comparison of the results of this and previous studies suggests latitude dependence (Büntgen et al. 2018); that is, the early rise of Δ14C in AD 774 was not observed at mid-latitudes in South Korea but was observed at high latitudes in Finland. The half-oxidation time of 14C was estimated from a detailed analysis of a small bomb peak in AD 1962. Based on the half-oxidation time, the Δ14C rise in the latewood, but not in the earlywood, of AD 774 in Finland, and the absence of a Δ14C rise in both the early- and latewood of AD 774 in South Korea, the 14C spike was estimated to have been produced from late April to mid-June in AD 774.
A few brave researchers ventured into the arena of creative cognition, with three in particular – Kenneth Heilman (2003), Arne Dietrich (2004), and Alice Flaherty (2005) – putting forth specific theoretical constructs amenable to empirical research. These theories emerged at the front end of a large body of neuroimaging research regarding brain correlates of creative cognition emerging in the early part of the twenty-first century. Hundreds of studies followed these pioneers’ thoughtful attempts to isolate creative capacity within brain structure and function. Two major questions are addressed: (1) How did their theories hold up in light of empirical data? (2) Do their theoretical constructs have implications for the nascent hypothesizing around imagination ability?
This study aims at proposing an AI-agent model that helps designers to understand and interpret clients’ intent and create customized design outcomes. We recorded and analysed the purchasing process of collecting product information, selecting alternative products and making decision to understand the influence of artefacts on the client's intent during the purchasing process and collect the basic data for proposing an AI-agent model. We analysed the process by Linkography and found the relationship between the decision-making patterns and the artefacts that presented by the AI-agent.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Cancer survivors are at increased risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus.It is not clear if diabetes susceptibility is due to shared risk factors for cancer and diabetes, such as obesity, or if it is directly related to cancer and its treatment. We investigated the association between malignancy and insulin resistance, a major risk factor for diabetes. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: 20 adult patients with treated hematological malignancies and 21 controls without cancer were included in the study. Individuals with pre-existing diabetes were excluded. All patients underwent a 2-hour 75-gram oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps were performed to measure the steady-state glucose infusion rate (M-value) as an indicator of whole-body glucose utilization during insulin stimulation. Insulin sensitivity index was calculated by dividing M-value over the steady-state plasma insulin (M/I). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Fasting or postprandial plasma glucose levels during the OGTT did not differ significantly between malignancy patients and controls (Table 2). Difference in the insulin-stimulated glucose utilization (M-value) was not statistically significant among cancer patients and controls (median, 7.2 [IQR, 6.2-10.4] vs. 7.3 [IQR, 5.5-8.9] mg/kg/min; P = 0.261). M/I index was significantly higher in malignancy patients compared to controls (median, 42.4 mg/kg/min/(µU/ml) [IQR, 33.9-67.2] vs. 23.4 mg/kg/min/(µU/ml) [IQR, 12.9-29.2], P <0.001), however insulin clearance was also lower in the controls. In multivariate analysis, only BMI was significantly associated with M-value (β = −0.2 (95% CI −0.4, −0.1), P = 0.004), and M/I (β = −2 (95% CI −3.4, −0.5), P = 0.009). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Our data suggest that the major contributor to diabetes development after diagnosis of cancer in adults is obesity-induced insulin resistance, not malignancy related factors. These findings emphasize the importance of obesity management in long-term survival of cancer patients, as diabetes is a risk factor for mortality in this patient population.
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive cutaneous neuroendocrine tumour. Although surgical resection is a treatment choice, it often occurs in the head and neck and occurs mainly in the elderly, making surgery impossible. Radical radiation therapy may be an alternative to surgery in these patients. In addition, radiation treatment may be performed even after recurrence after surgery.
An 82-year-old MCC patient had cT2N0M0, stage IIA MCC on the left cheek that metastasised to lymph node 2 months after surgery. She was treated with radiation monotherapy with a hypofractionation schedule (39 Gy at 3 Gy per fraction).
The patient achieved complete remission after radiotherapy without severe toxicities.
Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) started to occur in South Korea by means of inflow of the virus from abroad, when a case from Wuhan, China, was first confirmed on January 19, 2020. Although South Korea has drastically reduced the number of new confirmed cases and is stabilizing the situation with its exemplary disease prevention policies, there remains a problem. These are cases that had shown negative results to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (gene amplification) tests as the COVID-19 virus had become undetectable but turned re-positive after a short period. The Central Clinical Committee determined that these re-positive cases after COVID-19 viral clearance are due to the limits of the test method; it is considered that the genetic material of the “dead virus” remaining in a recovered patient’s body is amplified during the test process. Comprehending the above evidence, re-positive cases of COVID-19 are not infectious; the virus is not even reactivated. However, further research is required as we lack research results on this subject. Until we can be sure, social distancing and other such policies should be maintained.
Immobilization of the cervical spine by Emergency Medical Services (EMS) personnel is a standard procedure. In most EMS, multiple immobilization tools are available.
The aim of this study is the analysis of residual spine motion under different types of cervical spine immobilization.
In this explorative biomechanical study, different immobilization techniques were performed on three healthy subjects. The test subjects’ heads were then passively moved to cause standardized spinal motion. The primary endpoints were the remaining range of motion for flexion, extension, bending, and rotation measured with a wireless human motion detector.
In the case of immobilization of the test person (TP) on a straight (0°) vacuum mattress, the remaining rotation of the cervical spine could be reduced from 7° to 3° by additional headblocks. Also, the remaining flexion and extension were reduced from 14° to 3° and from 15° to 6°, respectively. The subjects’ immobilization was best on a spine board using a headlock system and the Spider Strap belt system (MIH-Medical; Georgsmarienhütte, Germany). However, the remaining cervical spine extension increased from 1° to 9° if a Speedclip belt system was used (Laerdal; Stavanger, Norway). The additional use of a cervical collar was not advantageous in reducing cervical spine movement with a spine board or vacuum mattress.
The remaining movement of the cervical spine is minimal when the patient is immobilized on a spine board with a headlock system and a Spider Strap harness system or on a vacuum mattress with additional headblocks. The remaining movement of the cervical spine could not be reduced by the additional use of a cervical collar.
Salmonella is a leading cause of foodborne outbreaks in Taiwan. On 27 April 2018, a salmonellosis outbreak among customers of a restaurant was reported to the Taiwan CDC. We investigated the outbreak to identify infection sources and prevent further transmission. We interviewed ill customers and their dining companions. We conducted a case-control study to identify foods associated with the illness. Case-patients were those who had diarrhoea within 72 h after eating at the restaurant during 16–27 April 2018. Specimens, food samples and environmental samples were collected and tested for enteric pathogens. Salmonella isolates were analysed with pulse-field gel electrophoresis and whole-genome sequencing. We inspected the restaurant sanitation and reviewed kitchen surveillance camera recordings. We identified 47 case-patients, including one decedent. Compared with 44 controls, case-patients were more likely to have had a French toast sandwich (OR: 102.4; 95% CI: 18.7–952.3). Salmonella Enteritidis isolates from 16 case-patients shared an indistinguishable genotype. Camera recordings revealed eggshell contamination, long holding time at room temperature and use of leftovers during implicated food preparation. Recommendations for restaurant egg-containing food preparation are to use pasteurised egg products and ensure a high enough cooking temperature and long enough cooking time to prevent Salmonella contamination.
On December 31, 2019, the Chinese government officially announced that the country had a single pneumonia case with an unknown cause. In the weeks after, South Korea had 24 confirmed cases by February 8, and the number has increased steadily since then. The highly contagious virus known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infected Case No. 31 in Daegu; she was the first patient related to Sincheonji Church. Later, the number of cases involved with Sincheonji skyrocketed. On March 6, 2020, the number of confirmed cases was 6284, with 42 dead. This study, through collecting epidemiological data about various COVID-19 infection cases, discovered that getting together in large groups leads to mass infection, and that paying close attention to personal hygiene by means of wearing masks, sanitary gloves, etc., can prevent the spread of COVID-19. Additional epidemiological data and related studies on COVID-19 infections in South Korea are likely to support or slightly modify this conclusion. However, this study is significant in that it emphasizes the precautionary principle in preventing and managing infectious diseases, and has a suggestion for public health policies, which are currently in high demand.
Introduction: Trauma resuscitations are sporadic high acuity situations that can be difficult to assess for areas of quality improvement. We aim to analyse the type of observation that occurs during trauma resuscitations and outcomes that develop as a result. Methods: Medline was searched from 1946 to May 2019 for studies involving direct observation of trauma resuscitation. English studies of both adult and pediatric populations from 2000 onwards were included for study. They were compared for type of observation (in-person vs video) as well as primary outcomes of their observation and any quality improvement as a result. Results: A total of 413 publications were identified with 10 meeting eligibility for inclusion. All 10 studies underwent video review with no in-person review being performed. The most common primary outcome was analysis of a critical procedure (6 studies), with tracheal intubation being studied in 4 studies and thoracotomy and vascular access each being studied once. The remaining studies measured communication styles and team effectiveness. Overall 5 of the 10 studies resulted in new policies being put in place for trauma resuscitations, including; use of interosseous lines as first lines in trauma patients in extremis, tracheal intubation check list, and continuing with medical student participation in cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Conclusion: This study highlights some of the common focuses of trauma resuscitation observation; critical procedures, team dynamics and communication. A majority of studies focused on critical procedures during resuscitations and quality improvement in the form of checklists to improve them. Remaining studies focused on equally important aspects of team functioning and communication which can be more difficult to objectively measure and derive quality improvement measures for. These studies led an emphasis on use of a horizontal assessment style and closed loop communication in all their trauma resuscitation.
Flow physics plays a key role in nearly every facet of the COVID-19 pandemic. This includes the generation and aerosolization of virus-laden respiratory droplets from a host, its airborne dispersion and deposition on surfaces, as well as the subsequent inhalation of these bioaerosols by unsuspecting recipients. Fluid dynamics is also key to preventative measures such as the use of face masks, hand washing, ventilation of indoor environments and even social distancing. This article summarizes what we know and, more importantly, what we need to learn about the science underlying these issues so that we are better prepared to tackle the next outbreak of COVID-19 or a similar disease.