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Respiratory depression is a common and unwanted side-effect of anaesthetics, sedatives and analgesics. It has been known since the end of the 18th century that anaesthesia has pronounced effects on control of respiration, however the effects are highly specific depending on the drug and drug concentration.
Sub-acute ruminal acidosis (SARA) can reduce the production efficiency and impair the welfare of cattle, potentially in all production systems. The aim of this study was to characterise measurable postmortem observations from divergently managed intensive beef finishing farms with high rates of concentrate feeding. At the time of slaughter, we obtained samples from 19 to 20 animals on each of 6 beef finishing units (119 animals in total) with diverse feeding practices, which had been subjectively classified as being high risk (three farms) or low risk (three farms) for SARA on the basis of the proportions of barley, silage and straw in the ration. We measured the concentrations of histamine, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), lactate and other short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in ruminal fluid, LPS and SCFA in caecal fluid. We also took samples of the ventral blind sac of the rumen for histopathology, immunohistopathology and gene expression. Subjective assessments were made of the presence of lesions on the ruminal wall, the colour of the lining of the ruminal wall and the shape of the ruminal papillae. Almost all variables differed significantly and substantially among farms. Very few pathological changes were detected in any of the rumens examined. The animals on the high-risk diets had lower concentrations of SCFA and higher concentrations of lactate and LPS in the ruminal fluid. Higher LPS concentrations were found in the caecum than the rumen but were not related to the risk status of the farm. The diameters of the stratum granulosum, stratum corneum and of the vasculature of the papillae, and the expression of the gene TLR4 in the ruminal epithelium were all increased on the high-risk farms. The expression of IFN-γ and IL-1β and the counts of cluster of differentiation 3 positive and major histocompatibility complex class two positive cells were lower on the high-risk farms. High among-farm variation and the unbalanced design inherent in this type of study in the field prevented confident assignment of variation in the dependent variables to individual dietary components; however, the CP percentage of the total mixed ration DM was the factor that was most consistently associated with the variables of interest. Despite the strong effect of farm on the measured variables, there was wide inter-animal variation.
Based on an investigation of the Old Bailey Corpus, this article explores the development and usage patterns of maximizers in Late Modern English (LModE). The maximizers to be considered for inclusion in the study are based on the lists provided in Quirk et al. (1985) and Huddleston & Pullum (2002). The aims of the study were to (i) document the frequency development of maximizers, (ii) investigate the sociolinguistic embedding of maximizers usage (gender, class) and (iii) analyze the sociopragmatics of maximizers based on the speakers’ roles, such as judge or witness, in the courtroom.
Of the eleven maximizer types focused on in the investigation, perfectly and entirely were found to dominate in frequency. The whole group was found to rise over the period 1720 to 1913. In terms of gender, social class and speaker roles, there was variation in the use of maximizers across the different speaker groups. Prominently, defendants, but also judges and lawyers, maximized more than witnesses and victims; further, male speakers and higher-ranking speakers used more maximizers. The results were interpreted taking into account the courtroom context and its dialogue dynamics.
Taking SDG 5 seriously in relation to forests brings to the forefront what is usually taken for granted in forest debates: people, their relationships to one another and to the forests that determine forest outcomes. In this chapter, we bring to light the invisible labour and relations that underpin good forest management. We show how systemic and contextual factors such as health, gender-based violence and unpaid care work by forest peoples in the forests and outside are crucial to the welfare of forests and forest dependent peoples. So far, little progress has been made in implementing SDG5 targets within forestry. Political will is needed to transform unequal relationships and to support demands for forest justice. There is a need to challenge privilege based on sex, class, ethnicity or caste and to destabilize inequitable micro- and macro-economic structures such as commodification and support democratic forest governance to work towards greater sustainability. It is also important to keep in mind that well-intentioned efforts, such as gender programmes can have adverse effects if not cognisant of contextual power relations. The welfare and dignity that achieving SDG 5 would bring to forest peoples and livelihoods is essential to ensuring better managed and sustainable forests.
This chapter assesses the implications of UN SDG 16: ‘Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions’ for both forests and people. Particular focus is placed on three thematic areas: 1) peace and the reduction of armed conflict, 2) the rule of law, accountability, transparency, and access to justice and 3) inclusiveness and participation. Conflict is widely variable in its effects, and may either prevent agricultural expansion or drive illicit crop production, and foster migration in or out of forested areas; while peace is often accompanied by state-supported mining and expansion of commercial crops. Regarding rule of law, forest policy in many countries favours political elite, large-scale industry actors and international trade. Hence, if SDG implementation strengthens state institutions, the ‘rule of law’ and transparency linked with international trade, it is likely to reinforce existing inequalities, unless it is counter-balanced with legal reforms that strengthen local rights to land and resources. While there has been much recent progress in promoting ‘participatory’ forest management, this is often tightly controlled by the state, contributing to local administrative burdens without redistributing power and benefits. In sum, the impacts of SDG 16 on forests and people depend on how it shapes power and resource distribution.
Recent infrastructural developments in Senegal have severely impacted on the livelihoods of female bana-banas from Mali, a group of mobile traders operating in the Mali–Dakar corridor: transportation costs have significantly increased, travelling has become a more exhausting experience, and fatal accidents have become more frequent during journeys. Why did the bana-banas continue these arduous journeys? Why was their physical presence required in Dakar, and why did they not rely more extensively on social networks to facilitate their transnational trade? This article examines the conditions of autonomy, flexibility and limited trust that characterized the bana-banas’ livelihoods and necessitated their continued mobility from Mali. The recent infrastructural transformations have led to an increased commercialization and disarticulation of Malian trade networks in the Senegalese capital, and, due to personal circumstances, the women have often been cut off from networks. However, unlike general expectations of the ways in which networks evolve under conditions of neoliberalism, the bana-banas have not turned to personalized relationships of trust in Dakar, which might have facilitated their trade from a distance. The article contributes to the growing literature on social networks and trust by exploring how transnational trade does and does not work at this historical moment and in the context of gendered constraints.
One of the most common causes of calf diarrhoea is the parasite Cryptosporidium parvum. Two longitudinal studies were carried out on a dairy farm Scotland to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium species and subtypes in a group of calves and to determine whether dams were a possible source of calfhood infection. Fecal samples were collected from 25 calves from birth to 12 months in the first year. In the second year, fecal samples were collected from pregnant cows (n = 29) and their calves (n = 30) from birth to 6 months. The samples were tested for Cryptosporidium and speciated. Cryptosporidium parvum-positive samples were subtyped by GP60 fragment analysis. All calves in both studies shed Cryptosporidium during the study period. Cryptosporidium parvum was the predominant species detected in calves ⩽6 weeks of age and at 6 months of age, C. bovis and C. ryanae were detected in calves older than 4 weeks of age but ⩽6 months of age. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium was higher in younger animals than in older animals. GP60 subtyping revealed two subtypes in calves on this farm (IIaA15G2R1 and IIaA19G2R1) that differed in frequency by age. Adult cattle also shed C. parvum, of four gp60 genotypes.
While pen-and-paper sketches is generally considered the best tool for design ideation, there are certain areas of design where the ideas being generated do not easily lend themselves to sketching. This study reports on two cases that explores the use of game engines in combination with Virtual Reality (VR) to visualize lighting in the automotive industry. In the first case, the exterior lights of a car were visualized using Unreal Engine 4 and evaluated using research through design and expert interviews. In the second case, Unreal Engine VR Editor was used to explore ideation and concept development of interior lighting in long haulage trucks. The insights from the cases suggest that game engines and VR can be used to quickly develop and display ideas, concepts and scenarios in the early phases of the lighting design process. These strengths suggest that game engines and VR also have the potential to support design ideation for other types of design.
The immune system has been suggested to be associated with neuropsychiatric disorders; for example, elevated levels of cytokines and the inflammation-related transcription factor nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) have been reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The aim of this study was to investigate possible associations between autistic-like traits (ALTs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in NFKB1 (encoding a subunit of the NF-κB protein complex) and NF-κB inhibitor-like protein 1 (NFKBIL1).
The study was conducted in a cohort from the general population: The Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS, n = 12 319, 9–12 years old). The subjects were assessed by the Autism-Tics, ADHD, and Other Comorbidities Inventory. Five SNPs within the two genes were genotyped (NFKBIL1: rs2857605, rs2239707, rs2230365 and rs2071592; NFKB1: rs4648022).
We found significant associations for two SNPs in NFKBIL1: rs2239707 showed a significant distribution of genotype frequencies in the case-control analysis both for all individuals combined and in boys only, and rs2230365 was significantly associated with the ALTs-module language impairment in boys only. Furthermore, we found nominal association in the case-control study for rs2230365, replicating earlier association between this SNP and ASD in an independent genome-wide association study.
The shown associations between polymorphisms in NFKBIL1 and ALTs are supporting an influence of the immune system on neuropsychiatric symptoms.
In the early nineteenth century, political economists, politicians, and geologists debated the size and duration of the British coal supply. For mineral Malthusians, the argument about a dwindling supply sharpened anxieties about population pressure, fuel demand, and limited resources. They introduced a new sense of geological limits and long-term obligations into the theology of atonement. But for cornucopian liberals, the shift to a mineral energy regime supplied a powerful refutation to the Malthusian forecast. Inexhaustible coal promised growth without end.
We aimed at exploring potential pathophysiological processes across psychotic disorders, applying metabolomics in a large and well-characterized sample of patients and healthy controls.
Patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders (N = 212) and healthy controls (N = 68) had blood sampling with subsequent metabolomics analyses using electrochemical coulometric array detection. Concentrations of 52 metabolites including tyrosine, tryptophan and purine pathways were compared between patients and controls while controlling for demographic and clinical characteristics. Significant findings were further tested in medication-free subsamples.
Significantly decreased plasma concentrations in patients compared to healthy controls were found for 3-hydroxykynurenine (3OHKY, p = 0.0008), xanthurenic acid (XANU, p = 1.5×10−5), vanillylmandelic acid (VMA, p = 4.5×10−5) and metanephrine (MN, p = 0.0001). Plasma concentration of xanthine (XAN) was increased in the patient group (p = 3.5×10−5). Differences of 3OHKY, XANU, VMA and XAN were replicated across schizophrenia spectrum disorders and bipolar disorders subsamples of medication-free individuals.
Although prone to residual confounding, the present results suggest the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism, noradrenergic and purinergic system dysfunction as trait factors in schizophrenia spectrum and bipolar disorders. Of special interest is XANU, a metabolite previously not found to be associated with bipolar disorders.
Generalized planning studies the representation, computation and evaluation of solutions that are valid for multiple planning instances. These are topics studied since the early days of AI. However, in recent years, we are experiencing the appearance of novel formalisms to compactly represent generalized planning tasks, the solutions to these tasks (called generalized plans) and efficient algorithms to compute generalized plans. The paper reviews recent advances in generalized planning and relates them to existing planning formalisms, such as planning with domain control knowledge and approaches for planning under uncertainty, that also aim at generality.
The following exchange was the result of ongoing informal conversations among the
contributors, who are all, in different ways, interested in the emergent concept of the
Anthropocene and the challenges it posed, and the opportunities it provided, for
historians working on Britain and the world. The conversation began at the end of 2015 and
continued for about a year.
To examine prenatal APAP exposure in relation to language development in offspring at 30 months of age.
A population-based pregnancy cohort study including 754 women who enrolled in the Swedish Environmental Longitudinal, Mother and child, Asthma and allergy (SELMA) study in pregnancy week 8–13. Two exposure measures were used: (1) maternally reported number of APAP tablets taken between conception and enrollment; (2) APAP urinary concentration at enrollment. Language development at 30 months was assessed by nurse's evaluation and parental questionnaire, including the number of words the child used (<25, 25–50 and >50). Main study outcome; parental report of use of fewer than 50 words, termed language delay (LD).
59.2% of women enrolled in weeks 8–13 reported taking APAP between conception and enrollment. APAP was measurable in all urine samples and urinary APAP was correlated with the number of APAP taken during pregnancy (P<0.01). Language delay was more prevalent in boys (12.6%) than girls (4.1%) (8.5% in total). Both the number of APAP tablets and urinary APAP concentration were associated with greater LD in girls but not in boys. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for LD among girls whose mothers reported >6 vs. 0 APAP tablets was 5.92 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10–31.94). The OR for LD in girls whose mothers’ urinary APAP was in the highest compared to the lowest quartile was 10.34 (95% CI 1.37–77.86). While it cannot be ruled out, our available data do not support confounding by indication.
Given the prevalence of prenatal APAP use and the importance of language development, these findings, if replicated, would suggest that pregnant women should limit their use of this analgesic during pregnancy.
Within Scandinavia, Sweden stands out for not having gone to war in over 200 years. Its neighboring states—Finland, Denmark, and Norway—have not been as fortunate. Their respective constitutions each provide insight into their different experiences. The Swedish Constitution remains silent on emergency situations that do not rise to the predefined level of “war.” The Finnish constitution differs from the Swedish in that it allows for time-limited restrictions to protect fundamental rights and freedoms during a state of emergency, aggression, or any other situation that poses a severe threat to the nation, if stipulated by law and in congruence with international obligations of Finland. Importantly, when and how a government can declare a state of emergency is a question of ordinary law, rather than a constitutional one. This Article offers a comparative constitutional law analysis of the relative constitutional silence in Sweden and Finland as concerns emergency powers. The analysis takes as its starting point Böckenförde's The Repressed State of Emergency: The Exercise of State Authority in Extraordinary Circumstances.
Delays in rotavirus vaccine schedule could improve performance in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, delaying the first dose could be detrimental if infants experience severe rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) early in life. Our objective was to describe the timing and predictors of severe RVGE in unvaccinated children in LMICs. We analysed the placebo arms from two clinical trials (cohort 1: NCT00241644; cohort 2: NCT00362648). We estimated the rate, cumulative incidence (per 1000 infants) and age distribution of severe RVGE episodes. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between baseline factors and severe RVGE. Cumulative incidence at 6 months of age was 23/1000 (95% CI 15–30) in cohort 1 and 6/1000 (95% CI 3–8) in cohort 2. Early antibiotic use (compared with no use) was associated with 2.03 (95% CI 1.18–3.48) and 1.41 (95% CI 0.80–2.51) times the rate of severe RVGE in cohorts 1 and 2, respectively. The cumulative incidence of severe RVGE was low at 6 months of age, suggesting that a 4-week delay in the vaccination schedule may not result in a large number of severe RVGE episodes prior to vaccine receipt.