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This transversal and transilient thought-experiment explores the application and significance of Japanese animism for environmental education and environmental philosophy. Through the exploration of indigenous knowledge found in Japanese folklore and Japanese Buddhism, the thought-experiment offers a critique of a certain strand of contemporary fatalistic and nihilistic thinking regarding the Anthropocene. At its simplest it questions the trend toward mysticism and obfuscation in environmental education and demands a response to the environmental crisis precisely through reason and rationality. How shall this be undertaken? On one level, the hauntings of 妖怪 (Yōkai) and 幽霊 (Yūrei) in Japanese folklore shall act as a prism through which to understand the impact of the fantastical on the contemporary imagination, and on another level, I shall critique the fantastical as such to question the so-called inaccessibility of the hyperobject (Morton, 2014), which in the end leaves us despairingly passive and without the possibility of response. It is in the work of the Japanese philosopher 井上円了 (Inoue Enryō) and especially his defence of Western Enlightenment beliefs during Japan’s modernisation period (1868–1912) that a curious method and heuristic tool is found that may be used to address not only the problem of mystification in Japanese philosophy but also the obfuscation of the ecological object of recent Western thought. Seemingly sacrilegiously, it is through reason and at the limits of the rational that one may approach the hyperobject-in-itself, which is to say, the unfathomable as such.
Incidence rates of breast cancer (BC) are increasing in South Africa. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between dietary intake and BC risk in black South African women. The study population included 396 BC cases and 396 population-based controls matched on age and residence, participating in the South African Breast Cancer study. Diet was assessed using a validated quantified FFQ from which twelve energy-adjusted food groups were formed and analysed. OR were estimated using conditional logistic regressions, adjusted for confounding factors, comparing highest v. lowest median intake. Fresh fruit consumption showed an inverse association with BC risk (OR=0·3, 95 % CI 0·12, 0·80) in premenopausal women, whilst red and organ meat consumption showed an overall inverse association with BC risk (OR=0·6, 95 % CI 0·49, 0·94 and OR=0·6, 95 % CI 0·47, 0·91). Savoury food consumption (sauces, soups and snacks) were positively associated with BC risk in postmenopausal women (OR=2·1, 95 % CI 1·15, 4·07). Oestrogen receptor-positive stratification showed an inverse association with BC risk and consumption of nuts and seeds (OR=0·2, 95 % CI 0·58, 0·86). Based on these results, it is recommended that black South African women follow a diet with more fruit and vegetables together with a decreased consumption of less energy-dense, micronutrient-poor foods such as savoury foods. More research is necessary to investigate the association between BC risk and red and organ meat consumption. Affordable and practical methods regarding these recommendations should be implemented within health intervention strategies.
Self-reported psychosis-like experiences (PEs) may be common in patients with mood disorders, but their clinical correlates are not well known. We investigated their prevalence and relationships with self-reported symptoms of depression, mania, anxiety, borderline (BPD) and schizotypal (SPD) personality disorders among psychiatric patients with mood disorders.
The Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE-42), Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ), McLean Screening Instrument (MSI), The Beck Depressive Inventory (BDI), Overall Anxiety Severity and Impairment Scale (OASIS) and Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief form (SPQ-B) were filled in by patients with mood disorders (n=282) from specialized care. Correlation coefficients between total scores and individual items of CAPE-42 and BDI, SPQ-B, MSI and MDQ were estimated. Hierarchical multivariate regression analysis was conducted to examine factors influencing the frequency of self-reported PE.
PEs are common in patients with mood disorders. The “frequency of positive symptoms” score of CAPE-42 correlated strongly with total score of SPQ-B (rho=0.63; P<0.001) and moderately with total scores of BDI, MDQ, OASIS and MSI (rho varied from 0.37 to 0.56; P<0.001). Individual items of CAPE-42 correlated moderately with specific items of BDI, MDQ, SPQ-B and MSI (rφ varied from 0.2 to 0.5; P<0.001). Symptoms of anxiety, mania or hypomania and BPD were significant predictors of the “frequency of positive symptoms” score of CAPE-42.
Several, state- and trait-related factors may underlie self-reported PEs among mood disorder patients. These include cognitive-perceptual distortions of SPD; distrustfulness, identity disturbance, dissociative and affective symptoms of BPD; and cognitive biases related to depressive or manic symptoms.
Functional abilities are needed for activities of daily living. In general, these skills expand with age. We hypothesised that, in contrast to what is normally expected, children surviving the Fontan may have deterioration of functional abilities, and that peri-Fontan stroke is associated with this deterioration. All children registered in the Western Canadian Complex Pediatric Therapies Follow-up Program who survived a Fontan operation in the period 1999–2016 were eligible for inclusion. At the age of 2 years (pre-Fontan) and 4.5 years (post-Fontan), the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II general adaptive composite score was determined (population mean: 100, standard deviation: 15). Deterioration of functional abilities was defined as ⩾1 standard deviation decrease in pre- to post-Fontan scores. Perioperative strokes were identified through chart review. Multivariable logistic regression analysis determined predictors of deterioration of functional abilities. Of 133 children, with a mean age at Fontan of 3.3 years (standard deviation 0.8) and 65% male, the mean (standard deviation) general adaptive composite score was 90.6 (17.5) at 2 years and 88.3 (19.1) at 4.5 years. After Fontan, deterioration of functional abilities occurred in 34 (26%) children, with a mean decline of 21.8 (7.1) points. Evidence of peri-Fontan stroke was found in 10 (29%) children who had deterioration of functional abilities. Peri-Fontan stroke (odds ratio 5.00 (95% CI 1.74, 14.36)) and older age at Fontan (odds ratio 1.67 (95% CI 1.02, 2.73)) predicted functional deterioration. The trajectory of functional abilities should be assessed in this population, as more than 25% experience deterioration. Efforts to prevent peri-Fontan stroke, and to complete the Fontan operation at an earlier age, may lead to reduction of this deterioration.
Psychosocial and health-related risk factors for depressive symptoms are known. It is unclear if these are associated with depressive symptom patterns over time. We identified trajectories of depressive symptoms and their risk factors among midlife women followed over 15 years.
Participants were 3300 multiracial/ethnic women enrolled in a multisite longitudinal menopause and aging study, Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. Biological, psychosocial, and depressive symptom data were collected approximately annually. Group-based trajectory modeling identified women with similar longitudinal patterns of depressive symptoms. Trajectory groups were compared on time-invariant and varying characteristics using multivariable multinomial analyses and pairwise comparisons.
Five symptom trajectories were compared (50% very low; 29% low; 5% increasing; 11% decreasing; 5% high). Relative to whites, blacks were less likely to be in the increasing trajectory and more likely to be in the decreasing symptom trajectory and Hispanics were more likely to have a high symptom trajectory than an increasing trajectory. Psychosocial/health factors varied between groups. A rise in sleep problems was associated with higher odds of having an increasing trajectory and a rise in social support was associated with lower odds. Women with low role functioning for 50% or more visits had three times the odds of being in the increasing symptom group.
Changes in psychosocial and health characteristics were related to changing depressive symptom trajectories. Health care providers need to evaluate women's sleep quality, social support, life events, and role functioning repeatedly during midlife to monitor changes in these and depressive symptoms.
Psychosis-like experiences (PEs) are common in patients with non-psychotic disorders. Several factors predict reporting of PEs in mood disorders, including mood-associated cognitive biases, anxiety and features of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Childhood traumatic experiences (CEs), often reported by patients with BPD, are an important risk factor for mental disorders. We hypothesized that features of BPD may mediate the relationship between CEs and PEs. In this study, we investigated the relationships between self-reported PEs, CEs and features of BPD in patients with mood disorders.
As part of the Helsinki University Psychiatric Consortium study, McLean Screening Instrument (MSI), Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE-42) and Trauma and Distress Scale (TADS) were filled in by patients with mood disorders (n = 282) in psychiatric care. Correlation coefficients between total scores of scales and their dimensions were estimated, multiple regression and mediation analyses were conducted.
Total scores of MSI correlated strongly with scores of the CAPE-42 dimension “frequency of positive symptoms” (rho = 0.56; p ≤ 0.001) and moderately with scores of TADS (rho = 0.4; p ≤ 0.001). Total score of MSI and its dimension “cognitive symptoms”, including identity disturbance, distrustfulness and dissociative symptoms, fully mediated the relation between TADS and CAPE-42. Each cognitive symptom showed a partial mediating role (dissociative symptoms 43% (CI = 25–74%); identity disturbance 40% (CI = 30-73%); distrustfulness 18% (CI = 12-50%)).
Self-reported cognitive-perceptual symptoms of BPD fully mediate, while affective, behavioural and interpersonal symptoms only partially mediate the relationships between CEs and PEs. Recognition of co-morbid features of BPD in patients with mood disorders reporting PEs is essential.
Many women experience both vasomotor menopausal symptoms (VMS) and depressed mood at midlife, but little is known regarding the prospective bi-directional relationships between VMS and depressed mood and the role of sleep difficulties in both directions.
A pooled analysis was conducted using data from 21 312 women (median: 50 years, interquartile range 49−51) in eight studies from the InterLACE consortium. The degree of VMS, sleep difficulties, and depressed mood was self-reported and categorised as never, rarely, sometimes, and often (if reporting frequency) or never, mild, moderate, and severe (if reporting severity). Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the bi-directional associations adjusted for within-study correlation.
At baseline, the prevalence of VMS (40%, range 13–62%) and depressed mood (26%, 8–41%) varied substantially across studies, and a strong dose-dependent association between VMS and likelihood of depressed mood was found. Over 3 years of follow-up, women with often/severe VMS at baseline were more likely to have subsequent depressed mood compared with those without VMS (odds ratios (OR) 1.56, 1.27–1.92). Women with often/severe depressed mood at baseline were also more likely to have subsequent VMS than those without depressed mood (OR 1.89, 1.47–2.44). With further adjustment for the degree of sleep difficulties at baseline, the OR of having a subsequent depressed mood associated with often/severe VMS was attenuated and no longer significant (OR 1.13, 0.90–1.40). Conversely, often/severe depressed mood remained significantly associated with subsequent VMS (OR 1.80, 1.38–2.34).
Difficulty in sleeping largely explained the relationship between VMS and subsequent depressed mood, but it had little impact on the relationship between depressed mood and subsequent VMS.
Malnutrition is common in children with CHD and is likely to place them at an increased risk for adverse surgical outcomes. We sought to evaluate the impact of preoperative malnutrition on outcomes after paediatric cardiac surgery.
We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients from age 0 to 5 years undergoing cardiac surgery at Seattle Children’s Hospital from 2006 to 2015. We used regression modelling to examine the impact of malnutrition on surgical outcomes.
We found a non-linear relationship between low height-for-age and weight-for-age z-scores and mortality after surgery. In the range of z-score ⩽−2, each additional unit decrease in height-for-age or weight-for-age z-score was associated with a 2.9 or 2.1% increased risk for mortality, respectively. Each unit decrease in height-for-age z-score was associated with a 1.2% increased risk for cardiac arrest, 1.1% increased risk for infection, and an average of 1.7 additional hours of mechanical ventilation, 6 hours longer ICU stay, and 13 hours longer hospital stay. Each unit decrease in weight-for-age z-score was associated with a 0.7% increased risk for cardiac arrest, 0.8% increased risk for infection, and an average of 1.9 additional hours of mechanical ventilation and 5.3 additional hours of ICU stay.
This study is unique in demonstrating a significant association between malnutrition and 30-day mortality and other adverse outcomes after paediatric cardiac surgery in a mixed population of CHD patients. By evaluating nutritional status as a continuous variable, we were able to clearly distinguish the point at which malnutrition begins to affect mortality.
Thank you very much and welcome to everybody joining us. I am Paul Joffe, Foreign Policy Counsel at the World Resources Institute, and in the last twenty-four hours the news has been filled with stories of players at high levels in the Trump administration clashing over whether the United States should stay in the Paris Agreement. There's a story in this morning's Post about it, with the key players meeting next week and a decision expected in May. So, it seems that the Trump administration is working feverishly to raise suspense ahead of this morning's panel.
The last decade has seen the publication in North America of a plethora of academic books and articles about polygamy. The most important texts on the subject, however, are two court rulings evaluating the constitutionality of criminal prohibitions against the practice of polygamy. Informed by and in dialogue with this academic discourse, these courts arrived at dramatically different conclusions. In Reference re s. 293 of the Criminal Code of Canada, the Supreme Court of British Columbia determined that while Mormon fundamentalist polygamists had religious freedom rights under Section 2 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms to practice this aspect of their bona fide religious faith, the government of Canada was justified in limiting this right under Section 1 of the Charter. Prohibiting polygamy was necessary, the court found, in order to prevent the real and substantial risk of harm that it posed to women and children.1 Conversely, in the United States, a trial-level court in Utah issued a summary judgment finding that a criminal prohibition against polygamous religious marriages violated the rights to freedom of religion under the First Amendment, and due process rights guaranteed by the 14th Amendment to the US Constitution. This judgment focused on the state's duty to tolerate minority religious practices, while downplaying the potential risks of polygamy to practitioners and their children.2
Strong recommendations have been made for the periodic developmental surveillance, screening, and evaluation of children with CHD. This supports similar calls for all at-risk children in order to provide timely, structured early developmental intervention that may improve outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of screening for language delay after life-saving therapies using the parent-completed vocabulary screen of the language Development Survey, by comparing screening with the individually administered language scores of the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third edition.
In total, 310 (92.5%) of 335 eligible term-born children, born between 2004 and 2011, receiving complex cardiac surgery, heart or liver transplantation, or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in infancy, were assessed at 21.5 (2.8) months of age (lost, 25 (7.5%)), through developmental/rehabilitation centres at six sites as part of the Western Canadian Complex Pediatric Therapies Follow-up Group.
Vocabulary screening delay was defined as scores ⩽15th percentile. Language delay defined as scores >1 SD below the mean was calculated for language composite score, receptive and expressive communication scores of the Bayley-III. Delayed scores for the 310 children were as follows: vocabulary, 144 (46.5%); language composite, 125 (40.3%); receptive communication, 98 (31.6%); and expressive communication, 124 (40%). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values, and negative predictive values of screened vocabulary delay for tested language composite delay were 79.2, 75.7, 68.8, and 84.3%, respectively.
High rates of language delay after life-saving therapies are concerning. Although the screening test appears to over-identify language delay relative to the tested Bayley-III, it may be a useful screening tool for early language development leading to earlier referral for intervention.
Women's vulnerability for a first lifetime-onset of major depressive disorder (MDD) during midlife is substantial. It is unclear whether risk factors differ for first lifetime-onset and recurrent MDD. Identifying these risk factors can provide more focused depression screening and earlier intervention. This study aims to evaluate whether lifetime psychiatric and health histories, personality traits, menopausal status and factors that vary over time, e.g. symptoms, are independent risk factors for first-onset or recurrent MDD across 13 annual follow-ups.
Four hundred and forty-three women, aged 42–52 years, enrolled in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation in Pittsburgh and participated in the Mental Health Study. Psychiatric interviews obtained information on lifetime psychiatric disorders at baseline and on occurrences of MDD episodes annually. Psychosocial and health-related data were collected annually. Cox multivariable analyses were conducted separately for women with and without a MDD history at baseline.
Women without lifetime MDD at baseline had a lower risk of developing MDD during midlife than those with a prior MDD history (28% v. 59%) and their risk profiles differed. Health conditions prior to baseline and during follow-ups perception of functioning (ps < 0.05) and vasomotor symptoms (VMS) (p = 0.08) were risk factors for first lifetime-onset MDD. Being peri- and post-menopausal, psychological symptoms and a prior anxiety disorder were predominant risk factors for MDD recurrence.
The menopausal transition warrants attention as a period of vulnerability to MDD recurrence, while health factors and VMS should be considered important risk factors for first lifetime-onset of MDD during midlife.
This commentary highlights the importance of attending to the sociocultural contexts that foster essentialist ideas. It contends that Cimpian & Salomon's (C&S's) model undervalues the extent to which the development of essentialist beliefs is contingent on social experience. The result is a restriction of the model's applicability to real-world instances of essentialism-fuelled prejudice and discrimination.
Background: It is important to identify early predictors of functional limitations in children after congenital heart surgery to optimise their independence as they prepare for school. The purpose of this study is to determine potentially modifiable predictor variables of functional abilities in pre-school children who underwent complex cardiac surgery at 6 weeks of age or earlier. Methods: This prospective inception cohort study comprised a sample of 165 survivors (63% boys) who had complex cardiac surgery (75% biventricular repairs) at Stollery Children’s Hospital, Edmonton, Alberta. We excluded children with chromosomal abnormalities. When children were 4–5 years of age, the parents completed the Adaptive Behavioral Assessment System II. Regression analysis was used to assess the association between multiple risk factors and each of the four continuous composite scores. Results: The mean scores for the practical domain and general adaptive composite score of the Adaptive Behavioural Assessment System were lower than the conceptual and social domains, with 13.3% of the children having a delay in the practical domain. There was a significant association between the general adaptive (p=0.003; 0.012), conceptual (p=0.0004; 0.042), social (p=0.0007; 0.028), and the practical (p=0.046; 0.003) domain composite scores with the mother’s education and preoperative plasma lactate, respectively. Conclusion: Maternal education may be a marker for the social context of children, and warrants societal attention to improve functional outcomes. Preoperative lactate as a potentially modifiable variable may warrant increased attention to early diagnosis and aggressive resuscitation of young infants with congenital heart disease.
In women, anxiety symptoms are common and increase during midlife, but little is known about whether these symptoms predict onsets of major depressive disorder (MDD) episodes. We examined whether anxiety symptoms are associated with subsequent episodes of MDD in midlife African-American and Caucasian women, and whether they confer a different risk for first versus recurrent MDD episodes.
A longitudinal analysis was conducted using 12 years of data from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Mental Health Study (MHS). The baseline sample comprised 425 Caucasian (n = 278) and African American (n = 147) community-dwelling women, aged 46.1 ± 2.5 years. Anxiety symptoms measured annually using a self-report questionnaire were examined in relation to MDD episodes in the subsequent year, assessed with the SCID. Multivariable models were estimated with random effects logistic regression.
Higher anxiety symptoms scores were associated with a significantly higher adjusted odds of developing an episode of MDD at the subsequent annual visit [odds ratio (OR) 1.47, p = 0.01], specifically for a recurrent episode (OR 1.49, p = 0.03) but non-significant for a first episode (OR 1.32, p = 0.27). There were no significant racial effects in the association between anxiety symptoms and subsequent MDD episodes.
Anxiety symptoms often precede MDD and may increase the vulnerability of midlife women to depressive episodes, particularly recurrences. Women with anxiety symptoms should be monitored clinically during the ensuing year for the development of an MDD episode.
To describe risk factors for and the outcome of infections in children receiving extracorporeal life support (ECLS) and to determine the need for removal of foreign bodies with bloodstream infections (BSIs) in children receiving ECLS.
Retrospective cohort study.
Tertiary care children's hospital.
Children receiving ECLS from May 1997 through May 2007.
For patients with documented infections, medical records were examined for demographic, clinical, and laboratory details. Patients with and without documented infections were compared with regard to demographic characteristics and ECLS course.
One hundred seventeen patients underwent ECLS for a total of 878 days (median, 5.12 days). Thirty-five patients (29.9%) developed 55 infections, including 21 BSIs (38.2%), 20 urinary tract infections (36.4%), 6 ventilator-associated pneumonia episodes (10.9%), 2 viral infections (3.6%), and 6 miscellaneous infections (10.9%). The rates (in cases per 1,000 ECLS-days) were 23.9 for BSI, 22.8 for urinary tract infection, and 6.8 for ventilator-associated pneumonia. There were no significant differences in the demographic characteristics, indications for ECLS, or ECLS course between infected and uninfected patients, except for the median duration of ECLS (10.1 vs 3.8 days; P < .001). One death was attributed to infection. Resolution of BSI occurred without removal of foreign bodies in 18 (85.7%) of 21 children.
Longer duration of ECLS was the only identified risk factor for infection. Mortality was not statistically significantly different between infected and uninfected patients. Most BSIs that occurred during ECLS cleared without removal of foreign bodies.
What has happened to the male reproductive system?
The health of the male reproductive system deteriorated sharply during the twentieth century. Testicular cancer increased four-fold or more in the space of several decades, throughout the world in populations of European ancestry, and in certain others, e.g. Maoris in New Zealand (Adami et al., 1994; Joffe, 2001; Parkin, 2005). There is pathological evidence that the disease process starts in early life (Skakkebaek et al., 1987), and in accordance with this the time trends show the clearest patterns if looked at by birth cohort, e.g. the incidence stopped increasing for ten years around 1940 in Denmark, Norway and Sweden (but not Finland, East Germany or Poland), then resumed its rapid rise (Figure 2.1)(Bergström et al., 1996). The increase started in men born in the late nineteenth century in England and Wales (Davies, 1981), and in the first decade of the twentieth century in the Nordic countries, Germany and Poland (Bergström et al., 1996). Many features of the epidemiological data are consistent with risk being associated with increasing prosperity.
Paradoxically, although testis biology is extremely well conserved through evolution, there is no satisfactory animal model for this disease, so the evidence is limited to epidemiological studies, genetic studies and clinical research (Skakkebaek, 2007). These are complicated by the existence of two main types of testicular cancer: seminoma and non-seminoma (divided into embryonal cell carcinoma, teratoma, choriocarcinoma and mixed-cell type).