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This is the first global examination of the historical relationship between Christianity and human rights in the twentieth century. Leading historians, anthropologists, political theorists, legal scholars, and scholars of religion develop fresh approaches to issues such as human dignity, personalism, religious freedom, the role of ecumenical and transatlantic networks, and the relationship between Christian and liberal rights theories. In doing so they move well beyond the temporal and geographical limits of the existing scholarship, exploring the connection between Christianity and human rights, not only in Europe and the United States, but also in Africa, Latin America, and China. They offer alternative chronologies and bring to light overlooked aspects of this history, including the role of race, gender, decolonization, and interreligious dialogue. Above all, these essays foreground the complicated relationship between global rights discourses - whether Christian, liberal, or otherwise - and the local contexts in which they are developed and implemented.
Through the 1880s, Senator Henry Blair (R-NH) spearheaded an effort to erode local control of education by turning Congress into a source of funds and oversight for state-level primary and secondary schools. The Blair Bill won support from an interregional, interracial, bipartisan coalition. It passed in the Senate on three separate occasions, was endorsed by presidents, and was a frequent topic of discussion among party elites. Yet in 1890 the bill failed for the last time, and local control would go largely unchanged until the 1965 Elementary and Secondary Education Act. In this article we explore the decade-long battle surrounding Blair's proposal. Our analysis focuses on this lost opportunity as a way of highlighting the coalitional and institutional dynamics that work to prevent reform in an otherwise favorable environment. In this way, we contribute to a large literature on the uneven course of American state development.
This paper draws on material from the dissertation books of the University of Edinburgh's student societies and surviving lecture notes from the university's professors to shed new light on the debates on human variation, heredity and the origin of races between 1790 and 1835. That Edinburgh was the most important centre of medical education in the English-speaking world in this period makes this a particularly significant context. By around 1800 the fixed natural order of the eighteenth century was giving way to a more fluid conception of species and varieties. The dissolution of the ‘Great Chain of Being’ made interpretations of races as adaptive responses to local climates plausible. The evidence presented shows that human variation, inheritance and adaptation were being widely discussed in Edinburgh in the student circles around Charles Darwin when he was a medical student in Edinburgh in the 1820s. It is therefore no surprise to find these same themes recurring in similar form in the evolutionary speculations in his notebooks on the transmutation of species written in the late 1830s during the gestation of his theory of evolution.
In this article, I identify a distinctive form of injustice—ontic injustice—in which an individual is wronged by the very fact of being socially constructed as a member of a certain social kind. To be a member of a certain social kind is, at least in part, to be subject to certain social constraints and enablements, and these constraints and enablements can be wrongful to the individual who is subjected to them, in the sense that they inflict a moral injury. The concept of ontic injustice is valuable in three main ways: (1) it draws our attention to the role played by social kinds in enacting wrongful constraints and enablements; (2) it clarifies our options for developing accounts of the ontology of particular social kinds, such as gender kinds; and (3), along with the related concept of ‘ontic oppression’, it helps us to understand and respond to oppression.
The first fossil rove beetle (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) from New Zealand is described from the earliest Miocene Foulden Maar fossil-Lagerstätte, Otago. The new species, Sphingoquedius meto n. sp., is attributable to the tribe Amblyopinini of the subfamily Staphylininae based on the scutellum with anterior scutellar ridge only; isodiametric microsculpture on the pronotum; multidirectional arranged setae on the elytra; and presence of radiating setae on the fourth abdominal tergite. Sphingoquedius meto n. sp. is the first Southern Hemisphere fossil record of Amblyopinini and its affinity to the extant fauna as well as biogeographic and paleocological implications are discussed.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: To evaluate the FAITH! (Fostering African-American Improvement in Total Health) App mHealth lifestyle intervention by using post-intervention feedback obtained from participants in our intervention pilot study. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We used qualitative methods (focus groups) to elicit post-intervention feedback. Participants who completed the pilot study were recruited to one of two focus groups. Semi-structured focus groups were conducted to explore participants’ views on the app functionality, utility and satisfaction as well as its impact on healthy lifestyle change. Sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and qualitative data were analyzed by systematic text condensation thematic analysis. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Nine individuals participated (N = 4 and N = 5) in each of the two focus groups. Their mean age was 47.9 years (SD 12.1), 67% were women, and all had at least an education level of some college. Six overarching themes emerged from the data: (1) overall impression, (2) content usefulness (3) formatting, (4) implementation, (5) impact and (6) suggestions for improvement. Underpinning the themes was a high level of agreement that the intervention facilitated healthy behavioral change through cultural tailoring, multimedia education modules and social networking. Among the suggestions for improvement were streamlining of app self-monitoring features, personalization based on individual’s cardiovascular risk and attentiveness to nuanced cultural perspectives. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This formative evaluation found the FAITH! App mHealth lifestyle intervention had high reported satisfaction and impact on the health-promoting behaviors of African-Americans, thereby improving their overall cardiovascular health. The findings provide further support for the acceptability of mHealth interventions among African-Americans. CONFLICT OF INTEREST DESCRIPTION: None.
Development of gold nanoparticles covalently linked to a photosensitizer for use to enhance radiation therapy. The particles will be thoroughly characterized structurally and mechanistically. The gold particles should enhance radiation activity by closer proximity to the photosensitizer and by increasing particle accumulation in the tumor.
Gold nanoparticles were synthesized and coated with amine-terminated poly(ethylene) glycol, then covalently conjugated to chlorin e6, a known FDA-approved photosensitizer. The system was characterized using UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and nanoparticle tracking analysis. The generation of reactive oxygen species was measured after X-irradiation. Enhanced cell killing was evaluated clonogenically in addition to assessment of in vivo efficacy and tumor pathology.
Conjugation of the particle to the photosensitizer was achieved, and the molecule was detected by UV-Vis spectroscopy. TEM and NTA showed no aggregation of the particles, and an increase in reactive oxygen species generation was observed. The conjugates increased cell killing during radiation treatment, whereas neither the particle alone nor the photosensitizer significantly affected clonogenic survival at the same concentrations. Breast tumors grown in immunocompetent mice showed increased necrotic tissue after a single 20 gy treatment in the presence of the conjugate.
DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Radiation therapy is widely used clinically, but dosage is limited largely to prevent injury to adjacent normal tissue. By increasing the local effect of radiation therapy, our gold conjugate has the potential to augment the effective radiation dose in the tumor, thereby reducing damage to healthy tissue and providing a more effective therapy.
To examine relationships between suicidal ideation, self-harm, and suicide attempts, including the timing of the phenomena.
Subjects and methods
The British National Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (NPMS) 2000, a randomised cross-sectional survey of the British population (n = 8,580), included detailed questions about suicidal phenomena.
Suicidal phenomena were common in the survey population: a fifth had experienced tedium vitae, and nearly one in six had had death wishes or considered suicide. 4.4% of the study population had attempted suicide at some time. The relationships between individual elements of suicidality, though not absolute, were strong. The relationships tended to be hierarchical. The results suggested that suicidal thinking represents a strong indicator of vulnerability to suicidal acts, less so to self-harm. Although suicidal phenomena were more common in women, the relationship of the different elements were not affected by gender.
Studies in non clinical populations allow full appreciation of the nature and burden of suicidality. The topic of suicide is sensitive, so there may have been under-reporting, although the level of missing data was around 0.1%. Nevertheless, the sample was large and closely representative of the whole British populace.
Suicidality is common in the British population. The strong relationships between elements of suicidality are clinically important.
Public mental health incorporates a number of strategies from mental well-being promotion to primary prevention and other forms of prevention. There is considerable evidence in the literature to suggest that early interventions and public education can work well for reducing psychiatric morbidity and resulting burden of disease. Educational strategies need to focus on individual, societal and environmental aspects. Targeted interventions at individuals will also need to focus on the whole population. A nested approach with the individual at the heart of it surrounded by family surrounded by society at large is the most suitable way to approach this. This Guidance should be read along with the European Psychiatric Association (EPA) Guidance on Prevention. Those at risk of developing psychiatric disorders also require adequate interventions as well as those who may have already developed illness. However, on the model of triage, mental health and well-being promotion need to be prioritized to ensure that, with the limited resources available, these activities do not get forgotten. One possibility is to have separate programmes for addressing concerns of a particular population group, another that is relevant for the broader general population. Mental health promotion as a concept is important and this will allow prevention of some psychiatric disorders and, by improving coping strategies, is likely to reduce the burden and stress induced by mental illness.