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The idea of military necessity lies at the centre of the law of armed conflict and yet it is less than fully understood. This book analyses which legal limits govern the commander's assessment of military necessity, and argues that military necessity itself is not a limitation. Military necessity calls for a highly discretionary exercise: the assessment. Yet, there is little guidance as to how this discretionary process should be exercised, apart from the notions of 'a reasonable military commander'. A reasonable assessment of 'excessive' civilian losses are presumed to be almost intuitive. Objective standards for determining excessive civilian losses are difficult to identify, particularly when that 'excessiveness' will be understood in relative terms. The perpetual question arises: are civilian losses acceptable if the war can be won? The result is a heavy burden of assessment placed on the shoulders of the military commander.
Human sacrifice is a well-attested and much mythologised phenomenon of human society, but what constitutes human sacrifice? Why is socially sanctioned violence considered sacrifice? And why are human lives sacrificed? New research uses archaeological case studies from Scandinavia to understand performative violence.
This paper reports on an ultra-wideband low-noise distributed amplifier (LNDA) in a transferred-substrate InP double heterojunction bipolar transistor (DHBT) technology which exhibits a uniform low-noise characteristic over a large frequency range. To obtain very high bandwidth, a distributed architecture has been chosen with cascode unit gain cells. Each unit cell consists of two cascode-connected transistors with 500 nm emitter length and ft/fmax of ~360/492 GHz, respectively. Due to optimum line-impedance matching, low common-base transistor capacitance, and low collector-current operation, the circuit exhibits a low-noise figure (NF) over a broad frequency range. A 3-dB bandwidth from 40 to 185 GHz is measured, with an NF of 8 dB within the frequency range between 75 and 105 GHz. Moreover, this circuit demonstrates the widest 3-dB bandwidth operation among all reported single-stage amplifiers with a cascode configuration. Additionally, this work has proposed that the noise sources of the InP DHBTs are largely uncorrelated. As a result, a reliable prediction can be done for the NF of ultra-wideband circuits beyond the frequency range of the measurement equipment.
Enteral sildenafil may be used in the intensive care unit for treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension. We aimed to determine if initial enteral sildenafil dosing is safe in children receiving concurrent vasoactive infusions.
We performed a single-centre retrospective chart review that included patients less than 2 years of age in paediatric and cardiovascular intensive care units at an academic medical centre from 1 January, 2010 to 30 November, 2016. Included patients received concomitant enteral sildenafil and a continuously infused vasoactive agent. Exclusion criteria consisted of mechanical circulatory support, any form of dialysis, or a suspicion of septic shock at the time of sildenafil initiation. We sought to identify patients who developed worsening hemodynamic instability after initiation of enteral sildenafil defined as one or more of the following observations within 24 hours of sildenafil initiation: sildenafil discontinuation, total fluid bolus receipt >10 ml/kg, increased vasoactive support, epinephrine intravenous push administration, and/or the initiation of mechanical circulatory support.
Worsening hemodynamic instability was identified in 35% of the 130-patient cohort. Patients younger than 4 months were at increased risk of further hemodynamic instability compared with older patients (56% versus 44%, p = 0.0003) despite receiving lower median doses (1.28 mg/kg/day versus 1.78 mg/kg/day, p = 0.01).
Critically ill children receiving vasoactive infusions may be at increased risk for further hemodynamic instability after initiation of enteral sildenafil, particularly in younger patients. This population may benefit from lower starting enteral sildenafil doses of 0.25 mg/kg/dose or less every 8 hours to avoid further hemodynamic compromise.
Methods for, and results from, x-ray diffraction analysis of large numbers of fly ash samples obtained from U.S. power plants are described. Qualitative XRD indicates that low-calcium/Class F fly ash (usually derived from bituminous coal) consists typically of the crystalline phases quartz, mullite, hematite and magnetite in a matrix of aluminosilicate glass. Highcalcium fly ash (derived from low-rank coal) has a much more complex assemblage of crystalline phases that typically includes these four phases plus lime, periclase, anhydrite, alkali sulfates, tricalcium aluminate, dicalcium silicate, melilite, merwinlte and a sodalite-structure phase. Glass compositions among the particles are more heterogeneous and range from calcium aluminate to sodium calcium aluminosilicate, Every ash studied Is mixed with an internal Intensity standard (rutile) so that Intensity ratios can be used to make comparisons of the relative amounts of crystalline phases. An error analysis was performed to define the level of uncertainty in making these comparisons. These intensity ratios will be used for quantitative XRD phase analyses when reference intensity ratios for each fly ash phase become available.
Non-fasting TAG – postprandial lipaemia (PPL) – are to a higher degree associated with cardiovascular risk compared with fasting TAG. Dietary protein, especially whey proteins (WP), may lower PPL. We hypothesised that a WP pre-meal (17·6 g protein) consumed 15 v. 30 min before a fat-rich meal reduces the PPL response in subjects with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and that a WP pre-meal has more potent effects than casein and gluten pre-meals. A total of sixteen subjects with the MetS completed an acute, randomised, crossover trial. WP pre-meals were consumed 15 and 30 min, and casein and gluten 15 min before a fat-rich meal. Blood samples were drawn 360 min postprandially to determine metabolite and hormone responses, S-paracetamol (for assessment of gastric emptying) and amino acids. Insulin and glucagon responses were affected by both timing and protein type (for all P <0·01), with significantly higher concentrations for WP given at –15 min than WP at –30 min and higher responses compared with gluten for the first 30 min after pre-meal consumption (for all P <0·05). The PPL responses changed neither by timing nor by protein type. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide but not glucagon-like peptide 1 responses differed between the three protein types. S-paracetamol concentration was higher for WP (–30 min) than for WP (–15 min) 15 min after the main meal (P = 0·028), and higher for casein and gluten than for WP at time point 30 min (for all P <0·05). In conclusion, the PPL response was not changed by ingestion of a 17·6 g protein pre-meal, whereas both timing and protein quality affected hormone secretion (insulin and glucagon).
Lay participation in criminal trials has primarily been studied in common law systems, thereby mainly focusing on the separate role of juries. These studies have provided detailed accounts of language use between jurors during deliberation as well as their use of storytelling techniques and common-sense reasoning in decision-making. However, only few studies have focused on the linguistic learning processes that lay judges in other legal systems go through when they deliberate cases together with a professional judge both in reaching a verdict and in sentencing. In Denmark, lay judges are appointed for a period of four years, and this paper presents findings from an ethnographic study of lay judges and their growing experience with interactions in the deliberation room. It argues that lay judges learn to use legal language in order to strengthen their arguments vis-à-vis the professional judges. Lay judges feel that their influence is dependent on how well they master new, legal context-specific ways of expressing themselves, a point that may run counter to their legitimation as lay voices in an otherwise formalized judiciary.
We show boundedness in probability uniformly in sample size of a general M-estimator for multiple linear regression in time series. The positive criterion function for the M-estimator is assumed lower semicontinuous and sufficiently large for large argument. Particular cases are the Huber-skip and quantile regression. Boundedness requires an assumption on the frequency of small regressors. We show that this is satisfied for a variety of deterministic and stochastic regressors, including stationary and random walks regressors. The results are obtained using a detailed analysis of the condition on the regressors combined with some recent martingale results.
In this paper, we report the analysis, design, and implementation of stacked transistors for power amplifiers realized on InP Double Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors (DHBTs) technology. A theoretical analysis based on the interstage matching between all the single transistors has been developed starting from the small-signal equivalent circuit. The analysis has been extended by including large-signal effects and layout-related limitations. An evaluation of the maximum number of transistors for positive incremental power and gain is also carried out. To validate the analysis, E-band three- and four-stacked InP DHBT matched power cells have been realized for the first time as monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs). For the three-stacked transistor, a small-signal gain of 8.3 dB, a saturated output power of 15 dBm, and a peak power added efficiency (PAE) of 5.2% have been obtained at 81 GHz. At the same frequency, the four-stacked transistor achieves a small-signal gain of 11.5 dB, a saturated output power of 14.9 dBm and a peak PAE of 3.8%. A four-way combined three-stacked MMIC power amplifier has been implemented as well. It exhibits a linear gain of 8.1 dB, a saturated output power higher than 18 dBm, and a PAE higher than 3% at 84 GHz.
This paper presents an ultra-wideband coplanar waveguide (CPW)-to-asymmetric coplanar stripline (ACPS) transition based on aluminum nitride (AlN) substrate. The concepts of designing CPW, ACPS, and CPW-to-ACPS transition are explained. In order to suppress parasitic modes, vias going through AlN substrate are added along the ground traces. The signal trace is tapered out and chamfered to reduce the reflection caused by the termination of ground trace. The CPW-to-ACPS transition is designed, fabricated, and measured in a back-to-back configuration. The fabricated CPW-to-ACPS transition can provide a bandwidth of 165 GHz with an associated insertion loss of 3 dB.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: To identify cardiac structural and function parameters, obtained on usual stroke-care TTE evaluation, associated with cardioembolic stroke (CE) in patients without AF. Hypothesis—left atrial (LA) size and valve dysfunction will be strongly associated with incident CE. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Inclusion criteria: July 1, 2013 to July 1, 2015 admission with imaging-confirmed ischemic stroke, no AF, TTE within 1st 7 days. TTE structure/function parameters were recorded. Stroke subtype (CE vs. other) defined using TOAST criteria, blinded to TTE. New AF definition: AF on ECG, telemetry or event monitor. CE/New AF outcome of interest in separate multivariable logistic regression models testing associations with TTE parameters (adjusting for demographics/vascular risk factors). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Participants (n=332) were ~60 years hypertensive black males with moderate NIHSS and normal ejection fraction. In adjusted models, odds of CE increased with increasing LA systolic diameter (per 0.1 cm), mitral E point velocity(cm/s), mitral valve dysfunction, wall motion abnormality. New AF also associated with increasing LA systolic diameter. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: These findings may suggest cardiac structural changes independent of AF that are on the CE causal pathway. Understanding the relationship between such TTE parameters and stroke subtype would impact clinical practice, as such TTE data is underutilized when considering stroke mechanism and management.
In this paper, an electromagnetic (EM) simulation assisted parameter extraction procedure is demonstrated for accurate modeling of down-scaled transferred-substrate InP HBTs. The external parasitic network associated with via transitions and device electrodes is carefully extracted from calibrated three-dimensional EM simulations up to 325 GHz. Following an on-wafer multi-line Through-Reflect-Line calibration procedure, the external parasitic network is de-embedded from the transistor measurements and the active device parameters are extracted in a reliable way. The small-signal model structure augmented with the distributed parasitic network provides accurate small-signal prediction up to 220 GHz.
The presence and distribution of various species of canine hookworms in Africa are poorly known. The main objective of this study, therefore, was to identify the hookworm species present in canine faecal samples from Morogoro, Tanzania, using molecular techniques. Faecal samples from 160 local dogs were collected and hookworm positive samples processed to recover larvae for further molecular characterization. DNA was extracted from pools of larvae from individual samples (n = 66), which were analysed subsequently using two different molecular approaches, polymerase chain reaction-linked restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and species-specific PCR coupled with Sanger sequencing. The PCR-RFLP technique detected only the presence of the ubiquitous Ancylostoma caninum in the 66 samples. However, by species-specific PCR coupled with Sanger sequencing we identified ten samples with A. braziliense, two with Uncinaria stenocephala and five with A. ceylanicum. Thus, all four known species of canine hookworms were identified in Morogoro, Tanzania. To our knowledge this is the first report of the detection of the presence of U. stenocephala and A. ceylanicum in Africa using molecular techniques. In addition to their veterinary importance, canine hookworms have zoonotic potential and are of public health concern.
Archaeological evidence from the submerged North Sea landscape has established the rich diversity of Pleistocene and Early Holocene ecosystems and their importance to hunter-gatherer subsistence strategies. Comparatively little of this evidence, however, dates to the Late Glacial, the period when Northern Europe was repopulated by colonising foragers. A human parietal bone and a decorated bovid metatarsus recently recovered from the floor of the North Sea have been dated to this crucial transitional period. They are set against the background of significant climatic and environmental changes and a major technological and sociocultural transformation. These discoveries also reaffirm the importance of continental shelves as archaeological archives.
Many fundamental properties of graph C*-algebras may be determined directly from the structure of the underlying graph, and because of this, they have been celebrated as C*-algebras that can be seen. This paper shows how permutative endomorphisms of graph C*-algebras can be represented by labelled directed multigraphs that give visual representations of the endomorphisms and facilitate computations. This formalism provides a useful calculus for permutative automorphisms and allows efficient exhaustive construction of such automorphisms.
The benefit of cryogenic cooling on the performance of millimeter-wave GaAs Schottky-barrier varactor-based frequency multipliers has been studied. For this purpose, a dedicated compact model of a GaAs Schottky-barrier varactor using a triple-anode diode stack has been developed for use with a commercial RF and microwave CAD tool. The model implements critical physical phenomena such as thermionic-field emission current transport at cryogenic temperatures, temperature dependent mobility, reverse breakdown, self-heating, and high-field velocity saturation effects. A parallel conduction model is employed in order to include the effect of barrier inhomogeneities which is known to cause deviation from the expected I--V characteristics at cryogenic temperatures. The developed model is shown to accurately fit the I--V --T dataset from 25 to 295 K measured on the varactor diode stack. Harmonic balance simulations using the model are used to predict the efficiency of a millimeter-wave balanced doubler from room to cryogenic temperatures. The estimation is verified experimentally using a 188 GHz balanced doubler cooled down to 77 K. The model has been further verified down to 14 K using a 78 GHz balanced doubler.
A new theoretical framework, based on the analysis of Navier–Stokes solutions for the hypersonic laminar near wake of two-dimensional and axisymmetric blunt bodies, is presented. A semi-empirical relationship is derived between the free-stream Mach and Reynolds numbers and a characteristic wake Reynolds number. A control volume analysis was performed to assess the validity of some common assumptions used in the literature. Analysis of the momentum and vorticity equations is used to assess the dominant mechanisms of momentum transfer along and across the dividing streamline and centreline which enclose the near wake. An observed stagnation pressure gain along the dividing streamline is explained using the entropy transport equation, demonstrating an unbalance between entropy generation due to viscous dissipation and entropy diffusion. The rear-stagnation point flow is analysed using an analogy to a reversed flow jet which allows for the centreline Mach number to be solved. A new viscous–inviscid interaction theory is presented for the reattachment shock formation process for both planar and axisymmetric wakes. Finally, all of the sub-mechanisms are combined into an overall wake mechanism. The resulting equations constitute the first overall theoretical framework of the laminar near-wake mechanism including separation, reattachment, rear-stagnation point flow and dividing streamline stagnation pressure gain for both planar and axisymmetric near wakes. Scaling arguments are presented throughout the work for each of the key sub-mechanisms. Recommendations are made for how experimental and numerical results for the near wake should be presented. The equations and recommendations presented here are then used to perform a detailed disambiguation of laminar capsule studies in the literature.
The geodetic mass balance of the western Svartisen ice cap in northern Norway is determined, in this work, from photogrammetry on vertical aerial photographs taken in 1968, 1985 and 2002. The existing 1968 digital terrain model (DTM) was generated using analogue photogrammetry, and the 1985 and 2002 DTMs are newly generated using digital photogrammetry. The geodetic mass balance for 1968–85 is –2.6±0.8mw.e., and for 1985–2002 it is –2.0±1.6mw.e. The area of western Svartisen decreased from 190 km2 in 1968, to 187 km2 in 1985 and to 184 km2 in 2002. The outlet glacier Flatisen in the southeast retreated 1700 m over the two periods. The geodetic mass balance is also determined for Engabreen drainage basin, as –2.1±0.9mw.e. for the first period, and –0.3±2.4mw.e. for the second. The results for Engabreen are compared to traditional mass balances, and the large deviations cannot be explained from uncertainties determined for the geodetic method. The assessed errors contributing to the uncertainty in the geodetic mass balance are elevation errors, uncertainties from the applied melt correction, and the use of Sorge’s law, assuming constant snow thickness and density.