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On its original publication, this book provided the first elementary treatment of representation theory of finite groups of Lie type in book form. This second edition features new material to reflect the continuous evolution of the subject, including entirely new chapters on Hecke algebras, Green functions and Lusztig families. The authors cover the basic theory of representations of finite groups of Lie type, such as linear, unitary, orthogonal and symplectic groups. They emphasise the Curtis–Alvis duality map and Mackey's theorem and the results that can be deduced from it, before moving on to a discussion of Deligne–Lusztig induction and Lusztig's Jordan decomposition theorem for characters. The book contains the background information needed to make it a useful resource for beginning graduate students in algebra as well as seasoned researchers. It includes exercises and explicit examples.
Madagascar's long-term trajectory is unique: not only has GDP per capita been trending downward since 1960 (the puzzle), but every time the country has set out on path of growth, it has been stopped in its tracks by a socio-political crisis that has shattered the hopes it raised (the paradox). No satisfactory explanation of this failure has been provided so far. This book elaborates a model of intelligibility of Madagascar's downfall, based on an integrated political economy approach as well as mobilizing the most recent development theories. Combining a review of historical literature with original and sometimes unique statistical surveys, it proposes a general interpretative framework for the workings of Malagasy society. Richly documented and accessible, Puzzle and Paradox allows readers to understand Madagascar's sociopolitical history while more broadly offering an opportunity to grasp the different dimensions of development in the Global South.
Visible to short-wave infrared (VSWIR, 0.4–5.0 µm) reflectance spectroscopy is a powerful tool to identify and map mineral groups on the martian surface. The Mars Express/OMEGA and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter/CRISM instruments have characterized more than 30 mineral groups, revolutionizing previous understanding of martian crustal composition and the role of water in altering it. Analyses of these spectral images revealed the primary structure of the crust to be dominated by basalt, over a deep layer of segregated pyroxene- and olivine-rich plutons, with sparse feldspar-rich, differentiated intrusions. Martian volatile-bearing environments have evolved through four phases: the pre-Noachian to early Noachian period when alteration by liquid water occurred near the surface and deep in the subsurface, in chemically neutral to alkaline environments that formed hydrous silicates and carbonates; the middle to late Noachian period when liquid water was widely present at the surface forming valley networks, lacustrine deposits, and clay-rich pedogenic horizons; the early Hesperian to early Amazonian period during which water became increasingly acidic and saline, forming deposits rich in sulfate salts, chlorides, and hydrated silica; and the Amazonian period when surface water has existed predominantly as ice, with only localized reaction with regolith and briny flow on the surface.
Industrial heat treatment of milk results in protein glycation. A high protein glycation level has been suggested to compromise the post-prandial rise in plasma amino acid availability following protein ingestion. In the present study we assessed the impact of glycation level of milk protein on post-prandial plasma amino acid responses in humans. Fifteen healthy, young men (age: 26±1 y, BMI: 24±1 kg·m-2) participated in this randomized cross-over study and ingested milk protein powder with a protein glycation level of 3%, 20%, and 50% blocked lysine. On each trial day, arterialized blood samples were collected at regular intervals during a 6-h post-prandial period to assess plasma amino acid concentrations using ultra-performance liquid chromatography. Plasma essential amino acid concentrations increased following milk protein ingestion, with the 20% and 50% glycated milk proteins showing lower overall essential amino acid responses compared to the 3% glycated milk protein (161±7 and 142±7 vs 178±9 mmol·L-1·6 h-1, respectively; P≤0.011). The lower post-prandial plasma amino acid responses were fully attributed to an attenuated post-prandial rise in circulating plasma lysine concentrations. Plasma lysine responses (iAUC) following ingestion of the 20% and 50% glycated milk proteins were 35±4% and 92±2% lower compared to the 3% glycated milk protein (21.3±1.4 and 2.8±0.7 vs 33.3±1.7 mmol·L-1·6 h-1, respectively; P<0.001). Milk protein glycation lowers post-prandial plasma lysine availability in humans. The lower post-prandial availability of lysine following ingestion of proteins with a high glycation level may compromise the anabolic properties of a protein source.
Alterations of the gut microbiome have been associated with obesity and metabolic disorders. The gut microbiota can be influenced by the intake of dietary fibres with prebiotic properties, such as inulin-type fructans. This study tested the hypothesis that obese individuals subjected for 12 weeks to a inulin-enriched versus inulin-poor diet have differential faecal fermentation patterns. The fermentation of cellulose and inulin hydrolysates, of six different inulin-rich and inulin-poor vegetables of both groups was analysed in vitro on faecal inocula. The results showed that the microbiota from obese patients who received fructan-rich diet for three weeks produce more gas and total short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) compared to the microbiota taken of the same individuals before the treatment. Obese individuals fed with a low-fructan diet produce less gas and less SCFA compared to the treated group. This study highlighted profound changes in microbiota fermentation capacity obtained by prebiotic intervention in obese individuals, which favors the production of specific bioactive metabolites.
The transonic flow field around a supercritical airfoil is investigated. The objective of the present paper is to enhance the understanding of the physical mechanics behind two-dimensional transonic buffet. The paper is composed of two parts. In the first part, a global stability analysis based on the linearized Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations is performed. A recently developed technique, based on the direct and adjoint unstable global modes, is used to compute the local contribution of the flow to the growth rate and angular frequency of the unstable global mode. The results allow us to identify which zones are directly responsible for the existence of the instability. The technique is firstly used for the vortex-shedding cylinder mode, as a validating case. In the second part, in order to confirm the results of the first part, a selective frequency damping method is locally used in some regions of the flow field. This method consists of applying a low-pass filter on selected zones of the computational domain in order to damp the fluctuations. It allows us to identify which zones are necessary for the persistence of the instability. The two different approaches give the same results: the shock foot is identified as the core of the instability; the shock and the boundary layer downstream of the shock are also necessary zones while damping the fluctuations on the lower surface of the airfoil; and outside the boundary layer between the shock and the trailing edge or above the supersonic zone does not suppress the shock oscillation. A discussion on the several physical models, proposed until now for the buffet phenomenon, and a new model are finally offered in the last section.
Our objective was to explore the processes and determinants leading physicians to integrate estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in their drug prescriptions
Access to patients’ eGFR would allow primary care pharmacists to optimise their role in the procedure of safe prescribing. Some rare physicians actively integrate eGFR in their prescriptions, in a sporadically and uncoordinated manner.
Qualitative study using semi-directed interviews conducted among 12 French physicians who integrated eGFR in their drug prescriptions, (February 2016–April 2017). These voluntary participants were recruited through different means: Twitter®, forums, direct contact and snowball sampling. Data analysis was based on the grounded theory approach, underpinned by a comprehensive perspective of interactionist orientation.
Residency and training, professional experience – including experiences of adverse drug reactions – and the membership in various communities of professionals were key drivers for the integration of eGFR in prescriptions. The theoretical aim was above all safe prescribing in order to reduce adverse drug reactions, with the control by a dispensing pharmacist and/or other healthcare professionals. Nevertheless, none of the physicians had received any feedback from any healthcare professionals. Despite their disappointment, the physicians remained convinced of the interest of integrating eGFR in their prescriptions and would continue to do so. Characteristics associated with integration of eGFR in drug prescriptions belong partly to Roger’s theory of innovations. If a widespread diffusion of this habit takes place, it will be necessary to evaluate its adoption by both physicians and pharmacists.
Given the limited number of middlemen in short food supply chains, producers marketing through such channels must carry out various tasks associated with production, processing (if applicable) and marketing. Since productivity increases with specialization, it is presumably difficult for such producers to achieve high levels of labor productivity in each of the tasks they perform (in terms of organizing the work and controlling for costs). This study reports on the results of a detailed analysis of the apparent labor productivity in each activity segment (production, processing and distribution) on farms in Quebec (Canada) that market through short food supply chains. We adapted the concept of a complex activity system and the Work Assessment method to reflect the context in Quebec and the unique features of integrated farming models based on direct marketing. In total, we analyzed work organization on 32 Quebec farms to determine how added value and work hours are allocated among different activity segments. Our analysis of apparent labor productivity highlights the heterogeneity of farms involved in direct marketing as every farm studied had a unique profile. In addition, work patterns reflected the background, choices and skillsets of farmers and different combinations of production factors were utilized. Overall, labor productivity was lower in production-related tasks, although this was often offset by higher productivity levels in other activity segments. Our results indicate that greater productivity in the areas of processing or distribution allows farms in short food supply chains to be financially sustainable. The findings of our study also confirm that farmers involved in direct marketing work hard to sustain their activity systems, even though net earnings are often low when compared to the amount of effort involved. However, farmers are partially compensated in other ways, such as through client appreciation and work enjoyment.
During pregnancy, mothers-to-be should adapt their diet to meet increases in nutrient requirements. Pregnant women appear to be keener to adopt healthier diets, but not always successful.
The objective of this study was to determine whether a guided, stepwise and tailored dietary counseling program, designed using an optimization algorithm, could improve the nutrient adequacy of the diet of pregnant women, beyond generic guidelines.
80 pregnant women who attended Notre-Dame-de-Bon-Secours Maternity Clinic were randomly allocated to the control or intervention arms. Dietary data were obtained twice from an online 3-day dietary record. The nutrient adequacy of the diet was calculated using the PANDiet score, a 100-point diet quality index adapted to the specific nutrient requirements for pregnancy. Women were supplied with generic dietary guidelines in a reference booklet. In the intervention arm, they also received nine sets of tailored dietary advice identified by an optimization algorithm as best improving their PANDiet score.
78 pregnant women completed the 12-week dietary follow-up. Initial PANDiet scores were similar in the control and intervention arms (60.4±7.3 vs 60.3±7.3, P=0.92). The PANDiet score increased in the intervention arm (+3.6±9.3, P=0.02) but not in the control arm (-0.3±7.3, P=0.77), and these changes differed between arms (P=0.04). In the intervention arm, there were improvements in the probabilities of adequacy for ALA, thiamin, folate and cholesterol intakes (P<0.05).
Tailored dietary counseling using a computer-based algorithm is more effective than generic dietary counseling alone in improving the nutrient adequacy of the diet of French women in mid-pregnancy.
Une remarquable sculpture a été mise au jour en 1999 lors de la fouille archéologique préventive d’une grande villa gallo-romaine située à Vareilles, commune de Paulhan, dans l’Hérault. D’autres fragments sculptés ont été découverts plus tard dans le cadre de fouilles programmées. Cet établissement rural était surtout consacré à la viticulture. Les fouilleurs y ont découvert entre autres des chais très importants: si la pars urbana, qui était également sans doute très vaste, n’a pas pu être fouillée ni même localisée dans son intégralité, elle comprenait en tout cas un beau complexe thermal avec diverses salles, mais aussi une palestre et un bassin (natatio) très bien conservé.1
The extensive use of plastic bags in Nepal has led to growing concern in recent years. We investigate the impact of a municipal plastic bags ban on bags use behavior, based on a field survey carried out among consumers and retailers across selected municipalities. Our results indicate that the effectiveness of the ban critically depends on its enforcement and sanctioning system. In particular, our results suggest that the perceived sanction is a critical determinant of plastic bags use, as a doubling of the perceived sanction could reduce plastic bags use by two-thirds for retailers and by one-half for consumers. While the nominal amount of the fine does not seem to play a role, the probability of being detected appears to play a key role in the perceived sanction. This implies that effective monitoring of the ban by the municipal authorities is critical for the success of the policy.
A histological characterization of gonadal development in the tetra Astyanax bimaculatus was performed, aimed at determining its reproductive cycle in streams localized inside the Amazonian forest. Collections were carried out monthly from August 2017 to July 2018 at the Zoobotânica Foundation of Marabá, PA. Collected specimens were weighed and measured, and their gonads and liver were removed and weighed to calculate gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic indexes. Gonads were fixed and treated for routine histology for light microscopy. Materials were stained with toluidine blue and haematoxylin and eosin. The Amazonian A. bimaculatus species presented two reproductive periods in the year, one at the end of the winter season and another during the summer. Females showed an asynchronous development of their oocytes and only two reproductive phases of development were observed during the whole period ‘developing’ and ‘spawning capable’. Males presented cystic spermatogenesis, with an anastomosing tubular testis containing spermatogonia spread along the germinal epithelium (unrestricted spermatogonial). These morphological characteristics are considered phylogenetically more primitive. Male specimens were observed to have five different phases during the period: immature, initial maturation, mid maturation, final maturation and regression. The huge fluctuations in Amazonian streams was observed, in which water volumes varied considerably across seasons, culminating even in total drought. In spite of this, A. bimaculatus could be found during all seasons, showing its impressive reproductive adaptation to its conditions.
We study dynamical systems that have bounded complexity with respect to three kinds metrics: the Bowen metric
, the max-mean metric
and the mean metric
, both in topological dynamics and ergodic theory. It is shown that a topological dynamical system
has bounded complexity with respect to
) if and only if it is equicontinuous (respectively equicontinuous in the mean). However, we construct minimal systems that have bounded complexity with respect to
but that are not equicontinuous in the mean. It turns out that an invariant measure
has bounded complexity with respect to
if and only if
-equicontinuous. Meanwhile, it is shown that
has bounded complexity with respect to
if and only if
has bounded complexity with respect to
, if and only if
-mean equicontinuous and if and only if it has discrete spectrum.
Inscriptional evidence suggests that the Phnom Kulen plateau to the north-east of Angkor in Cambodia was the location of Mahendraparvata—an early Angkorian capital city and one of the first capitals of the Khmer Empire (ninth to fifteenth centuries AD). To date, however, archaeological evidence has been limited to a scatter of small and apparently isolated shrines. Here, the authors combine airborne laser scanning with ground-based survey to define an extended urban network dating from the ninth century AD, which they identify as Mahendraparvata. This research yields new and important insights into the emergence of Angkorian urban areas.