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Owing to the dramatic change in Korea’s family structure, the traditional patriarchal family system was legally abolished. A new legal framework is therefore necessary to ensure the traditional care function of the extended family is adequately replaced. This chapter focuses on the reform of Korea’s adult guardianship system and trust system. It first analyses the background of the Trust Law in Korea, which leads to the rare use of non-commercial trusts traditionally. It then discusses the relationship between guardianship and trusts as new legal frameworks, and introduces a new perspective on special needs trust to enhance protection of individuals with cognitive impairment. This chapter also reviews the pilot project for developmental disability trusts run by the Autism Society of Korea. It shows that while the project has attracted significant attention from disabled persons and their family members, there are still several major issues to be addressed for the future development of special needs trust in Korea.
Recently we have proposed a monostable reaction-diffusion system to explain the Neolithic transition from hunter-gatherer life to farmer life in Europe. The system is described by a three-component system for the populations of hunter-gatherer (H), sedentary farmer (F1) and migratory one (F2). The conversion between F1 and F2 is specified by such a way that if the total farmers F1 + F2 are overcrowded, F1 actively changes to F2, while if it is less crowded, the situation is vice versa. In order to include this property in the system, the system incorporates a critical parameter (say F0) depending on the development of farming technology in a monotonically increasing way. It determines whether the total farmers are either over crowded (F1 + F2 >F0) or less crowded (F1 + F2 <F0) ( [9, 20]). Previous numerical studies indicate that the structure of travelling wave solutions of the system is qualitatively similar to the one of the Fisher-KPP equation, that the asymptotically expanding velocity of farmers is equal to the minimal velocity (say cm(F0)) of travelling wave solutions, and that cm(F0) is monotonically decreasing as F0 increases. The latter result suggests that the development of farming technology suppresses the expanding velocity of farmers. As a partial analytical result to this property, the purpose of this paper is to consider the two limiting cases where F0 = 0 and F0 → ∞, and to prove cm(0)>cm(∞).
Background: People with Parkinson disease (PD) face progressive mobility loss, but medical treatment is dependent on clinical assessment and examination. Regional patient and physician density patterns pose further problems to accessing care. Telehealth may improve access particularly among rural populations, but an approach to this problem should consider patient perspectives. Methods: We surveyed and conducted a focus group for people with PD and their caregivers. Questions assessed perceptions of barriers to neurological care and use of telehealth for PD management. Thematic analysis was performed to classify qualitative data. Results: 18 individuals completed the survey and 7 parties joined the focus group. 52% of participants travel >50km for neurologist appointments (range = 59 to 842km). Perceived barriers include cost and difficulty of travel, wait times, lack of interdisciplinary healthcare and deep brain stimulation outside large cities. 80% of participants (95% C.I. 64-96%) would likely or very likely use telehealth for follow-up neurologist appointments if proven as good as in-office visits. Participants associated telehealth with improved quality of care, improved access to care, and cost savings. Conclusions: This sample of people with PD and their caregivers report willingness to access care via telehealth to reduce perceived cost and travel for specialty care.
Surface sulfurization of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) absorbers is a commonly applied technique to improve the conversion efficiency of the corresponding solar cells, via increasing the bandgap towards the heterojunction. However, the resulting device performance is understood to be highly dependent on the thermodynamic stability of the chalcogenide structure at the upper region of the absorber. The present investigation provides a high-resolution chemical analysis, using energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and laser-pulsed atom probe tomography, to determine the sulfur incorporation and chemical re-distribution in the absorber material. The post-sulfurization treatment was performed by exposing the CIGSe surface to elemental sulfur vapor for 20 min at 500°C. Two distinct sulfur-rich phases were found at the surface of the absorber exhibiting a layered structure showing In-rich and Ga-rich zones, respectively. Furthermore, sulfur atoms were found to segregate at the absorber grain boundaries showing concentrations up to ~7 at% with traces of diffusion outwards into the grain interior.
Results from studies investigating the association between coffee consumption and the metabolic syndrome in Koreans have been inconsistent and remain controversial. We examined coffee intake in relation to the metabolic syndrome using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2012–2015, with 8387 adults aged 19–64 years. Furthermore, we conducted a stratified analysis by obesity status (BMI <25 v. ≥25 kg/m2) to examine whether the association varied by obesity status. A 112-item FFQ was used to assess diet. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to determine the association of coffee consumption (<1, 1–2, 3–4 and ≥5 times/d) and the metabolic syndrome. Compared to people who consumed <1 time/d of coffee, the OR for the metabolic syndrome in those who consumed 3–4 times/d of coffee was 0·75 (95 % CI 0·58, 0·97). However, ≥5 times/d of coffee consumption was not significantly associated with the metabolic syndrome. By obesity status, in non-obese people, those consuming more coffee had lower odds of the metabolic syndrome, showing a significant linear trend (P-trend=0·0248). In obese people, the OR for the metabolic syndrome in people with 3–4 times/d of coffee consumption v. <1 time/d was 0·68 (95 % CI 0·50, 0·93), but ≥5 times/d of coffee consumption showed a non-significant positive association. Our findings suggest that moderate coffee consumption of 3–4 times/d is inversely associated with the metabolic syndrome in Korean adults. The association between heavy coffee consumption of ≥5 times/d and the metabolic syndrome varied by obesity status.
Background: Limited information exists in neurosurgery regarding the association between functional status at hospital discharge and adverse events following discharge. Methods: A retrospective cohort study included all adults in one Boston teaching hospital who underwent neurosurgery between 2000-2012, survived hospitalization and had a Physical Therapist functional status assessment within 48-hours of discharge. 90-day post-discharge all-cause mortality was obtained from the US Social Security Administration Death Master File. Logistic regression analysis was used. Results: 2,369 patients were included, comprising 65% cranial and 35% spinal. Malignancy and trauma was 47% and 13%, respectively. 238 patients had independent functional status. 90-day mortality and readmission was 8.3% and 28%, respectively. Second, third and lowest quartile of functional status was associated with a 3.16 (95%CI 1.08-9.24), 6.00 (2.11-17.04) and 6.26 (2.16-18.16) respective increased odds of 90-day post-discharge mortality compared to patients with independent functional status, adjusting for age, gender, race, length of stay, presence of malignancy and Deyo-Charlson comorbidity. Good discrimination (AUC 0.82) and calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow χ2 P = 0.23) were demonstrated. Adjusted odds of 90-day readmission in patients with the lowest quartile of functional status was 1.89 (1.28-2.80) higher than patients with independent functional status. Conclusions: Lower functional status at hospital discharge following neurosurgery is associated with increased post-discharge mortality and hospital readmission.
Lower mass limits for particles constituting the dark matter in galaxy halos can be derived from considerations of the initial and final phase space distribution. In the case of massive neutrinos, Tremaine and Gunn (1979) pointed out that the initial fine-grained occupation number of cosmological neutrinos and therefore the final coarse-grained phase space occupation, is less than 0.5. From this they were able to show that if the final neutrino distribution is an isothermal sphere, one can put lower limits on the neutrino mass from assumptions about the core radius of the neutrino sphere.
Shock waves from supernova explosions in early stellar generations are likely to play an important role as a feedback mechanism in all models of galaxy formation. In particular in the explosive scenario, where the large scale distribution of galaxies is attributed to fragmentation of cooling gas in huge shocks expanding in a homogeneous medium.
Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurological disease which is highly prevalent in Canada. To date limited data exists on the characteristics of this population in Ontario. Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted of initial patient presentations to a MS clinic in 2011. Initial and follow-up consult notes were reviewed. Patients with a previous MS diagnosis were excluded. Results: 81 patients presented to the clinic for the first time in 2011. 41 were given alternative diagnoses (non-MS). Of the remaining 40 patients (MS group), 9 had clinically or radiologically isolated syndrome and 8 were in a progressive phase of MS. The mean age of presentation was 22 (MS group) and 47 (non-MS group). The most common initial symptom in both groups was a sensory disturbance. The mean initial EDSS in the MS group was 1.75 (0-6.5). In the MS group only 35% were put on disease modifying treatments. The most common reasons for exclusion of treatment were progressive disease phase, clinically or radiologically isolated syndrome, and unclear diagnosis. In the non-MS group, the most common diagnoses were non-specific MRI findings, transverse myelitis and peripheral nerve or muscular diagnoses. Conclusions: This retrospective review has outlined the characteristics of a MS population in Ontario.
We present an analysis of convergence of a quasi-regression Monte Carlo method proposed by Glasserman and Yu (2004). We show that the method surely converges to the true price of an American option even under multiple underlyings via polynomial chaos expansion and weaker conditions than those used in Glasserman and Yu (2004). Further, we show the number of simulation paths grows exponentially in the number of basis functions to obtain convergence in implementing the method. Finally, we propose a rate of convergence considering regularity of value functions.
Learn about the latest advances in high-brightness X-ray physics and technology with this authoritative text. Drawing upon the most recent theoretical developments, pre-eminent leaders in the field guide readers through the fundamental principles and techniques of high-brightness X-ray generation from both synchrotron and free-electron laser sources. A wide range of topics is covered, including high-brightness synchrotron radiation from undulators, self-amplified spontaneous emission, seeded high-gain amplifiers with harmonic generation, ultra-short pulses, tapering for higher power, free-electron laser oscillators, and X-ray oscillator and amplifier configuration. Novel mathematical approaches and numerous figures accompanied by intuitive explanations enable easy understanding of key concepts, whilst practical considerations of performance-improving techniques and discussion of recent experimental results provide the tools and knowledge needed to address current research problems in the field. This is a comprehensive resource for graduate students, researchers and practitioners who design, manage or use X-ray facilities.