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Mary Wollstonecraft (1759–1797) was one of the most influential and controversial women of her age. No writer, except perhaps her political foe, Edmund Burke, and her fellow reformer, Thomas Paine, inspired more intense reactions. In her brief literary career before her untimely death in 1797, Wollstonecraft achieved remarkable success in an unusually wide range of genres: from education tracts and political polemics, to novels and travel writing. Just as impressive as her expansive range was the profound evolution of her thinking in the decade that she flourished as an author. In this collection of essays, leading international scholars reveal the intricate biographical, critical, cultural, and historical context crucial for understanding Mary Wollstonecraft's oeuvre. Chapters including British radicalism and conservatism, French philosophes and English Dissenters, constitutional law and domestic law, sentimental literature, eighteenth-century periodicals and more, elucidate Wollstonecraft's social and political thought, historical writings, moral tales for children, and novels.
Updated by a team of internationally renowned experts, this book gives a thorough overview of fetal pathophysiology and an evidence base for in utero: both medical (non-invasive) and surgical treatments. Many topics are expanded to cover recent advances, including: stem cell transplantation; tissue scaffolding; minimally invasive approaches to 'open fetal surgery'; the etiology, prevention and treatment of preterm birth and PROM; the genetic etiologies of fetal disease; and gene therapy. In addition, there are in-depth discussions as to the role of open fetal myelomeningocele repair and several fetoscopic approaches to therapy. The international editors have added important new chapters on reducing stillbirth and prenatal counselling. This book is an invaluable reference guide to the latest fetal therapy options, and an essential, in-depth study book for maternal-fetal and neonatology specialists.
The hydrodynamic lift velocity of a neutrally buoyant fibre in a simple shear flow near a wall is determined for small, but non-zero, fibre Reynolds number, illustrating the role of non-sphericity in lift. The rotational motion and effects of fibre orientation on lift are treated for fibre positions that induce and do not induce solid-body wall contacts. When the fibre does not contact the wall its lift velocity can be obtained in terms of the Stokes flow field by using a generalized reciprocal theorem. The Stokes velocity field is determined using slender-body theory with the no-slip velocity at the wall enforced using the method of images. To leading order the lift velocity at distances large compared with the fibre length and small compared with the Oseen length is found to be
are the fibre half-length and radius,
is the density,
is the shear rate and
is the viscosity of the fluid. When the fibre is close enough to the wall to make solid-body contact during its rotational motion, a process known as pole vaulting coupled with inertially induced changes of fibre orientation determines the lift velocity. The order of magnitude of the lift in this case is larger by a factor of
than when the fibre does not contact the wall and it reaches a maximum of
for the case of a highly frictional contact and about half that value for a frictionless contact. These results are used to illustrate how particle shape can contribute to separation methods such as those in microfluidic channels or cross-flow filtration processes.
Laboratory-identified bloodstream infections (LAB-ID BSIs) in recently discharged patients are likely to be classified as healthcare-associated community-onset (HCA-CO) infections, even though they may represent hospital-onset (HO) infections. A review of LAB-ID BSIs among patients discharged within 14 days revealed that 109 of 756 cases (14.4%) were HO infections. The BSI risk being misclassified as HCA CO may underestimate the hospital infection risk.
Aaron Einbond was born in New York in 1978. He received his compositional education in the US (Harvard, University of California, Berkeley), the UK (Cambridge, Royal College of Music) and France (IRCAM), and his teachers have included Mario Davidovsky, Julian Anderson, Edmund Campion and Philippe Leroux. He currently teaches music composition, sound and technology at City University, London. He is interested in applications of technology within instrumental music, and almost all of his works combine electronics and acoustic instruments. Since 2007 – beginning with his piece Beside Oneself for viola and electronics (first performed by Ellen Ruth Rose), composed while studying at the University of California, Berkeley – he has also used audio analysis and retrieval software to transcribe recorded sounds into instrumental notation.
Einbond's interest in phonographic transcription connects his work to that of other composers of his generation, including Patricia Alessandrini, Joanna Bailie, Richard Beaudoin and Cassandra Miller. (It also finds precedents in a wider musical interest in forms of transcription that one can find in the music of composers as diverse as Peter Ablinger, Luciano Berio and Michael Finnissy.) What makes Einbond's work distinctive is his focus on timbre as a musical parameter, rather than more abstract or easily quantifiable values such as pitch.
Moral reasoning and decision making help guide behavior and facilitate interpersonal relationships. Accounts of morality that position commonsense psychology as the foundation of moral development, (i.e., rationalist theories) have dominated research in morality in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Given the well-documented differences in commonsense psychology among autistic individuals, researchers have investigated whether the development and execution of moral judgement and reasoning differs in this population compared with neurotypical individuals. In light of the diverse findings of investigations of moral development and reasoning in ASD, a summation and critical evaluation of the literature could help make sense of what is known about this important social-cognitive skill in ASD. To that end, we conducted a systematic review of the literature investigating moral decision making among autistic children and adults. Our search identified 29 studies. In this review, we synthesize the research in the area and provide suggestions for future research. Such research could include the application of an alternative theoretical framework to studying morality in autism spectrum disorder that does not assume a deficits-based perspective.
Recent research by climate scientists suggest that New Orleans, much of which is below sea level and protected from the sea only by a rapidly eroding marshland, may someday become uninhabitable. The city’s literature of the last few decades has been preoccupied with the theme of fatalism and apocalypse, and the deadly epidemics of the nineteenth century have provided rich symbolic terrain for figuring the troubles that “plague” the city and that will someday mean its end. Some recent work by women of color – notably Erna Brodber and Brenda Marie Osbey – delineates a different literary project, one appropriate to a post-apocalyptic diaspora, namely the work of remembering. Both the traditional fatalism and this emerging interest in memory will likely be central themes to watch for in the major literature associated with the New Orleans in coming decades.
Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption in early childhood is a public health concern. Adequate hydration in early childhood is also important. We developed a national research agenda to improve beverage consumption patterns among 0–5-year-olds. This article focuses on the process used to develop this research agenda.
A mixed methods, multi-step process was used to develop the research agenda, including: (i) a scientific advisory committee; (ii) systematic reviews on strategies to reduce SSB consumption and increase water access and consumption; (iii) two stakeholder surveys to first identify and then rank strategies to reduce SSB consumption and increase water access and consumption; (iv) key informant interviews to better understand determinants of beverage consumption and strategies to improve beverage consumption patterns among high-risk groups; (v) an in-person convening with experts; and (vi) developing the final research agenda.
This process included research and stakeholders from across the United States.
A total of 276 participants completed survey 1 and 182 participants completed survey 2. Key informant interviews were conducted with 12 stakeholders. Thirty experts attended the convening, representing academia, government, and non-profit sectors.
Thirteen key issue areas and 59 research questions were developed. Priority topics were beverage consumption recommendations, fruit-flavoured drink consumption, interventions tailored to high-risk groups, and family engagement in childcare.
This research agenda lays the groundwork for research efforts to improve beverage patterns of young children. The methods used can be a template to develop research agendas for other public health issues.
The spread of the Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Americas led to large outbreaks across the region and most of the Southern hemisphere. Of greatest concern were complications following acute infection during pregnancy. At the beginning of the outbreak, the risk to unborn babies and their clinical presentation was unclear. This report describes the methods and results of the UK surveillance response to assess the risk of ZIKV to children born to returning travellers. Established surveillance systems operating within the UK – the paediatric and obstetric surveillance units for rare diseases, and national laboratory monitoring – enabled rapid assessment of this emerging public health threat. A combined total of 11 women experiencing adverse pregnancy outcomes after possible ZIKV exposure were reported by the three surveillance systems; five miscarriages, two intrauterine deaths and four children with clinical presentations potentially associated with ZIKV infection. Sixteen women were diagnosed with ZIKV during pregnancy in the UK. Amongst the offspring of these women, there was unequivocal laboratory evidence of infection in only one child. In the UK, the number and risk of congenital ZIKV infection for travellers returning from ZIKV-affected countries is very small.
We analyzed antibiotic use data from 29 southeastern US hospitals over a 5-year period to determine changes in antibiotic use after the fluoroquinolone US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) advisory update in 2016. Fluoroquinolone use declined both before and after the FDA announcement, and the use of select, alternative antibiotics increased after the announcement.
Fluoroquinolones are among the 4 most commonly prescribed antibiotic classes.1,2 Postmarketing reports of serious adverse events linked to fluoroquinolones include tendonitis, neuropathy, hypoglycemia, psychiatric side effects, and possible aortic vessel rupture, leading to safety label changes in July 2008 and August 2013.3 In July 2016, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) strengthened the “black box” warning following an initial safety announcement in May 2016, recommending avoidance of fluoroquinolones for uncomplicated infections such as acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis, uncomplicated urinary tract infections, and acute bacterial sinusitis.4 Concerns over safety and the association with Clostridiodes difficile infection have led inpatient antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) to develop initiatives to promote avoidance of quinolones. The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of the 2016 FDA “black box” update on inpatient antibiotic use among a cohort of southeastern US hospitals.
The title of my chapter asks a seemingly innocuous question. Why do no examples of a formal written genre of Syriac pilgrimage from late antiquity survive to today? Various answers could be offered to quickly dismiss the question: Syriac authors simply chose not to write about pilgrimage; or, they did write about it but their texts have not survived; or further, they did write about it, but chose to do so only within the context of other literary arenas, such as hagiography or historiography. These responses, as we shall see, all have some descriptive truth to them, but they do not offer a completely satisfactory answer. The genre of pilgrimage literature was vibrant in late antiquity in neighboring languages and cultures.
Subtidal rocky communities in the north-west Atlantic are largely limited to latitudes higher than 40°N due to the lack of substrata at lower latitudes. Communities are species poor relative to the north-east Atlantic, and food webs are generally simple, driven by physical processes including low temperatures, water motion and, for more northern regions, sea ice. Whereas kelp should thrive in shallower waters, grazing by the green sea urchin has led to extensive barren grounds. The dynamics vary, however, among regions of the north-west Atlantic, ranging from a kelp-dominated state in the Gulf of Maine to an urchin-dominated state in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence. Cycling between states has occurred in Atlantic Nova Scotia, where urchins are controlled by a disease process unique to this region. Control by predators may have occurred in the past but overfishing has now functionally removed this factor. Certain invertebrate fisheries have developed, and the American lobster appears to be thriving. Outside of the arena of kelp–urchin interactions, diverse assemblages of invertebrates can be found in habitats that range from shallow water bivalve beds to deep-sea coral reefs. Limitations in the temporal and spatial scope of our knowledge severely hamper our ability to generalise.
The ‘deep sea’ encompasses a broad range of habitats that differ greatly in their assemblages and ecosystem functioning. Habitats may be described by a combination of environmental factors (e.g., depth, slope) and biotic factors (e.g., source of primary productivity). We review recent attempts to define deep-sea biogeographic provinces based on spatial and temporal variations in oceanographic conditions, and consider potential boundaries to distributional ranges, in particular habitats based on recent phylogeographic studies. We briefly discuss abiotic interactions in various habitats, noting the particular influence of local hydrodynamics. We consider competition and predation at whale falls and hydrothermal vents, discuss symbiotic interactions particularly with respect to deep-sea corals, which are particularly prevalent in submarine canyons and seamounts, and consider the difficulties of inferring processes from patterns.
The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.