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Pulses such as peas, beans or lentils are one of the most complete foods at the nutritional level, however, it is one of the most often neglected in the diets of university students. Entrance to university translates to a major lifestyle change for many young people and the habits acquired or cemented at this time will remain into adulthood. The objective of this study is to analyze the association between personal/sociodemographic factors, dietary intake of other food groups and the consumption of pulses in first-year university students. This cross-sectional study is part of the UniHcos project, a multicenter study of multipurpose prospective cohorts in 11 Spanish universities. Data from 9862 university students was collected through an online self-questionnaire completed by all students who met the selection criteria and agreed to participate in the project during the 2011–2018 academic years. 75.8% of students presented an inadequate (≤ 2 times/week) consumption of pulses. Living outside the family home in either a student residence [OR = 0.76; 95%CI: (0.69 – 0.84)] or rental [OR = 0.81; 95%CI: (0.70 – 0.95)] decreased compliance with recommendations on the consumption of pulses. Low consumption of pulses is seemingly not restricted to a specific profile or dietary pattern among university students and no specific focus group for intervention can be identified. Policies promoting the consumption of pulses among the university population as a whole are necessary to increase compliance rates with the dietary recommendations.
There is evidence that environmental and genetic risk factors for schizophrenia spectrum disorders are transdiagnostic and mediated in part through a generic pathway of affective dysregulation.
We analysed to what degree the impact of schizophrenia polygenic risk (PRS-SZ) and childhood adversity (CA) on psychosis outcomes was contingent on co-presence of affective dysregulation, defined as significant depressive symptoms, in (i) NEMESIS-2 (n = 6646), a representative general population sample, interviewed four times over nine years and (ii) EUGEI (n = 4068) a sample of patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, the siblings of these patients and controls.
The impact of PRS-SZ on psychosis showed significant dependence on co-presence of affective dysregulation in NEMESIS-2 [relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI): 1.01, p = 0.037] and in EUGEI (RERI = 3.39, p = 0.048). This was particularly evident for delusional ideation (NEMESIS-2: RERI = 1.74, p = 0.003; EUGEI: RERI = 4.16, p = 0.019) and not for hallucinatory experiences (NEMESIS-2: RERI = 0.65, p = 0.284; EUGEI: −0.37, p = 0.547). A similar and stronger pattern of results was evident for CA (RERI delusions and hallucinations: NEMESIS-2: 3.02, p < 0.001; EUGEI: 6.44, p < 0.001; RERI delusional ideation: NEMESIS-2: 3.79, p < 0.001; EUGEI: 5.43, p = 0.001; RERI hallucinatory experiences: NEMESIS-2: 2.46, p < 0.001; EUGEI: 0.54, p = 0.465).
The results, and internal replication, suggest that the effects of known genetic and non-genetic risk factors for psychosis are mediated in part through an affective pathway, from which early states of delusional meaning may arise.
Following the suggestion from the Monte–Carlo experiments in Jiménez (J. Turbul., 2020, doi:10.1080/14685248.2020.1742918) that dipoles are as important to the dynamics of decaying two-dimensional turbulence as individual vortex cores, it is found that the kinetic energy of this flow is carried by elongated streams formed by the concatenation of dipoles. Vortices separate into a family of small fast-moving cores, and another family of larger slowly moving ones, which can be described as ‘frozen’ into a slowly evolving ‘crystal.’ The kinematics of both families are very different, and only the former is self-similar. The latter is responsible for most of the kinetic energy of the flow, and its vortices form the dipoles and the streams. Mechanisms are discussed for the growth of this slow component.
This study attempted to replicate whether a bias in probabilistic reasoning, or ‘jumping to conclusions’(JTC) bias is associated with being a sibling of a patient with schizophrenia spectrum disorder; and if so, whether this association is contingent on subthreshold delusional ideation.
Data were derived from the EUGEI project, a 25-centre, 15-country effort to study psychosis spectrum disorder. The current analyses included 1261 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, 1282 siblings of patients and 1525 healthy comparison subjects, recruited in Spain (five centres), Turkey (three centres) and Serbia (one centre). The beads task was used to assess JTC bias. Lifetime experience of delusional ideation and hallucinatory experiences was assessed using the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences. General cognitive abilities were taken into account in the analyses.
JTC bias was positively associated not only with patient status but also with sibling status [adjusted relative risk (aRR) ratio : 4.23 CI 95% 3.46–5.17 for siblings and aRR: 5.07 CI 95% 4.13–6.23 for patients]. The association between JTC bias and sibling status was stronger in those with higher levels of delusional ideation (aRR interaction in siblings: 3.77 CI 95% 1.67–8.51, and in patients: 2.15 CI 95% 0.94–4.92). The association between JTC bias and sibling status was not stronger in those with higher levels of hallucinatory experiences.
These findings replicate earlier findings that JTC bias is associated with familial liability for psychosis and that this is contingent on the degree of delusional ideation but not hallucinations.
A 10-year-old girl with genetically confirmed Jervell-Lange-Nielsen syndrome treated with beta-blocker and developed electrical storm after changing propranolol syrup to tablets. Jervell-Lange-Nielsen is characterised by long QT and congenital sensorineural deafness, with high risk of malignant arrhythmias at early ages. Gastric involvement and achlorhydria may be present, with subsequent alteration of medication bioavailability which can trigger severe arrhythmic complications.
Numerous research studies have demonstrated an association between higher symptom severity and cognitive impairment with poorer social functioning in first-episode psychosis (FEP). By contrast, the influence of subjective experiences, such as social relatedness and self-beliefs, has received less attention. Consequently, a cohesive understanding of how these variables interact to influence social functioning is lacking.
We used structural equation modeling to examine the direct and indirect relationships among neurocognition (processing speed) and social cognition, symptoms, and social relatedness (perceived social support and loneliness) and self-beliefs (self-efficacy and self-esteem) in 170 individuals with FEP.
The final model yielded an acceptable model fit (χ2 = 45.48, comparative fit index = 0.96; goodness of fit index = 0.94; Tucker–Lewis index = 0.94; root mean square error of approximation = 0.06) and explained 45% of social functioning. Negative symptoms, social relatedness, and self-beliefs exerted a direct effect on social functioning. Social relatedness partially mediated the impact of social cognition and negative symptoms on social functioning. Self-beliefs also mediated the relationship between social relatedness and social functioning.
The observed associations highlight the potential value of targeting social relatedness and self-beliefs to improve functional outcomes in FEP. Explanatory models of social functioning in FEP not accounting for social relatedness and self-beliefs might be overestimating the effect of the illness-related factors.
En las unidades domésticas de las comunidades chinamperas en Xochimilco del posclásico tardío, han sido localizadas un tipo de jarras que tienen como característica principal una aplicación en la parte frontal de la pieza que posiblemente representa una deidad. Con el propósito de entender su función y establecer elementos que permitan identificar estos objetos y su uso en otros contextos, proponemos estudiar estas piezas mediante métodos diferentes a los de los análisis formales tradicionales. Este trabajo expone los resultados de los estudios de residuos químicos impregnados en materiales porosos (spot test) y análisis de gránulos de almidón de 27 muestras obtenidas en 26 ejemplares de jarras efigie procedentes de tres sitios al sur de la cuenca de México. Los resultados indican que fueron enriquecidas con fosfatos, residuos proteicos, carbohidratos, y ácidos grasos, mientras que los almidones recuperados indican una presencia importante de maíz, y en menor medida, de camote, chile, y dioscórea. Basado en lo anterior, en sus contextos de procedencia y en la identificación de las deidades representadas, proponemos que estas jarras contenían bebidas de maíz y que fueron utilizadas en ceremonias domésticas dedicadas a la agricultura—como la fiesta de Huey Tozoztli, entre otras—del calendario mexica.
The aim of the present study was to describe Mediterranean diet adherence within a population of adolescents and to analyse the association of multiple factors with adherence. This included a consideration of diverse physical and mental health indicators. The present study was conducted with a representative sample of 761 adolescents (14.51 ± 1.63 years) from 25 educational centres in a northern region of Spain. Mediterranean diet adherence was evaluated, alongside their health-related quality of life, self-esteem, body image satisfaction, body mass index, physical activity level, maximum oxygen consumption, hours of nightly sleep, sociodemographic factors and academic performance. Forty-nine percent of the adolescent population reported high Mediterranean diet adherence. The female gender and higher levels of physical activity were found to be predictive factors of adherence to the Mediterranean diet. In addition, maximum oxygen consumption, the presence of environments favourable towards physical activity engagement and higher self-esteem were also predictive in females, whilst better academic performance and more nightly sleep were additional predictors in males. The associations found between Mediterranean diet, and other health indicators and habits, highlight the need to develop promotion strategies from an inter-disciplinary and transversal standpoint.
In 2012, the authors undertook a radiocarbon dating programme to explore the chronology of southern Iberian megalithic societies. Thirty new radiocarbon dates were obtained for two tholos-type tombs, Loma de Belmonte and Loma del Campo 2, and analysed within a Bayesian framework. Results are discussed in the context of the prehistoric societies of the region and four main conclusions were reached: i) in both tombs, mortuary activity started in the last century of the fourth millennium although with significant differences in their timespan; ii) funerary rituals ended in Loma de Belmonte at least five centuries later than in Loma del Campo 2; iii) the tholoi can be considered the most recent type of tomb compared to other megalithic monuments with mortuary activity beginning in the first centuries of the fourth millennium; iv) the largest and most prominent settlement of the region, Las Pilas, was closely associated with this funerary and sacred landscape.
It is often overlooked that when Robert Weitlaner, Wigberto Jiménez Moreno, and Paul Kirchhoff teamed up with a group of advanced students in a research committee to undertake the survey of the vast territory of present-day Mexico and the adjacent area south to discern and classify the diagnostic traits and boundaries of the area, they submitted a summary report of preliminary results of a work in progress (Jáuregui 2008). The report Mesoamerica (Kirchhoff 1943) was prepared to elicit a thorough analysis and discussion with colleagues in order to enhance a second round of inquiry that was to follow. Kirchhoff expresses in the essay that he is “eager for suggestions concerning the best way to continue this study” (1943: 107, translation by the author), along with a petition for additional research which might have a bearing on the inquiry. The consultation and review Kirchhoff and the committee anticipated never occurred. Mesoamerica as conceived in this brief account was promptly assumed, promoted, and taken for granted (Jáuregui 2008). Half a century later, however, it has begun to receive both the scrutiny and the discussion originally sought by Kirchhoff. Most recently, this stems from the inadequate definition of its northernmost limits where Mesoamerican ideology along the Sierra Madre Occidental has been documented by ethnography (e.g., Jáuregui 2008, 2017; Sociedad Mexicana de Antropología 1990).
This study is founded on two premises: first, that no region in Mesoamerica can be understood in isolation, and second, that Central Mesoamerica had a sequence of rise and fall of state level polities, which during periods of upswing in state development correlated with an increase in the geographical scale of interregional communication and integration. Broad-scale interaction interconnected many regions through links with polities of different levels of complexity, in some cases involving core–periphery relations. However, at no time did any state level polity control Mesoamerica through conquest, or colonization.
Integration had considerable effects, stimulating changes and transformations in the societies which were part of this interaction process. When state level societies faced disintegration and demise, the long-distance interregional relationships loosened and frayed. The resulting retrenchment significantly reduced interpolity interaction to a regionalized scale. The present study will focus on the interregional interaction of two state level polities, Teotihuacan and Tula, and the links they formed with West Mexico during their rise as powerful core states in central highland Mexico.
Two recent edited volumes, The Postclassic Mesoamerican World (Smith and Berdan 2003c) and Twin Tollans: Chichén Itzá, Tula and theEpiclassic toEarly Postclassic Mesoamerican World (Kowalski and Kristian-Graham 2011), constitute unique syntheses for a considerable segment of Mesoamerica during the Postclassic period, the former undertaken within a world-systems perspective employing Chase-Dunn and Hall’s nested networks approach (1997). Taken together, the state of knowledge on this period is succinctly brought to the foreground and conceptually updated.
The objective of the present chapter is to fill the geographical void of Central and West Mexico in the Early Postclassic period present in the aforementioned volumes. The reasons for this void are twofold: first, pertaining to the subject of interregional contacts sustained by Tula with the rest of Mesoamerica. The century-old debate on the nature of Tula’s relationship with the distant Maya site of Chichen Itza has dominated attention (Figure 6.1), a complex issue that has seen considerable advances (e.g., Bey and Ringle 2011; Kowalski 2011; Smith 2011b), while Tula’s ties elsewhere have received scant scrutiny (Healan and Cobean 2009). Second, the principal development in western Mesoamerica during this time, the Aztatlan network, has not been the subject of detailed empirical examination to determine evidence for interregional links that Aztatlan may have established during the Early Postclassic period (900–1200 CE) (Mountjoy 1990: 543). Both of these issues are examined within this chapter.
Between the 1960s and the 1980s, significant advances in Mesoamerican archaeology were under way in many regions through the undertaking of intensive surveys, the hallmark of processual archaeology (e.g., Blanton et al. 1982; Flannery and Marcus 1983; Parsons 1971; Parsons et al. 1982; Sanders, Parsons, and Santley 1979). The citation reveals a shortcoming of processual archaeology in its accentuation of the regional approach as an appropriate unit of analysis in seeking to understand the evolution of political complexity of what was primarily viewed (Kepecs, Feinman, and Boucher 1994: 141–144 Kowalewski 2004: 87–88) as an endogenous, ecosystemic, self-contained process (e.g., Flannery and Marcus 1983; Grove 1981; Price 1978; Sanders 1974; Sanders et al. 1979; Sanders and Price 1968).
In the previous chapter, material evidence for the boundaries of four nested networks that extended into West Mexico during the Early Classic period was examined. The analysis underscored the relevant prestige-goods and information networks extending through the northern lake district of Michoacan across the central portion of West Mexico, which played a significant role in sociopolitical change at 350–450 CE. The changes brought on by these interaction networks at this time are best seen in central Jalisco, with the change in ceremonial architectural pattern from the circular patio complex of the Teuchitlan culture to the orthogonal closed patio-pyramid complex (Kelley 1971: 771–772; López Mestas 2011: 85–86). Likewise, this change has been posited as one of the most conspicuous characteristics of the Classic period cultural patterns observed in the northern frontier, in the form of the closed patio complex that characterizes the architecture of Alta Vista (Jimenez 1992; Kelley 1983b) and southern Zacatecas, as well as central and northern Jalisco (Jimenez and Darling 2000; Kelley 1971).